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ALBERT C. L. G. GUNTHER, M.A., M.D., Ph.D., F.R.S., 











"Oinncs res creatne sunt diviiise sapieiitise et potentiae testes, divitis felicitatis 
huniana2 : — ex hariun usu honitas Creatoris ; ex pulchritudine sapientia Domini ; 
ex oeconomia in conservatione, proportione, renovatione, potentia majestatis 
elucet. Earum itaque indagatio ab liominibus sibi relictis semper aestimata ; 
a Tere eruditis et sapientibus eeinper exculta ; male doctis et burbaris semper 
inimica fiiit." — 

"Quel que soit le principe de la vie animale, il ne faut qu"ouvrir les yeux pour 
voir qu'elle est le chef-d'eeuTre de la Toute-puissance, et le but auquel se rappor- 
tent toutes ses operations." — Bkuckser, Theoric du Systeme Animal, Leydeii, 

The sylvan powers 

Obey our summons ; from their deepest dells 

The Dryads come, and throw their garlands wild 

And odorous branches at our feet ; the Nymphs 

That press with nimble step the mountain-thyme 

And purple heath-flower come not empty-handed, 

But scatter round ten thousand forms minute 

Of velvet moss or liclien, torn from rock 

Or rifted oak or cavern deep : the N'aiads too 

Quit their loved native stream, from whose smooth face 

They crop the lily, and each sedge and rush 

That drinks the rippling tide: the frozen poles, 

WTiere peril waits the bold adventurer's tread, 

The burning sands of Borneo and Cayenne, 

All, all to us unlock their secret stores 

And pay their cheerful tribute. 

J. Tavlor, yorwick, 1818. 





I. On Certain Points in the Anatomical Nomenclature ot" Echino- 
derms. By P. Herbert Carpenter, D.Sc, F.R.S., F.L.S., Assis- 
tant Master at Eton College 1 

II. Notes on some West-Indian Longicorn Coleoptera, with 
Descriptions of new Genera and Species. By C. J. Gahax, M.A. . . 23 

III. On the Ova of Gobins. By Ernest W. L. Holt, St. An- 
drews Marine Laboratory. (Plate II.) 84 

IV. Notes on Radiolaria from the Lower Palaeozoic Rocks (Llan- 
deilo-Caradoc) of the South of Scotland. By George Jennings 
HiNDE, Ph.D. (Plates III. & IV.) 40 

V. Revision of British Mollusca. Bv the Rev. Canon A. M. 
Norman, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c 60 

VI. Description of a new Snake of the Genus Glaucoma, Gray, 
obtained by Dr. Emin Pasha on the Victoria Nyauza. By G. A. 

VII. On a new Genus and some new Species of Shells from Lake 
Tanganyika. By Edgar A. Smith 93 

"\'III. Notes on the Genus Dyschorista, Led., a email Group of 
Moths allied to Orthosia. By A. G. Butler 96 

IX. Descriptions of two new Species of Scorpions brought by Emin 
Pasha from the inland parts of Ea^t Africa. Bv R. I. PocoCK, of the 
British Museum (Nat. Hist.). (Plate I. tigs. 1 and 2.) 98 

X. On Ebalia nux, Milne-Edwards. By R. I. Pocock 101 

XI. On some new Species of African Lyccenid^B in the Collection 

of Philip Crowley, Esq. By Emily Mary Sharpe 103 

XII. On some Eastern Equatorial African Coleoptera collected by 
Emin Pasha, with Descriptions of two new Longicornia. By 
Charles 0. Waterhouse. (Plate I. fig. 3.) ". 107 

XIII. On the Organization of the Cj-prides. Hy Prof. Carl 
Claus " ' 108 


Proceedings of the Geological Society 1 13 — 118 

William Sweetland Dallas; Description of a new Cottoid Fish, 
by Tarleton 11. Bean, Ichthyologist, U. S. Fish Commission; 
Model of the " British Marine Area," by the Rev. Canon Nor- 
man, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., &c. ; Preliminary Account of a new 
Australian Peripatus, by Arthur Dendy, M.Sc, F.L.S. ; On the 
Compound Eyes of Arthropods, by S. Watase ; Variations in 
Bulhmis exilis, by Dr. B. Sharp ; Remarks on the Exuviae of 
Snakes, by Dr. B. Sharp 118—124 


XIV. The Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism as the Exclusive 
Theory of Organic Evolution. By Rev. John T. Gulick 125 

XV. On a Viviparous Caddis-fly. By J. Wood-Mason, Super- 
intendent of the Indian Museum, and Professor of Comparative 
Anatomy in the Medical College of Bengal, Calcutta 139 

XVI. A Short Account of a small Collection of Myriopoda obtained 
by Mr. Edward Whymper in the Andes of Ecuador. By R. I. 
PocoCK, of the British (Natural-History) Museum 141 

XVIT. List of Land- and Freshwater-Shells collected by Dr. Emin 
Pasha in Central Africa, with Descriptions of new Species. Bv 
Edgar A. Smith. (Plates V. & VI.) ". 146 

XVIII. On a new Species of Ouiraca. By Edward Baktlett, 
Curator of the Maidstone Museum 168 

XIX. Descriptions of two new Cyprinodontoid Fishes. By G. A. 


XX. Description of a new Squirrel from Borneo. By Oldfield 
Thomas 171 

XXI. On the Anatomy of Horny Sponges belonging to the Genus 
Hircinia, and on a new Genus. By li. Fol 172 

XXII. Notes from the St. Andrews Marine Laboratory (under the 
Fisherv Board for Scotland). — No. XII. By Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., 
LL.D.; F.R.S., &c 174 

XXIII. On the Anatomy of Seda tipuliformis and Trochilium opi- 
forme, Linn. By Prof. E. K. Brandt 18-5 

XXIV. On the Circulatory System of the Carapace in the Decapod 
Crustacea. By PI L. Bouvier' IW 

XXV. Description of a new Species of Monnyius. By G. A. 
Boulenger 10;{ 

iSVjy Hook : — A Synouvmic Catalogue of Recent Marine Brvozoa. 

By [Miss] E. C. Jelly " 104 

On two new Species of Coccidea infesting the Stickleback and the 

Sardine, by P. Tht?lohan liU 

CO N I" i: NTS. V 


XX\ 1. Naliiriil lli.-torv Nutcs rrom II. .M. Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer 'Investigator,' Conmuuidir K. F. lloskyn, R.N., coni- 
icftndinp . — No. Ki. On the Untliybial Fi.<hes collected in the Bay of 
Ik'nfral during the season I8t*!)-i'0. By A. Ai.cocK, M.B., Surgeon 
I. M.S., Surgeon-Naturalist to the Survey. (^Plates VIII. & IX.) . . 197 

XXVII. British Fossil Crinoids. — III. Thautmrriniis cal/ipi/f/ux, 
pen. et sp. nov., Wenlock Limestone. By F. A. Batiiku, M.A., 
F.G.S. (Plate X.) '. 2i22 

XXVIII. On tile Development of Pi/rosnma. By Prof. W. Sa- 
LKXSK Y 2."30 

XXIX. On supposed new Species of Land-MoUusca from Borneo 
belonging to the Genera Opisthostoma and Diplommntind. By Lieut.- 
Col. II. II. Godwin- AusTKx, F.R.S., F.Z.S., &c. (Plate VIL). . . . 2J4 

XXX. Notes on Longicorn Culeoptcra of the Group Ccnnnbi/cnxs, 
with De.scriptions of new Genera and Species. By Chari.ks J . Gahan, 
M.A., Assistant in the Zoological Department, British Museum .... 247 

XXXI. Descriptions of new Species of African Lyccrmidce , chiefly 
from the Collections of Dr. Staudinger and Mr. Ilenlev Grose Smith. 

By \V. F. KiRBV, F.L.S., F.E.S., &c ' 261 

Leaf- winged Locust, by J. J. Quelch, B.Sc. ; On the Histological 
Constitution of certain Nematodes of the (ienus Ascaris, by M. 
L^on Jammes 275, 270 


XXXII. Notes on Slugs, chiefly in the Collection at the British 
Museum. By T. D. A. Cockei{ell 277 

XXXIIT. On the Relationship of the Rodentia to the Marsupialia. 
By Dr. A. Fleischmann 289 

XXXIV. Natural History Notes from 11. M. Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer ' Investigator,' Commander R. F. Iloskyn, R.N., com- 
manding. — No. 18. On the Bathybial Fishes of the Arabian Sea, 
obtained during the season 188'J-iJ0. By A. Alcock, M.B., Surgeou 
I.M.S., Surgeon Naturalist to the Survey 295 

XXXV. On the Ophidian Genus Pseudoxyrhopns, Gthr. By G. 


XXXVI. A New Theorv of Pf.eriehthys. By A. Smith Wood- 
ward, F.Z.S ' 314 

XXXVII. Notes on the Palaeozoic Bivalved Eutomostraca. — 
No. XXIX. On some Devonian Entomides. By Prof. T. Rupert 
Jones, F.R.S., F.G.S. (Plate XI. ) 317 



XXXVIII. Notes made during the present Year on the Accept- 
ance or Rejection of Insects by Birds. By Arthur G. Bl'TLer, 
F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c " .".24 

XXXIX. Revision of British Mollusca. By the Rev. C'amjn A. 

M. NoKMAN, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c.* 327 

XL. Ehalidnux: a Reply to Mr. R. I. Pocock. By the Rey. 
Canon Norman, F.R.S .342 

XLI. Descriptions of some new Species of African Butterfiiea in 
the Collection of Captain G. E. Shelley. By Emily Mary Siiarpe 346 

XLII. Notes on the Racquet-tailed Rollers. By H. E. Drksser, 
F.Z.S. etc 350 

On the Occurrence of Eublepharis macularius in Transcaspia, by G. 
A. Boulenger ; Additional Notes on Peripatus Leuckavti, by J. J. 
Fletcher, M.A., B.Sc " 352 


XLIII. Report on the Corals from the Tizard and Macclesfield 
Banks, China Sea. By P. W. Bassett-Smith, Surgeon R.N. 
(Plates XII.-XIV.) . . . . ! 353 

XLIV. Descriptions of new Species of Pedaria, with Observations 
on allied Scaraheeides. By Charles O. Waterhousk 374 

XLV. Notes on Slugs, chiefly in the Collection at the British 
Museum. By T. D. A. Cockerell 3S0 

XLVI. A List of the Species of Achatina from South Africa, with 
the Description of a new Species. By Edgar A. Smith 390 

XLVII. Summary of Researches into the Anat(miy and Histology 
of Nemertines, with (Contributions to their Classification. Jiy Dr. 
OlTO BiJRGER .' 394 

XLVIII. On the Fate of the Quadrate in Mammals. By Dr. 
Broom, M.B., CM., JJ.Sc "... 400 

XLTX. On the Distinctive Cranial Characters of the Iguanoid 
Lizards allied to Ljuana. By G. A. IJoilkngkr 412 

L. The Genera Triijaster and lieiihainia. By AA'. Blaxland 
Benham, D.Sc, Assistant to the Jodrell Professor of Zoology, I'ui- 
versity College, London 414 

LI. On a new Species of Ot/nicautJnis. By R. II. Traquaih, 
M.D., F.R.S ■. " 417 

New Book : — A Monograph of the Horny Sponges. By Robert von 
Lendenfelu 418 


Ou the l)i:<covery of a Jurassic Kish-Fauna in the Ilawke^bury Heds 
of New South \\'ales, by A. Smith Woodward ; The Fossil 
Fishes of the Ilawkesbury Series at Gosford, New South Wales, 
bv A. Smith AVoodward ; Is Aj^terias tcnuispinis, Lamk., a 
"British '* Species ?, by Prof. F. Jeffrey Bell 423, 424 


LII. Natural History Notes from II. M. Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer ' Investijjator,' Commander 11. F. Hoskyu, R.N., com- 
manding. — No. 20. On some uudescribed Shore-Fishes from the 
Bay of Bengal. By A. Alcock, M.B., Surgeon I. M.S., Surgeon- 
Naturalist to the Survey 420 

LIII. Report on the Corals from the Tizard and Macclesfield 
Banks. China Sea. By P. W. Bas.sett-Smith, Surgeon R.N 443 

LIV. On new Longicorn Coleoptera from Madagascar. By C. J. 
Gahan, M.A 458 

LV. Descriptions of four new Species of Terrestrial Mollusca from 
South Africa, with Observations nn Helix Hnttonice (Bens.). By 
Jamks Cosmo Mklvill, M.A., F.L.S., and John Henry Ponsonby, 
F.Z.S 466 

LVI. On Ebalia mix, Mi Ine- Edwards : a Reply to the Rev. Canon 
Norman. By R. I. PococK 469 

LVII. On the Generic Name of Asterias sanguinolenta, O. F. 
Miiller. By F. Jeffrey Bell 472 

LYIII. Descriptions of some new Genera of Pyralidce. Bv ^V. 
Warhen, M.A., F.E.S ' 474 

LIX. On the Fossil Fishes found at Achanarras Quarrv, Cait':- 
ness. By R. II. Traquaih, M.D., F.R.S ". 479 

LX. The Fauna of Amber. By Ilerr Richard Klebs, of Konigs- 
berg 48G 

LXI. Observations on some Fossil Fishes from the Lower Carbon- 
iferous Rocks of Eskdale, Dumfriesshire. Bv R. H. Traquaiu, 
M.D., F.R.S ' 491 

LXII. Descriptions of new Species of Crucidnra. Bv G. E. 
DoBSON, M.A., F.R.S ' 494 

Keiv Books: — A Treatise on the Common Sole (Salea vulgaris), con- 
sidered both as an Organism and as a Commodity. By J. T. 
CrxNiNfiHAM, M.A. I've— A Zoological Pucket-Book, or S^'n- 
opMS of Animal Classification. By Dr. Emil Selexka and J, 
R. AiNSwoRTU Davis 41)7 ^02 


Is Astej-ias te»uisjnria, Lauik., a British Species?, by Rev. Canou 
A. M. Norman ; Aspidiotiis bicarinatu.i a Lepidopterous Larva, 
by E. E. Green ; Note on Irrisor Jack-soni, sp. u., by R. 
Bowdler Sharpe o02, 503 

Index 504 


Pi-ATE I. New Scorpions. — New Longicorns. 
II. DeTelopment of the Ova of Gobius. 

.' ,' Kadiolaria from the Lower Palaeozoic Ruck.?. 

New Land- and Freshwater-Shells. 

VIL New Land-Mollusca. 

^" > New Genera and Species of Ushes from the Bay of Bengal. 

X. Thenarocrinus callipygus. 
XL Devonian Entomides. 

XIII. > Tizard and Macclesfield Coral-Banks in the China S«a. 
XIV 1 





" per litora spargite mnscnm, 

Nniadc'8, et circum vitreos oonsidite fontos : 
PoUice virpineo tencros h'lo carpite flort-a : 
Floribus ct pictuni. divae, rrpleto canistrura. 
At V09, o Npiiiiliae Cniteridus. ito sub umla3 ; 
Ite, reourvato viiriata (?orallia tninco 
Vellite musooais e rupibus, et mihi conchas 
Ferte, DeoB pelagi, et pingui conchylia succo." 

N. ParfheniiGiaiinetfasii Eel. 1. 

No. 31. JULY 1890. 

I. — On certain Points in the Anatomical Nomenclature of 
Echinoderms. By P. Herbert Carpenter, D.Sc, F.R.S., 
F.L.S., Assistant Master at Eton College. 

The object of the following paper is to put in a plea for a 
greater precision of nomenclature in works on Echinoclerm 
morphology than has been hitherto adopted by many authors, 
more especially those who have made incidental rather than 
special studies in some branch of Echinoderm research. 
Many of them are justly distinguished in otiier lines of scien- 
tific work ; but, owing to their imperfect acquaintance with 
the current Echinoderm literature, a vagueness and inaccuracy 
of nomenclature have crept into their writings in a manner 
which is both perplexing to the student and vexatious to the 

I refer more especially to the frequent use of the same term 
for two or more structures which arc not mutually homolo- 
gous *, while, on the other hand, there are some cases in 

* Since writing tlie above lines I have come across the following re- 
marks by Ilerouard on the same subject : — " Ce sont la des questions de 
detail, il est vrai, mais sur lesquelles j'insiste a dessein, car ces denomi- 
nations identiques attribuees par les diflerents auteurs et meme parfois, 
comme je viens de le dire, par un seul et meme auteur, a des organes 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 1 

2 Dr. P. H. Carpenter on the 

wliich homologies are universally recognized, though the 
fact does not appear in the nomenclature. 

1. The use of the term "Water-tube." 

The term " water-tube" seems to have been first used by A. 
Agassiz * for the two coelomic diverticula of the archcnteron 
in the Starfish-larva, this being " the name which denotes 
most appropriately the function they assume of circulating 
water througli the body of the larva." He also applied the 
same namef to the gills or " papula3 " of Stimpson and 
Sladen, which are not developed till much later ; but tlie first 
meaning which he gave to the term has not found acceptance 
in Europe, especially since the morphological importance of 
these water-tubes has been more fully realized, and they liave 
been variously known as the coelomic pouches, vaso-peritoneal 
sacs, &c. ; while " water-tube " or '' tube hydrophore " has 
been largely used by both English and French writers instead 
of the misleading terra " sand-canal " or " stone-canal," wliich 
is so often totally inapplicable to the structure it is supposed 
to designate. In America, however. Brooks X and Fewkes 
have continued to speak of the water-tubes of the Echinoderm- 
larva, and they use the same term when referring to the organs 
which are described as circular and radial water-vessels by 
European waiters. This course seems likely to lead to much 
confusion, the more so as one at least, and sometimes both, of 
the larval coelomic pouches do not in anyway give rise to the 
"water-tubes" of the ambulacral system. Fewkes is an 
especial oflfender in this respect, for in his last publication but 
one he uses the term water-tube with diftorcnt meanings on 
two successive lines § : — " Each of the five small cuh-de-saCj 
r w, from the water tube on the ambulacral side of the young 
starfish forms a radial water tube of the starfish." Five 
pages later he says that the stone-canal is an internal calcifi- 

difF6reuts, crdent, daus I'espnt du lectonr, iiiie confusion p<?uiblo qu'il est 
parfois difficile d'(5cliiircir par uno seuk' locturo et qui a coutribu^, poiu' 
uuo largo part, a t'aiie preiulro dans certains cas, coumie diver-routes, des 
opinions qui ue dilK^raieut pas sensiblenient I'uue de I'autre" (" lieclieivhea 
sur les llolothuries des Cotes do France," Arch. Zool. Exp. et G«5u. 
vol. vii. 1881), p. (330). 

* 'EmbrvolopToftlie Starfish,' 1864. Eepriuted in "North Americau 
Starfislies,""3Iem! Mus. Couip. Zool. 1877, vol. v. p. 13. 

t ll'id p. 62. 

J ' Handbook of Invertebrate Zoology,' Boston, 1882, pp. 72, 13.5. 

§ " On the Developiueut of the Ctdcareous Plates of Ast<'n'as," Bull. 
Mus. Conip. Zoiil. 1888, vol. xvii. p. 7. 

Anatomical Nomenclature of Echinoderms. 8 

cation wliicli " arises in tlie walls of tlie water tube," thus 
giving a third meaning to the same term, wlnle Agassiz, as 
we have seen, lias used it in yet another sense. Is it too 
much to ask on behalf of the student of the future that it be 
enii)]ojed in one sense oidy? In the following pages it will 
be used to denote the madreporic or stone-canal. 

2. Dorsocentral and Gentro-dorsal. 

These two names are frequently used as if they were 
synonj-mous, though in reality they denote plates of very 
different morjihological characters. 

The term " dorsocentral " a])pears to have been first used 
by the Messrs. Austin * for that part of a Crinoid which was 
called the pelvis by Miller, i. e. the ring of plates which rest 
upon the top stem-joint. In some cases five separate plates 
may be distinguished, in others only three, while in others 
there seems to be but one undivided plate with a stem-facet oa 
its lower surface ; and even this facet is absent on the central 
plate of Mnrsupites. Owing to the rapid spread of the 
Miillerian terminology, in which the lowest plates of the 
Crinoidal calyx were designated basals, the collective name 
" dorsoceiitral " applied to them by Austin never found 
general acceptance. But in LovcJin's classical work f on the 
Echini the term " dorsocentral system " is used to denote 
the central plate in the apex of a young Urchin, together with 
the two rings of genital and ocular plates around it. He 
regarded the central plate of Marsupites as homologous with 
that of the Urchin, and also compared the ocular plates of the 
latter to the radials of Marsupites^ two determinations which 
I fully accej)ted when writing on the subject in 1878 J, 
though I could not follow Loven in the other homologies 
which he proposed, nor in his views respecting the primitively 
compound nature of the dorsocentral plate. I suggested at 
the same time that the homologue of the latter was to be 
found in the terminal plate at the base of the stem in the 
stalked larva of Comatula, which I carefully distinguished 
from the enlarged upper stem-joint or centro-dorsal piece. 
Sladen § adopted this view in 1884, since which time the 

• " Descriptions of several new Genera and Species of Criuoidea," 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1843, vol. xi. p. 190. 

t " Etudes sur les fichinoid^es," Kongl. Sveuska Vetenskaps-Aka- 
demiens Haudliugar, 1874, Bd. xi. no. 7, p. 05. 

t " On the Oral and Apical Systems of the Echinoderms," Quart. 
Joum. Micr. Sci. 1878, vol. xviii. p. 359. 

§ "On the Homologies of the Piimary Larval Plates in the Test of 
Brachiate Echinoderms," Quart. Jouru. Micr. Sci. 1884, vol. xxiv. p. 25. 


4 Dr. P. H. Carpenter on the 

central plate of the Echinoderm apical system has been 
repeatedly noticed by us botli and also by others under the 
name " dorsocentral ; " and zoologists have been warned 
again and again not to confuse it with the enlarged top stem- 
joint in the stem of many Crinoids, for which, in the case of 
Comatula^ Miiller and his successors had employed the name 
" ceutro-dorsal." Early in 1887 Duncan and Sladen *, 
writing on the morphology of the Saleniidge, frequently re- 
ferred to the so-called sur-anal plate of Echinids as the dorso- 
central, mentioning at the same time its homologies in the 
Asterids and Ophiurids. Fcwkes f, who had previously 
confounded dorsocentral and centro-dorsal, wrote a short time 
later in the same terms. But all our efforts to obtain a greater 
precision of nomenclature seem to have been in vain, for even 
such a well-informed writer as the late Professor Neuma}^- X 
alluded in 1888 to " die centrodorsale Platte bei Salenien." 
Unaware, too, that the presence of independent under-basals in 
the Antedo7i-\ixr\^ had been announced by Bury § in 1887, he 
concluded that they are represented by the " ccntrale Platte," 
by which he meant the eidarged top stem-joint or centro- 
dorsal. But as he also recognized the fact that these under- 
basals are well developed in Marsupites and enclose " eine 
grosse centrodorsale Tafel," he was driven to the following 
conclusions || : — " Es scheint demnach, als ob die centro- 
dorsale Platte der ausgewachsenen Crinoiden durchaus nicht 
immcr dicselbc morpliologischc Bedcutung luitte, und audi 
durchaus nicht nothwendig immer dem o-leichnamiijcn Theile 
der Antedon-ljViXWQ, cntsprachc." But is it so certain that the 
central plate in the calyx of Marsupites should be called a 
centro-dorsal at all, i. e. that it is an enlarged top stem-joint ? 
Twelve years ago I gave reasons for believing it to be a 
primitively imperforate plate homologous Avith the dorso- 
central of SaJenia, and not a top stem-joint with its central 
canal obscured by a secondary calcareous deposit^. ^ly 
arguments have never been refuted ; but paleontologists have 
nevertheless continued to speak of the centro-dorsal of Mar- 

• " On some Points in the Morpholngy and Classification of the 
Saleniidse, Agassiz," Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist.' 1887, ser. 5, vol. xix. pp. llf), 

t Bull. Mus. Comp. Zoiil. 1888, vol. xvii. p. 38. 

\ ' Die Stiimme des Thierreichs,' Wieii, 1880, l^d. i. p. 403. 

§ " The Early Stages in the Development of Aiitedon rosacea," Report 
of the Fifty-seventh Meeting of the Briti.<h Association, held at Mim- 
chester, 188? : London, 1888, p. 735. Also Proc. Roy. Soc. 1887-68, 
vol. xliii. p. 200. 

I| Op. cit. p. 403. 

^ Quart. .lourn. Micr. Soi. 1S7.'^, vol. xviii. pp. 3S0, ;$.<!. 

Anatomical Nomenclature of Echinoderms. 5 

supites^ as if its homology were quite undoubted ; and it is 
not surprising tliert'fore that its coexistence witli under-basals 
in that type shoukl have driven Neuniayr to the conclusion 
that something was wrong. Salenia has a dorsocentral only. 
Marsupites has a dorsocentral and under-basals. The An- 
tedon-\ii\-yvi has a dorsocentral at the bottom of the stem, a 
centro-dorsal at the top, and under-basals resting upon it. If 
these facts be carefully borne in mind, much that has seemed 
so obscure both to Xcumayr and to his predecessors receives 
its proper explanation. 

3. Basals and Under-hasals. 

The nomenclature of the plates forming the dicyclic base in 
many Crinoids is still somewhat wanting in uniformity and pre- 
cision. Twelve years ago* I pointed out that the so-called 
parabasals of the dicyclic Crinoids are the real homologuesof the 
basals in the monocyclic forms, the lower ring of plates in the 
dicyclic Crinoids being an additional element in the calyx. 
I proposed to call the latter " under-basals," retaining the 
name *' basals " for the plates immediately below the radials, 
bothin the dicyclicandin the monocyclic forms. Every scientific 
palaeontologist f i^ow admits that the latter plates are homo- 
logous throughout the whole series of Crinoids, and the pro- 
posed change in tlie nomenclature has been adopted by the 
leading writers on Crinoids in this country, Australia, Canada, 
the United States, France, and Switzerland, and also by 
Ludwig, the chief German writer on Echinoderms. Zittel f, 
however, wiiile accepting both the homology and the term 
under-basals, or, as he put it, " infrabasals," believed that 
the use of the name basals for the upper plates of the dicyclic 
base would lead to confusion ; and so he retained for them the 
JMullerian name parabasals, thus giving two different names 

• Ihid. pp. 3G6, 367. 

t Walther, writing in 1886, liomologized the iufrabasals of Dicyclica 
with the basals of Slonocyclica (" Untersuchungen liber den liau der 
Crinoiden,'' Palaeontographica, 1886, Bd. xxxii. p. 189). His couchisious, 
however, wei'e largely based upon questions of transcendental morphology 
which were suggested by his study of the Pentacrinoid larva of Antedon, 
Among them are his remarkable identification of the live primary ten- 
tacles of the larva with the clavicular pieces on th^j radial axillaries of the 
adult, which has already been noticed in this Journal (ser. 5, vol. xix. 
p. 88) ; and as liury has demonstrated the presence of under-basals in the 
larva, which were overlooked by Walther, as by all his predecessors, 
"Walther's views respecting the homologies of the basals of the adult 
Antedon and other apparently monocyclic forms are uo longer tenable, as 
he will no doubt admit when he next writes upon the subject. 

X ' llandbuch der Palpeontologie,' Bd. i. pp. 827, 328. 

6 Dr. P. IT. Carpenter on the 

to one and the same set of plates, a method which, as it seems 
to me, is still more likely to confuse tlie student. The 
German paleontologists have naturally followed Zittel, and 
continue to s])cak of the dicyclic base as composed of para- 
basals and infrabnsals, a course which will not be made easier 
by some recent discoveries. Thus, for example, de Loriol 
has found infrabasals in two species of Millericrinus*, and 
the plates above them, hitherto called basals, must now be 
known as parabasals in these two species, though retaining 
tlic simpler name in all the remaining species of the genus. 
This will be an endless source of confusion, and another is 
afl'orded by Zittel 's own description of the calyx of Penta- 
criniis. He states that it contains five basals, but adds that 
five infrabasals are sometimes present. According to his 
terminology, however, the species possessing them t should 
have no basals, but parabasals ; but he gives no hint of this. 
Then, again, Bury has recently demonstrated the ])resence of 
infrabasals in Antedon rosacea ; so that in Zittel's termin- 
ology the plates hitherto called basals in this type must now 
be known as parabasals, though their hoinologues in the 
apparently monocyclic fossil Comatulce will retain their old 
name. In these tliree genera therefore — Millericrinus, Penta- 
crinus (in the widest sense), and Antedon — some species are 
known to be dicyclic, while others are not, though the latter 
are in all probability only pseudomonocyclic, to use the con- 
venient term pro])Osed by Bather \. But in Zittel's teruiin- 
ology the generic diagnosis will have to run somewhat as 
follows : — " Calyx composed of radials and basals, or of radials, 
])arabasals, and infrabasals." Would it not be infinitely 
simpler and less confusing to say '' Calyx composed of radials 
and basals, sometimes with the addition of infrabasals " ? 
If this be admitted, it is clear that the same principle may be 
extended to definitions of families and larger groups, and the 
misleading term parabasals will then have to be finally 

The term "subradials" was proposed in 1S54 by de 
Koninck and Le Hon instead of parabasals, and was generally 
adopted by the leading American ])ala3ontologists, e. g. Hall, 
Billings, Meek and \Vorthen, and Whittiold. As long as 
the homology of the plates so named with the basals of 
monocyclic Crinoids remained unrecognized, this name was iu 

• ' PaltSontologie Francaise,' Terraiu .lurassiquo, tomo xi. pt. i. in\ 553, 

t These species are uow refeiTod to Extracrhtus. 

\ "British Fossil Crinoids," Auu. & Mag. Nat. Ilist. ISW, ser. G, 
vol. V. p. :iUi. 

Anatomical Noinenclature of Echinoderms. 7 

many respects preferable to parabasals. But it was demon- 
strated in 187S that the parabasals or subradials of dicyclic 
Crinoids are the real basal plates, and that the plates hitherto 
called by that name are an additional element in the calyx, 
for which the name under-basals was proposed. Messrs. 
Wnehsmuth and Springer adopted this change in Part I. of 
their ' Revision of the Pala30crinoidea,' whicii appeared in the 
following year, and their example has been followed by five 
writers on Crinoids in the United States, including the late 
Professor Worthen himself, and two in Canada. With the 
exception of the late Professor Quenstedt all the continental 
palcBontologists * who have written on Crinoids in general 
during the last decade have abandoned the use of the term 
basals for the lower ring of plates in tlie dicyclic base in 
favour of under-basals or infrabasals ; so that it has really 
seemed as if the rational system of nomenclature was coming 
into general use. In America, however, S. A. Miller has 
steadily declined to adopt it, and he has continued to use the 
purely empirical terminology of de Koninck. His reasons 
for this course were stated as follows in 1883 : — " Most 
American authors, and I might say all, until quite recently, 
have called the plates, in the first ring above the column, the 
basals, and when the second exists they have called them 
subradials. Certainly no names can be easier or more ex- 
pressive. . . . The policy of changing the nomenclature may 
well be doubted, and ought not to be entered upon without 
the clearest conviction, that, by so doing, error of some kind 
is being eradicated " f. In reply to this it was pointed out J 
that the change Lad been proposed expressly to avoid the 
error of giving the same name " basals " to parts which are 
not homologous in monocyclic and in dicyclic Crinoids respec- 
tively. This argument does not seem to have produced any 
impression upon Miller ; for in the useful Catalogue of 
Korth American Palteozoic fossils which he has recently 
published he still uses the term basals for the lowest plates of 
the dicyclic calyx. The confusion into which he is thus led 

• Dalmer, Fritsch, and VVaguer describe the dicyclic base of Encriniia 
as composed of iuuer and outer ba&als. Neumayr used the same termin- 
ology lor dicyclic Crinuids generally, with the collective names basis and 
infrahas'S ; but he tuok especial care to point out that the former and not 
the latter is homologous with the basis of monocyclic Crinoids, 

t "G'/yp^wrjvn/s redefined and restricted, Gaurocrinus, Pycnocrinus, and 
Cvmpsocrmus established, and two new Species described," Jouru. Cint-iun. 
Soc. Nat. Hist. 1883, vol. vi. p. 218. 

t " On a new Crinoid from the Southern Sea," Phil. Trans. 1883, 
p. 932. 

Dr. P. II. Carpenter on the 
















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10 Dr. P. H. Carpenter on the 

■svill be evident from the following passage * : — " Carpenter 
and Waclismutli call the ' subradials ' the ' basals ' in all 
cases where thcj occur, and the lower plates ' under-basals ; ' 
but where there are no ' subradials ' they follow the well- 
established nomenclature in calling the first circle of plates 
* basals.' " These very plates, however, are recognized by 
other palaeontologists as representing the subradials, which 
Miller says are not found in monocyclic Crinoids. It is 
unfortunate that a work which is likely to be so generally 
used by students and collectors should in this respect be 
some years behind the times. The only American writers 
on Crinoids besides Miller f who have not yet publicly 
adopted the rational nomenclature are Hall, Grant, Uh-ich, 
White, and Wiiitfield ; but I am not aware that any one of 
them has written on dicyclic Crinoids since 1882, so that 
they have had no need to make a decision. One would have 
thought that the conversion in succession of Messrs. Wetherby, 
Worthen, and Kingueberg would have led Miller to reconsider 
his position, which is at present a somewhat isolated one, as 
is shown in the accompanying table (pp. 8 and 9) ; and he can- 
not therefore any longer claim to be using " the established 
or prevaling methods of description^' as he did in 1883. 

1 have endeavoured to show that the German palaeontolo- 
gists do not always employ the term basals when tiiey might 
advantageously do so. Fewkes, on the other hand, has used 
it too freely. Referring to certain plates which appear on 
the abactinal hemisome of the young Amphiura, he says that 
they " form in the interradii, and may therefore be called 
iuterradials or basals;" \ and he continues: — " The tirst set 
of interradial plates may be known as the abaxial basals or 
first iuterradials." In the next line these are called " abaxial 
iuterradials," and a little further on (p. 130) he mentions a 
new plate as " beginning to form between an abaxial and an 
adaxial interradial." lioplying to my criticisms on the loose- 
ness ot his terminology § and the way in which he has con- 
tused terms which previous writers on Crinoid morphology 

• 'North American GeolDgy aud Palseoutologv,' Ciuciuuati, 18S0, 
p. 212. 

t Since the above was Avritton Messrs. Miller aud Gui-ley have pub- 
lished descriptions of some new Uriuoids, in which the term subradials is 
still euiphiyed — "JJeseiiptiou of some new (.it-nera and Species of Echino- 
dermata lioui the Coal measures aud Subcarbouiferous rocks of Indiana, 
Missouri, aud Iowa," Journ. Ciucinu. Sec. Nat. Hist. 1890, vol. xiii. p. 3. 

I "Uu the Development of the (.'uleareous Plates of Amp/iiura," Jiull. 
Mus. C'ouip. Zocil. 1887, vol. xiii. p. 128. 

§ "(>u the Development of the Apical Plates in A)iiphiura stjiiiiniafa,'' 
Quart. Journ. Micr. Sei. I8b7, vol. xxviii. p. 313. 

Anatomical Nomenclature of Echinoderms. 11 

had ciuleavourcd to koej) distinct as denoting different struc- 
tures, he denies that he has anywhere made use of the combi- 
nation " adaxial interradials," and implies that I have 
criticised liim unfairly *. The combination does occur, how- 
ever, but in the singuhir number, on p. KiO of his paj)er, as I 
have quoted above, though he seems to liave entirely for- 
gotten his use of it. 

He also attempts to justify himself by stating that " Sladen 
in considering certain starfishes uses iuterradial for basal, and 
to explain what he means by interradials uses the following 
combination: — 'interradials (j*. e. basals).' " I am sorry to 
say, however, that Fewkes is again in error, and that he has 
not quoted Sladen correctly. lie does not seem to have 
appreciated the fact that the whole ])oint of my criticism 
related to his use of the words iuterradial and basal as sub- 
stantives with identical meanings, and he quotes Sladen as 
having done so. Sladen's expression, however, is '' inter- 
radial (?'. e. basal) plate " f. Of course the basal plates are 
interradial, i. e. situated between the rays ; but they are not 
interradials as this term has been understood by students of 
the Crinoidea since the time of Miiller, and Sladen did not 
call them so, though Fewkes did. 

The question is not a very important one; but I cannot 
help thinking it desirable that terms which have a very defi- 
nite meaning in the anatomy of one type should only be 
applied to homologous parts in descriptions of other types ; 
and when Fewkes writes about the " abaxial basal " or " ad- 
axial interradial " of an Ophiurid it appears to me that lie 
is placing needless obstacles in the way of the students of a 
subject which already bristles with ditiiculties. 

4. The Radial Plates. 

The name "Eadialia^' was given by Miiller to all the plates 
situated in the direction of the rays between the basals and 
the first axillary (inclusive) of a Crinoid with more than five 
arms. His terminology was employed by Eoemer, Beyrich, 
de Koninck, and other writers till the time of Schultze, who 
modified it very considerably J. He adopted the principle 
that the lowest articular facet indicates the boundary-line 
between radials and brachials. In his diagrams of Taxo- 
crinuSy ZeucrinuSy Rhodocrinus, and Actinocrinus the first 

* Bull. Mu3. Comp. Zool. 1888, vol. xvii. p. 45. 
t Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. 1884, vol. xxiv. p. 33. 
X " Monograpbie der Echinodermen des Eitler Kalkes," Denkscbr. k. 
Akad. Wissensch. Wien, 1867, Bd. xxvi. Abtli. 2, p. 117. 

12 Dr. P. n. Carpenter on the 

axillary is the third plate above the basal ring. But whereas 
Miiller would have described each type as having three radials, 
Schultze said that this is only the case in Actinocrinus and 
IlhodocrinuSj while Taococrinus and Zeacrinus have but one 
radial followed by two brachials, of which the second is 
axillary. In the first two parts of the ' Revision of the 
Palgeocrinoidea ' Messrs. Wachsinuth and Springer used the 
expression primary radials for the ray-plates in the body up 
to the first axillary, i. e. the radials of Miiller, while the 
following body -plates up to the next axillary (distichals of 
Miiller) were called secondary radials, and so on, the term 
" brachials " being used to denote " free radial plates sup- 
porting the arms "''<■. At the same time, however, the 
American authors suggested that the arms fundamentally 
commence with the plates above the first radials, whether 
these be free or incorporated into the calyx f ; and there are 
many reasons for adopting this view, as I explained in the 
Report on the * Challenger ' Crinoids \. In practice, how- 
ever, Wachsmuth and Springer, like myself, found it more 
convenient to regard the arms as beginning with the first free 
plate beyond the calyx, and they described Encrinus as having 
but one radial followed by two brachials, the second axillary 
and bearing the arm -plates, which the older Avriters had 
regarded as brachials following a series of three radials. 

In Zittel's ' Palaeontology ' § Schultze's views are adopted 
and extended to the Neocrinoids, so that the calyx of Coma- 
tula oxiiS. PentacrinuSf Encrinus axiiS. Mi'Uericrinus, is described 
as having but one radial followed by two brachials. Ajno- 
cri'nus, however, is said to have three radials, from which it 
would appear that in Zittel's opinion the first articular facet 
in this type is on the third or axillary radial. This, however, 
is not the case, as was pointed out by myself in 1881 li, and 
more recently again by dc Loriol ^. In any well-preserved 
calyx of Ainocrinus which has the upper face of a first radial 
exposed, a definite facet for a muscular articulation of the usual 
character is plainly visible. This point is well shown in de 
Loriol's figure of A. elegans*'^. There is a perforated trans- 
verse ridge with muscular fossae above it and a dorsal fossa 

* Op. cit. part i. 1879, p. 27 (of separate copv). 
t Ibid, pavtii. 1881, p. 10. 
X Part i. pp. 47, 48. 
§ Oj). cit. ]). ooU. 

II " On two uew Crinoids from the Upper Chalk of Southern Sweden, "' 
Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 1881, vol. xxxvii. p. 134. 
11 Op. cit. p. 22o. 
** ()i>. cit. pi. xxxiii. li^s. 2 a, 2 I), pi. xxxiv. (i^s. Or/, l>. 

Anatomical Nomenclature of Echinoderms. 13 

which lodged tlic extensor ligament (muscle?). The plates 
of attachniont for the ilexor muscles between the first and 
second radials are in a more vertical position than the rest of 
the articular face, and when the second radials are in position 
five clefts are visible on the floor of the calyx, which were 
occupied during life by the five pairs of muscular bundles. 
These clefts are ])articularly well shown in Zittel's own figure 
of the interior of the cuj) of Apiocrimis Parkinsoni'^, wliilc in 
de Loriol's more recent figure of the same species f they like- 
wise appear, togctlier with precisely similar clefts between the 
radial axillary and the two brachials which it bears. Tiie 
existence of a muscular articulation is admitted in the latter 
case, and it will scarcely be any longer denied that there is a 
similar articulation between the first and second radial. It is 
a peculiar one no doubt, owing to the great size of the dorsal 
fossa in some species of Ajjiocrinus. But this is well deve- 
loped in some species of Millericrinus^ e. g. M. 7-anviUensis, 
and a regular gradational series may be traced from the most 
Pe7itacri)ius-Yikc forms of Millericrinus through M. ranvillensis 
to Api'ocrmus eJegans, and thence to forms like A. Meriani 
and others with large dorsal fossas. 

Even in these last there are distinct indications of a mus- 
cular articulation, while wliencver the distal faces of the 
second radials or the proximal faces of the axillaries are 
visible they present a vertical articular ridge for a bifascial 
articulation, exactly as in Antedon rosacea and in most 
Comatuloi \. We find therefore that in the calyx of Apio- 
crimis there are two articular facets below that on tlie axil- 
lary radial, which is the first one admitted by Zittel ; and if 
Schultze's nomenclature be followed, Apiocrinus must be 
described as having but one radial, like Encrinus and Penta- 
crtnus. The same will be the case with every other Neo- 
crinoid except Guettardicrinus, a genus which, as defined by 
d'Orbigny, is not admitted by Zittel; but de Loriol has 
pointed out that in this type there are no articular facets on 
either of the three radials, nor even on the distal faces of the 
second joints after the axillary §; and, in fact, it has not yet 
been determined what plate of the body of this type does bear 
the first facet. 

If, then, Schultze's nomenclature is to be extended to the 
Neocrinoids, Guettardicrinus is the only type which can be 
said to have more than one radial. 

Steinmannand Doderlein|| admit that the arms sensustricto 
* Op. eit. p. 389, fig. 277 b. f Op. cit. pi. xxx. figs. 1 a, 1 h. 

X De Loriol, op. cit. pi. xxx. fig. 2 b, pi. xxxiii. fig. 2 a, pi. Ivi. figs, 2, 2 c. 

§ Op. cit. p. 219. 

II * Elemente der Palaontologie,' Leipzig, 1888, p. 153. 

14 Dr. P. II. Carpenter on (he 

begin immediately beyond tlie primary radials. But if the 
lower arm-plates form a part of the dorsal cup, those up to 
and including the first axillary are called radials, wliile their 
successors up to the next axillary retain their Miillerian 
name, distichals, those beyond them again being called disti- 
chals of the second order. 

Ever since I began to write on the Crinoids, now some 
thirteen years ago, I have used this term distichals to denote 
the plates between the first and the second axillary (inclusive) 
of Crinoids with more than ten arms, whether these be free 
or united by interradial plates ; while the plates up to and 
including the third axillary, should such occur, have been 
called palmars. This method has been adopted by other 
writers on recent Crinoidea, and has been found to work well 
in practice, as it is obviously much shorter to say " distichals " 
than " radials of the second order" or " brachials of the first 
order." " Palmars " in like manner is a preferable term to 
" radials of the third order," and the succeeding axillaries, 
when present, may be conveniently called first, second, third 
postpalmars, &c. For purely descriptive purposes it is not 
often necessary, either for recent or for fossil Crinoids, to refer 
to more than three axillaries above the radials, viz. distichal, 
palmar, and postpalmar ; and Messrs. Wachsmuth and 
Springer have agreed to use these terms for the future in 
their descriptions of Palajocrinoids. 

It has also seemed desirable to arrive at some sort of agree- 
ment as to the nomenclature to be adopted for the plates 
between the basals and the first bifurcation in Crinoids with 
ten or more arms. JMiiller called them all radials in every 
Crinoid, and the same course has been adopted by de Loriol 
and myself; while other authors have endeavoured to distin- 
guish between the first plate and its successors according to 
their ideas respecting the position of the first articular surface 
or the extent to which the outer plates are included in the 
dorsal cup. But it will be evident from what has been said 
above that neither of these criteria is a satisfactory one, and 
that there is consequently a great want of unanimity between 
difterent authors, and even in different parts of the same work, 
so that the result cannot but be most perplexing to the 
student. All the leading writers are agreed, however, that 
the arms really commence with the first plates above the 
primary radials, and not above the first axillaries, {. e. that 
the plates which are sometimes called the outer radials, situa- 
ted between the primary radials and the distichals, are really 
arm-plates; while, as Zittel has pointed out, there are develop- 
mental reasons for considering this to be the case *. 
* Op. cif. p. 330. 

Anatomical Nomenclature of Echinodcrma. 15 

Under these civcumst.inceg it has been agreed between 
Messrs. Wachsmuth and Springer and myself to describe all 
Crinoids as possessing but one radial in each ray ; and it can 
then be referred to without the prefix " primary," which has 
hitherto been necessary in comparing this ]>latc witli what we 
believe to be its homologue in Urchins and Stellcrids. All 
plates beyond tliis which lie in a radial direction arc arm- 
plates or brachials, those beyond the first axillary being called 
for descriptive pur[)Oses distichals, palmars, and postpalmars, 
as explained above. But it now becomes necessary to find 
some convenient descriptive name for the ])lates between the 
radial primaries and the distichals, which have hitherto been 
known as the outer radials in the Neocrinoids generally. It 
is difhcult to find a rational one which shall have the merit of 
brevity, and we have therefore decided to revert to the purely 
empirical term " costals." This was invariably employed by 
,1. S. Miller* to denote the second radials, where he did not 
call them arm-plates, as will appear from the subjoined table 
(p. IG). 

Miller's terminology was not strictly logical, and one can 
hardly expect that it should have been so ; but at any rate it 
served as a foundation for much valuable work, and I think 
it only right to employ one of his terms when this is possible 
without straining analogy too far. The plates which Miller 
sometimes called first costals and sometimes scapulae are far 
better described by Miiller's name " radials ; " but I think 
that we may fairly employ the names first and second costals 
for the second and third radials of Miiller, now that it is 
agreed by every one that they are morphologically arm-joints. 

In seven of the eight generic descriptions in which Miller 
used the term costals at all it was applied to plates in the direc- 
tion of the rays, and in one genus only {Cijathocrinus) did he 
definitely give this name to interradial plates, and then in but 
three of its four species. It is somewhat unfortunate therefore 
that in his classical memoir on the Echinoidea Lovdn should 
Lave proposed to specialize this name as denoting the primary 
interradial plates of the Echinoderm apical system, i. e. the 
genitals of Urchins and the basals of Crinoids f. I pointed 
this out in 1878 |, and Loven, while admitting Miller's incon- 
sistency, replied that " It has always been considered allow- 
able to suggest the use in a strict sense of a term elsewhere 
vaguely applied " §. This is of course quite true ; but the 

• ' A Natural History of the Crinoidea,' Bristol, 1821. 
t Op. cit. p. 73. 

X Quart. Joum. Micr. Sci. 1878, toI. xviii. p. 3G3, 
§ '' On Pourtalesia, a Genus of Echinoidea," Jvongl. Sveuska Vetens- 
kaps-Akademieus Ilandliugar, 1883, Bd. xix. no. 7, p. 64. 


Dr. P. II. Carpenter on the 


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Anatomical Nomenclature of Echinoderms. 17 

strict sense in wliich the term is to be used for the future 
should surelv l»e that in which it was most generally used in 
the past. This is very far from being the case with Lov^n'a 
specialization of the term costals, as will be seen from the 
preceding table ; and as his proposal has not been generally 
adopted by Echinologists, I think there can be no harm in 
employing Miller's name for plates which do lie in the 
direction of the rays of Crinoids, and were always called 
costals by him when not described as arm-plates, viz. those 
commonly known as the second radials. This being granted, 
it naturally follows that the axillary or third radials, the 
scapula? of Miller, should be called the second costals; and 
these terms will be employed for the future by Messrs. 
AVachsmuth and Springer, leather, and myself. Further- 
more, in genera like Metocrinns and Par isocr inns, in which 
there may be four or five joints between the radial and the 
first axillary above it, the whole series, including the axillary, 
will in future be called the costals. 

The use of this term also simplifies matters in another way. 
I pointed out in 1877 *, and have done so frequently since, 
that the first two joints beyond every axillary of a multi- 
brachiate Xeocrinoid are nearly always united, whether by 
syzygy or by bifascial articulation, in tiie same manner as the 
second and third radials. Now, however, we can say more 
briefly that there is generally the same mode of union between 
the first two free brachials and the first two distichals and 
palmars &c., when present, as between the first two costals. 
Thus, among the Palajocrinoidea this union is a syzygy in 
Graphiocrinus and Scytalocrinus. The same rule holds good 
in Encrinus (syzygy) and in Apiocrinus^ Miller icrinus, and 
Batliycrinus (articulation). Five of the eight recent species 
of Peniacrinus have the two costals, distichals, and palmars, 
and the first two free brachials respectively united by syzygy, 
while there are bifascial articulations between the two costals 
and the first pair of joints beyond them in each of the other 
three species. Some of the tossil Pentacriuidse present indi- 
cations of the same regularity, and it is also traceable in Meta^ 
crinus^ though to a less extent, owing to its larger and more 
variable number of costals ; and this is probably also the case 
in the Paheocrinoids with a similar character. 

It is among the Comatukcj however, that the regularity in 
question is most marked. Among the 120 species of Antedon 

• " On the Genus Actinometra, Miill., with a Morphological Account 
of a new Species from the Philippine Islands," Trans. Linn. Soc, 2nd ser. 
Zool. vol. ii. p. 22. 

Ann. (f; May. N. Hist. Ser. ^. Vol. v\. 2 

18 Dr. P. H. Carpenter 07i the 

noticed in the ' Challenger ' Report there are but nine in 
wliich the first two joints beyond each successive axillary are 
not always united in tlie same manner as the two costals are. 
Thus in tlie three members of the Eler/ans-gronp the costals 
are united by ^'jzygy, wliile the first two joints after each 
axillary are articulated. In the six members of the Granu- 
Zz/era-group the costals and the first two distichals are articu- 
lated bifascially. Five of the species have the corresponding 
palmars and brachials united by syzygy, while in the sixth 
this is replaced by a muscular articulation. 

Among the eighty-four species of Actinomefra the four 
members of the Tyinca-g\o\\\^ have a syzygj' between the two 
costals, palmars, postpalmars^ and brachials respectively, while 
the first two distichals are articulated ; and in the seven 
species of the Fimbn'ata- group the costals and the first pair 
of distichals are respectively united bifascially, while there 
is a muscular articulation between the first two joints after 
the disticlial and all subsequent axillaries. The four members 
of the Stelligera-gYOiip again have the first two free brachials 
united by syzygy, while the corresponding joints of all the 
lower arm-divisions are articulated. 

Excepting in these aberrant forms, therefore, the facts of 
Crinoid anatomy are in favour of the view that the plates 
called second and third radials by Mliller really belong to the 
arms; and so 1 pro])ose to abandon the use of R in the specific 
formulas of the Ehfjans-^ Solaris-, and Typica-gxoxxps,'^ , and to 
substitute a c, indicating the costals, just as d stands for 
distichals and p for palmars. A glance of the illustrative 
formulas given below, and especially those of Actinometra 
Solaris and A. paucicirra, will show that this alteration makes 
them at once more simple and more symmetrical ; and as it 
seems undesirable to have one c in the formula to indicate 
costals and another in the cirrus-notation, as proposed by 
Bell t> 1 propose to use ic, y, z for the latter purpose instead 
of a, h, c. This has the further advantage of enabling us to 
write a simple b, and not br, to indicate the free brachials of 
the arms. 

* See the Report od the ' Challenger ' Comntuhr, pp. o3, o7. 

t " An Attempt to apply a Method of Fonmilation to the Species of 
ihe ('omatulidce, with the J)e.scriptlon of a new Specios," Troc Zool. Soc. 
J.ond. \SX-2, p. ;■).'{ 1. Si'O also the Report ou the ' (."halleu-'er ' t'omatultp, 

pp. 43-r,j». 

Anatonn'caf Nomenclature of Echt'noderms. 


Illustrative Formulce. 

ntedon th-ynuA A. R. .'}. 2. (2) - 


— incciunlis V. 3. -^/'^- '"' .^L 

•2 h 

— porrecta V. 3. 2 | (»). hr \ . ~ 

ztiiwmetra Solaris .... a. II. . _. 
2 ab 

T^ d. (p). hr /r/\ 

— pnuctcirra a. u. — >-'^^ . / 1 

— midtihrachiata . . a. R. 3. P- >>'■■■■ P'' ^"- . * 

2 a 

— MUyera a. 2. 2. (2). -^' . ^\ 

2 CO 

boeoino.a A. ^ . 3. 2. (2) . -t 

- y 

A. 3. 2 {(;;). /.[.^/. 

c. b xii 

a. -^ 1. 

2 xy 

c. d. (p). h /.v\ 
2 U/" 

a.'L.ii P-p'----p''^ y. 

"2 2 -x 

„ «.2.2.(2).J..V5. 

2 xy 

5. J7<e use of the term "Axillart/.^^ 

The term " axillary " was introduced by Miiller * and de- 
fined as follows : — " Das dritte radiale hat nach oben zwei 
dachformig geneigte Gelenkfliichen fiir die beiden darauf 
sitzenden Arme. Icli nenne es deswegen radiale axillare^ es 
ist Miller's Scapula, dagegen nenne icli hrachialia axillaria 
alle im Verlauf der Arme vorkonimenden ahnlichen Glieder, 
auf dcnen zwei Theilungsarme aufsitzen." 

The terra has been generally used in tlie Miillerian sense 
during the last forty years, i. e. only with reference to plates 
which serve as points of division in the rays and arms, 
whether these be free or incorporated into the more or less 
rigid dorsal cup. Bather, however, has recently extended its 
use in a manner which is scarcely advisable at present, since 
it is not as yet justified by anatomical research. He has 
applied the name to tlie " bifurcating piece " in locrinus which 
gives rise both to the right posterior ray and to the ventral 
sac t. The lowest of the series of plates supporting the ven- 
tral sac — that which rests on the left upper edge of the bifur- 
cating ])iece, and is marked x in Bather's diagram \ — is 
regarded by him as having " originated as a plate morpho- 
logically corresponding to an ordinary brachial ; " and he 

* " Ueber den JJau des Pentacrinus caput Medusts^' Abliandl. Berlin. 
Akad. 1841 [1843], p. 202. 

t Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. .ser. G, vol. v. 1890, p. 320. 
X Ibid. pi. xiv. fig. o. 


20 Dr. P. II. Carpenter 07i the 

distinguishes it accordingly as the " Brachianal." He states 
tliat " in size and position it is just like the adjacent arm- 
plate " *. But is this really the case ? Is there the same 
articulation between its under surface and the bifurcating 
piece below it as between the latter and tlie arm-plate of the 
right posterior ray ? This has yet to be demonstrated ; and 
until such a demonstration has been given the term " axillary" 
should not be applied to the bifurcating piece, as has been 
done by Bather. Whatever be the merits of his theory, as 
applied to other Fistulata, there appear to me to be grave 
doubts respecting the correctness of his interpretation of the 
plate X in locrinus. This is regarded by AVachsmuth and 
Springer as the first plate of the anal tube, and not in any 
•way as a " special anay or brachianal as Bather calls it ; and 
if such be the case, the bifurcating jnece on which it rests is 
not in any sense an axillary. Bather, however, not only calls 
it an axillary ])late himself, but also represents tiie American 
authors and myself as having done the same, which is not 
the case. I did not state " that Wachsmuth and Springer 
homologize the lower half of the compound radial in Dendro- 
crinus with the upper axillary plate in locrinus^ Neither 
did the American authors misquote me " as having suggested 
that the axillary })latc of locrinus was an ' azygos ' plate" f- 
Neither they nor 1 used the term " axillary " at all, so that 
there was no reason for Bather to represent us as having 
done so, more especially as we do not yet know that the plate 
in question is entitled to this name. 

6. Interambulacrals and AdamhulacraJs. 

In Muller's classical memoir, " Ueber den Bau der Echi- 
nodermen," after discussing the views of de Blainville and 
A. Agassiz respecting the interambulacral plates of a Star- 
fish I, he ])ro|)Oscd to distinguisli the marginal jilates of the 
ambulacra irom the remaining intcrambuhacral plates by the 
name " adambulacral." Those plates situated between the 
ambulacra on the ventral surface of the body, which are so 
well developed in the pentagonal forms, were called inter- 
mediary interambulacral jdates ; and in a third category he 
placed the lower marginal plates of the rays. Tlie term 
adambulacral proved to be a very convenient one, and it soon 
found its way into tiie current nomenclature both of zoology 
and of palaeontology. It was not, however, adopted by A. 

* Ihid p. :].';0. t H,id. pp. 321, 322. 

\ Abhaiull. d. Berlin. Alviid. Jal.r^. 1853 (1854), pp. 101. 102. 

Analoiiiicdl Xomencldlure of Ec/iino'fenns. 21 

Agassiz, the plates generally kiK^n-u by this name being called 
intoranibnlacral tiirougliont his fine work on the North 
American tStartislics. Verrill used the same name tor a while, 
but afterwards abandoned it in favour of adambnlacral, and 
the same course was taken by Perrier. In a recent memoir 
on the development of the calcareous plates of Asterias* 
Fewkcs describes the plates in question as interambulacrals, 
with the remark, " adambulacrals of recent authors." The 
name, however, is much older than Fewkes implies, having 
been proposed by Miiller and adopted b^^ M. Sars, Salter, and 
]5illiiigs before 1860. Meek and VVorthen and J. Hall used 
it in 1866-67, and, with the exceptions above mentioned, I 
know of no leading authority within the last twenty-five years 
who has used "interambulaeral" to denote the marginal plates of 
the ambulacra of the Starfish f. Fewkes says with regard to 
them, " It may be as well to retain the old term, especially as 
they arise between ends of successive arabulacrals" J. This, 
however, is very far from being the real meaning of the old 
term as applied to the Urchins, for which group it was first 
employed. In a later communication again the two names 
interamhulacral and adamhulacral are used interchangeably 
by Fewkes §, on the ground that " the term interambulacral 
is not only the oldest, but is embryologically more accurate." 
As, however, there are at least three series of plates in Star- 
fishes to which the name interambulacral has been applied, it 
would have conduced very considerably to the clearness of 
Fewkes^s writings if he had followed the Milllerian plan of 
describing one of them as adambulacral ; for when he speaks 
of interambulacrals it is sometimes difficult to determine to 
what series he is referring, and his use of the name for 
]\liiller's adambulacrals is the more likely to confuse, since his 
studies have led him to believe that " they are the same as 
the ambulacral " ||. The position of the plates in (juestion is 
not the less interambulacral because Miiller called them 
adambulacral, to distinguish them from the other two sets of 
interambulacral plates which are not so closely related to the 
ambulacra. These are called marginals and intei brachials 

♦ Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 1888, vol. xvii. p. 37. 

t They have beeu called adambulacrals by the following authors : — 
Bell, Dbderlein, Eck, Fraas, Ganong, Ive?, de Loriol, Liitken, Ludwig, 
Menegliini, S. A. Miller, Perrier, Kathbun, G. O. Sars, Studer, Sturtz, 
Verrill, Viguier, Zittel. 

t Bull. Mus. Comp. Zool. 1888, vol. xvii. p. 11. 

§ " On the Serial Relationship of the Ambulacral and Adambulacral 
Calcareous Plates of the Starfishes," Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 1889, 
vol. xxiv. p. 96. 

II Proc. Boston Soc. Nat. Hist. 1889, vol. xxiv. p. 105. 

22 On the Anatomical Nomenclature of EcJiinoderms. 

by Fewkes ; but lie would have been more in accordance with 
the rational terminology now current if he had used inter- 
mediary or interambulacral for interbrachial*, and had adopted 
Miiller's use of adambulacral. 

On p. 105 of his last paper f we read, " The plates in the 
Echinoids called adambulacrals which lie between the system 
of jjlates generally known as ambulacral are regarded as the 
same as the marginal plates of the starfish." This passage 
can only refer to the plates which are always called inter- 
ambulacrals in the test of an Tlrchin, and I have been unable 
to discover that any author, except Fewkes, has ever called 
them adambulacral. LudwigJ, however, has pointed out 
that the ambulacral plates of an Urchin are in all probability 
homologous with the adambulacrals of a Starfish, and in his 
diagram of the skeleton of an Echinoid he marks these plates 
" Adambulacralia (sog. Ambulacralia)." Fewkes, on the other 
hand, speaks of " the so-called adambulacrals of sea-urchins " 
when he means the interambulacrals, auct., although no pre- 
vious writer has employed the term in this sense, so that there 
was no reason for Fewkes to have done so. He accepts 
Ludwig's homology of these interambulacral plates (adambu- 
lacrals, Fewkes) with the marginals of the Starfish, as shown 
in the following table, copied from p. 106 of his memoir : — 

Starfish. Ska-Urcui.n. 

1. Anilnilacial rafters. 1. Wanting. 

i>. Periplieral ambulacrals §, gene- | ^ Ambulacral^ 
rally called adambulacrals. ( *" •^ « . 

3. Marginals. 3. Adambulacrals. 

But he also remarks in a footnote, " The homologies here 
])rcscntcd arc essentially the same as those already published 
by Ludwig as far as the relationshij) between the ambulacrals 
of the starfish and the adambulacrals of the sea-urchin is con- 
cerned.'" There seems to be something wrong here, for it is 
clear that the adambulacrals of an Urchin cannot be homolo- 
gous both with the ambulacrals of a Starfish (footnote) and 
also with its margiiud plates (table). 

It may be that a clerical error has been committed, the 
prefix ail being put in the wrong placre in the footnote, and 

* This ttrin is not particular!}- applicable in the case of Guniuster and 
similar i'cirnis. 

t I'roc. 15c)s(on Soc. Nat. Hist. 1889, vol. xxiv. p. 105. 

\ " Eiit\vicklur.g.«gescliichte der ^-l^/cnwrt yi7yAt>*-ff, Forbes,'' Zeitschr. f. 
wis.*. Zool. IS'^1?, JUL .\x.\\ii. p. 73. 

§ 'Ihese "peril 111 lul ambulacrals'' are also called iuteranibulacrals bv 
Fewkes, and ni his ligure on p. W (hey are lettered ad, Adanibuhicrals I ! 

On neiD West-Indian Lomjicorn Coleoptera. 23 

that Fcwkcs meant to cxjn'css liis belief in Liul\vig':3 liomolo«-y 
between the adimhulncrals of a StaiH^ii and the anihulncrals 
ot' the 8ea-iux'hin. Jiut if this be the ease the only phites in 
the Urchin to which tlie name adanibuhicrals can piopcrly be 
applied are those generally known as ambulacrals. Why, 
then, docs Fewkes repeatedly use it for the interainbulacrals? 
lie im])lies that other authors have done so before him, but 
gives no references ; and, so far as I can make out, there are 
none to be found. 

Tiiis is not the first occasion on which I liave had to 
comment on the looseness of Fewkes's Echinoderm termin- 
ology and tlie confusion resulting therefrom. It is much to 
be regretted that when he took up a branch of zoology diffe- 
rent from that in which he has gained a well-merited reputa- 
tion he did not make himself better acquainted with its 
nomenclature, and thus enable his readers properly to appre- 
ciate the value of his observations and of the conclusions 
whicii he has drawn from them *. As it is, however, one is 
constantly perplexed by his vague and inaccurate use of 
terms which were clearly defined by Miiller and have since 
had a very definite meaning for nearly all students of Ecliino- 

II. — Notes on some West-Indian Longicorn Coleoptera, 
with Descriptions of new Genera and Species. By C. J. 
Gaiian, M.A. 

These notes chiefly refer to genera and species of Lacordaire's 
group Solenopteriuffi, and may, to some extent, be regarded 
as a revision of that group. Outside of the Solenopterinse 
the following genera and species are referred to or described : — 

Stenodontes Chevrolati, sp. u. ElapLidion mutatuin, sp. n. 

damicoruis, Linn. tomentosum, Chevr. 

exsertus, Oliv. Ilormathus, g-. n. (Ibidioniniie). 

capra, Dej. cinctellus, sp. n. 

Ia3vi^atus, Bemiv. Phiyueta verrucosa, Drunj = P. 

Mallodoa bituberculatura, Tieauv. melanoptera, Thorns. 

Stenodontes Chevrolati^ sp. n. 
S. damicorni verisimilis, sed differt capite subtus valdo rugoso-puuc- 
tato ; elytria nitidis, vix puuctulatis. 

Ilab. Cuba. 

* Compare Ilerouard, loc. clt. 

24 Mr. C. J. Galiaii on new 

From S. damicorm's, Linn., this species may be readily 
distinguished by the almost entire absence of punctuation 
from the elytra, as well as by the stronger and rugose punc- 
tuation of the underside of the head. In size, general form, 
and in the structure of the mandibles it agrees closely with 
S. damicornis. 

The species was described by Chevrolat (Ann. Soc. Ent. 
de France, 1862, p. 273) under the name S. damicornis^ 
Linn. — a very excusable error considering that the descrip- 
tions and figures of the latter species given by the older 
authors are equally applicable to the present species. 

I am satisfied that the 8. damicornis of Linnaus is cor- 
rectly determined in the Britisli Museum collection, as all the 
specimens are from Jamaica — the locality ascribed to it by 
Linnaeus and Drury — and agree with a specimen so named 
in the Banksian collection. In all these specimens the elytra 
are scarcely glossy and are very finely and rather closely 
punctulate. The underside of the head is strongly enough, 
but not rugosely, punctured. In the fully-developed males 
the dorsal ridge of the mandible disappears gradually in front; 
in the males of S. Chevrolati this disappearance of the dorsal 
ridge is more abrupt. 

From S. exsertus, Oliv., the males of S. Chevrolati may be 
distinguished bv the strong inner tooth on each of the man- 
dibles near its apex, and by the somewhat coarser punctuation 
of the underside of the head. I am unable to give characters 
which shall sufficiently distinguish the females of these two 
species. Locality and tlie character of the punctuation of 
the underside of the head may perhaps serve as helps. The 
specimens of S. Chevrolati in the British Museum collection 
are from Cuba, with the exception of one (a female) from the 
Bahamas ; those of S. exsertus are from St. Domingo. 

It is highly probable that the S. capra of Dejean and the 
S. Icevigatus of Beaiivois, both from St. Domingo, are forms 
of minor development of S. exsertus. The only differences I 
can detect relate to size and to the form of the mandibles, the 
latter in S. capra and S. Icevigatus approaching more to the 
female form. 

Mallodon bituherculatum, Beauv. 

Judging from the figure and description of tliis species it 
seems to me that it is the female of Mallodon maxillosum, 

West-Imliiin LoiKjicorn Coleoj>(er(x. 25 


Prosternodes scuteUatus, sp. n. 

Capite nigro, punctato ; prothorace dorso in medio iiigro, nitido, 
sjiarsim punc'tato ft longitudinaliter sulcato ; scutcllo pube scricea 
albo-flav(^sccnto dense obtccto ; clytris basi nigrcscentibiip, deinde 
ferrugiiieis, omnino creberrime punctatis, marginibus apicalibus 
levitcr donticulatis ; epistcrnis motathoracis, fascia obliqua mcta- 
sterni utrinqne, ct vitta longitudinali abdominis ntrinciue, pnbe 
albo-riavesrente sericoa dense obtectis ; pedibus nigrcscentibus, 
punctatis ; tarsis sujtra rufo-brunneis. 

(S . rrotborace supra versus latera et subtus (medio excepto) minute 
confertissimeque punctato, marginil)us lateralibus antice rotun- 
dato-curvatis ; antennis corpore paullo brevioribiis, articulis 4 
apicalibus subtus sparsim villosis ; tibiis anterioribus subtus versus 
apicem dense fulvo-villosis. 

Long. 22-35 mm. 

$ . Prothorace supra sparsim punctato, marginibus lateralibus 
subrcctis, angulis anticis dentatis. 

Long. 2G mm. 

Hah. St. Domingo. Britisli Museum collection and col- 
lection of Mr. Fry. 

cJ . Disk of the prothorax with two distinct, obtuse, longi- 
tudinal elevations, leaving a channel between ; these eleva- 
tions, the included channel, and a narrow oblique fascia on 
each side just anterior to the jiostero-lateral spine are all 
glossy and sparsely punctured ; the rest of the surface of the 
pronotum is dull and finely and very closely punctured ; the 
anterior margin of the prothorax is provided with a yellowish- 
white silky fringe. Scutelhun somewhat semicircular and 
clothed with a dense yellowish-white silky pubescence. The 
elytra, at the base bhickisli, are for the rest of their extent of 
a reddisli-fcrruginous colour, and are entirely covered with 
closely-placed and rather strong punctures ; the apical mar- 
gins are faintly denticulate. A thick yellowish-white silky 
pubescence clothes the anterior coxje and sides of the meso- 
sternum, and forms a fascia on each of the metathoracic 
epimera, an oblique fascia on each side of the metasternum, 
and a longitudinal fascia on each side of tlie abdomen. The 
V -shaped figure thus formed on each side of the metathorax 
encloses a highly polished and impunctate space on the side 
of the metasternum. The middle regions of the sterna and 
abdomen are nitid and sparsely punctured. Tiie abdomen is 
of a chestnut-brown colour. The legs are blackish and rather 
thickly punctured. The anterior tibife are furnished with a 
rather dense villosity underneath towards their distal end j 

26 Mr. C. J. Gahan on new 

tlie anterior tarsi have a somewhat similar villositj on their 
] osterior border. The antenna;, not much shorter than the 
l)odj, are flattened below and slightly convex above ; they 
are strongly enough punctured, with the punctures on joints 
three to seven chiefly confined to the lateral borders ; the last 
four joints are somewhat villose underneath. The prosternal 
process is slightly emarginate behind. 

Before seeirg the female, which is in Mr. Fry's collection, 
I had placed this species in Solenoptera ; but as the female 
has the sides of the prothorax nearly straight, with the ante- 
rior angles laterally produced or toothed, the species seem.s 
better jjlaced in Prosternodes. 

A distinct species from St. Domingo, to which Chevrolat 
had given the manuscript name dovunicensis^ somewhat 
resembles the preceding. The single male specimen in the 
collection is in too bad a condition for detailed descrij)tion ; 
but the chief points of difference may be mentioned : — Smaller 
(length 20 millim.). Antenna relatively shorter, scarcely 
reaching to the middle of the elytra. Lateral margins of the 
prothorax less regularly crenulate. (Scutellum ?) Episterna 
of metathorax and sides of the abdomen with a less dense 
(jveyisU pubescence. j\Ietasternum without oblique fasciae. 


That Chevrolat did not fully appreciate the chief diflferences 
between his genus Elateropsis and the genus Solenoptera of 
Serville is shown by the fact that he included in the former a 
true species of Solenojjtera, viz. S. sulcicollis, Thoms. The 
scutellum in this species is as broad as it is long and some- 
^^ hat rounded behind. In the male the pronotum is finely 
and very closely punctured towards the sides — a sexual cha- 
racter to be met with in all the species of Solenoptera^ and, as 
far as 1 know, not occurring in the genus Elateropsis. 

Lacordaire has passed unnoticed this sexual character, but 
has pointed out the form of the scutellum as of considerable 
in)|.ortance in distinguishing the two genera. 

Solcnojjtera hilineata^ Fabr. [Frionus), iSyst. Ent. p. 163, 
has been omitted from Gcmminger and Harold's Catalogue. 
The specimens of this species in the British Museum collec- 
tion are ticketed Guadeloupe and ISanta Cruz. 

Solenojjtera suhcaiialiculafa, White, a})pears to be synony- 
mous with >S'. canali'ciilata, Fabr. Fabiicius's description 
applies exactly to the type of White's species. It is, how- 
ever, probable authors have included more than one 
variety under the labrician name. Olivier has figured and 

West-Indian Longicorn Coleoptcra. 27 

described a species witli brown elytra, tliou^'-h the Fabriciaii 
description reads " elytra subscabra, nigra." I cannot find 
Olivier's type in the collection of Banks, where it is stated to 
have been. The ^S'. astei-ia, Bnq., of Do jean's Cataloii;ue is a 
very distinct variety from Martinique and Guadeloupe, and 
answers fairly well to Olivier's description and figure of S. 
canaliculata. The s))ecimcns of S. suhcanalicidata, White, in 
the British .Museum bear no indication of locality; but two 
sj)ecimcns in Mr. Fry's collection are ticketed Trinidad. 

In the footnote below* will be ftnmd described an interesting 
new species of Solcnojttera from (Colombia. The description 
is taken from a single male specimen in Mr. Fry's collection. 

Elateropsis, Chevr. 

In describing Cuban species of this genus Chevrolat has 
again erroneously made useof Linnean and Fabrician names. 
Under the name E. Uneata he has mixed up two distinct 
species — one the true Uneata of Linnseus and Fabricius, the 
other the following : — 

Elateropsis punctata, sp. n., ? . 
E. Uneatie similia, sod difl'ert elytris sat fortiter et dense puuctatis. 
Ilab. Cuba. 

* Solenoptera intermedia, sp. u. 

S- Obscure ferruginea; elytris brunneo-testaceis, marginibiis lateralibus 
pallidioribus ; capite dense puuctato, tenuissime griseo-piibesccute ; 
priitliorace medio dursi fere piano, nitido, valde rugoso-])unctato, versus 
latera et subtus (medio excepto) minute cont'ertissimeijue puuctato; 
.«cutello elytrisquo valde rugoso-punctatis ; corporo subtus fortiter sat 
deuseque puuctato, episternis me^o- meta-thoracisque pube albo-sericea 
dense obtectis ; pedibus subscabroso-punctatis ; anteuuis punctatis, 
dimidium corporis nee attiugeutibus. 

Long. 83; lat. ad humeros 11, ad medium prothoracis 12 mm. 

Hab. Colombia. In the collection of Mr. Alexander Frj'. 

Tht! prothorax in this species is but very slightly depressed aud almost 
flat along the middle of the disk ; its width across the middle is slin^htly 
greater than tliat of the elytra; from the middle it is narrowed, with a 
rounded curve on each side up to tlie anterior border ; the margins are 
very faintly crenulate on the anterior half; the constriction on each side 
at the base is deep but short, so that the postero-lateral angles are at a 
small distance from the shoulders of the elytra. Though undoubtedly 
belonging to the genus !Sulenoptcra, the species is shown, by the characters 
here given, to bj somewhat intermediate between the latter genus aud 
the Central-American genus Hi>hinotu<, Thorns. In colour and form it 
somewhat resembles *S'. Thonue, Linn., but m ly be easily distiugiii.shed bv 
the characters given above. 

28 Mr. C. J. Gahan on new 

Resembles very much E. h'neata, Linn., but has the two 
longitudinal ridges on the disk of the prothorax more flat- 
tened and more strongly punctured, and has the elytra strongly 
enough and rather closely punctured, the punctures being 
distinctly visible to the naked eye. 

In E. lineata, Linn., the elytra are glossier and almost 
impunctate, the punctures being distant and so minute as to 
be scarcely visible except with the aid of a lens. In some 
specimens of lineata the elytra are very feebly coriaceous. 

Chevrolat seems to have regarded the specific differences 
here given as sexual; but in this he was evidently mistaken, 
for the British Museum collection (including that of Chev- 
rolat) does not contain a single male of either species, unless 
the view to be referred to further on can be accepted as 

Elateropsis rugosa^ sp. n., ? . 

E. lineatce similis, sed minor ; elytris rugoso-punctatis ; antennis 


A single female example represents this species .in the 
British Museum collection. In form and stjde of marking 
it resembles the preceding, but is sufficiently distinguished by 
the strong rugose punctuation of the disk of the prothorax 
and of the elytra. The antennae are dark ferruginous towards 
the base, fuscous towards the apex. 

A smaller (male) specimen, of a similar style of sculpture, 
devoid of pubescent bands or markings and with black 
antenna, may possibly prove to be the male of this species. 
It also bears no indication of locality. 

Elateropsis fuliginosa^ Fabr., (^ . 

In the males of this species the elytra are nitid, smooth 
(excepting a feeble rugosity towards the base), and are 
remotely and minutely punctulate. 

These remarks also apply to E. suhpunctata, Chevr., and, 
with the types of the two species before me, I am unable to 
discover any ditierence between them except one of size. E. 
suhpunctata must, I think, be regarded as identical with, or 
at most as a small variety of, fuUginosa, Fabr. It must be 
remembered that Chevrolat in describing suhpunctata com- 
pared it, not with the true fuUginosa of Fabr., but with /'///<- 
ginosa, Chevr. — quite a distinct species, to which may be 

West-Indian Longicorn Cohoptera. 29 

restored the folUnviiig name, previously made use of by 
Chevrolat in manuscript : — 

Elateropsis scabrosa, sp. n. 

= E./uliginosuSy Chevr. (iiec Fabr.), Ann. Soc. Eut. do France, 1862, 

p. 271. 
^Solenoptera scnbrosa. White, Cat. Brit. Miis. Longicornia, i. p. 53, 

Nigra, subopaca ; ])alpis, antennis pedibusque rufo-fiilvis ; pro- 

thorace dorso ct elytris crebre subrugosoque puuctatis. 
Long. 23-31 mm. 

Hah. Cuba, (? and ? . 

The females of this species are strongly and coarsely punc- 
tured on the disk of the prothorax and on the elytra. The 
antennffi do not reach quite to the middle of the elytra, and 
their last joint is short, scarcely, if anything, longer than tiie 
preceding joint. 

The males are slightly less strongly sculptured ; their 
antennffi reach beyond the middle of the elytra, and have the 
last joint distinctly longer than the preceding. 

I have already mentioned that all the specimens of E. 
lineata and E. punctata in the British Museum collection 
are females. All the specimens of E. fuh'qi'nosa, Fabr., and 
E. suhpunctata, Chevr., are, on the other hand, males. 
From these facts I have been led to suspect that E. fuligi- 
nosa, Fabr., is the male of E. lineata^ Linn. ; and this 
suspicion has been strengthened by finding that all the white- 
striped specimens of Elateropsis in the collection of Mr. 
Alexander Fry, who very kindly sent me the whole of his 
Solenopterinas for examination, are also females, while the 
unstriped glossy specimens referable to fnliginosa and suh- 
punctata are males. ] have thus seen altogether twenty-two 
specimens, all females, of the three white-banded species 
mentioned above, and eleven specimens, all males, of E. fuli- 
ginosa, Fabr., and its questionable variety E. suhpunctata, 

If it is proved to be the case that the white bands in the 
species of this genus are confined to the females, then it is 
very likely that some of the less strongly punctured speci- 
mens which I now regard as males of E. scahrosa are really 
males of E. punctata. 

In E. ebenina, Chevr., there is no marked sexual difference, 
the males having the antennae slightly longer than in the 
females, with the last joint relatively somewhat longer. 

30 Mr. C J. fralian on new 

The described specimen of E. venusta, Chevr., is a female, 
and not a male as stated by Clievrolat in his description. 

Elateropsis reticulata, sp. n. 

$ . Nigro-fusca, opaca ; capite dense punctate, tenuissime gri.seo- 
pubescente : prothorace fortiter rugoso-punctato, vitta ohsoleta 
utrinque fulvo-pubescente ; scutello punctate ; elytris fortissirae 
creberrimeque punctatis, castaneo-fuscis, versus latera et ad 
apicem rufo-castaneis, marginibus apicalibus distincte denticu- 
latis ; corpore subtus sparsim punctate ; episternis mesothoracis, 
plaga triangulari mesotboracis utriuque et maculis quatuor abdo- 
minis utrinque fulvo-pubescentibus ; segmento ultimo abdominis 
apice leviter emarginato ; anteunis diraidium elytrorum vix 
attingeutibus, rufo-ferrugineis, versus apicem suf-fuscis, pedibus 
rufis, sparsim punctatis. 
Long. 17, lat. 6 mm. 

Hah. Cuba. In the collection of Mr. Alexander Fry. 

The prothorax is convex above, with a very feeble channel 
or depression along the middle of the disk ; on each side, in 
the unique specimen, there are traces of a fulvous pubescent 
vitta. The elytra are covered with a very strong, close, and 
reticulate punctuation. 

This species most nearly resembles E. 6-notata, Chevr., 
but differs by its brownish elytra, its somewhat reddish 
antenna?, and reddish legs, by the triangular fulvous patch on 
each side of the metathorax, and finally by its punctuation. 

E. 6-notata, Chevr., has the antennae and legs black, the 
elytra almost entirely black. The prothorax is strongly and 
rather thickly, but not rugosely, punctured. The elytra in 
the ty])e specimen are unfortunately much deformed, one 
being shorter than the other, and both being raised in places 
into large gall-like protuberances. Throughout their greater 
extent they are covered with intricate ridges. The body 
underneath is black, with here and there a faint greyish 
pubescence ; the mesothoracic episterna are covered with a 
thick whitish pubescence. 

The [Priomis) vittatus of Olivier, which the authors of the 
Munich Catalogue have placed in the genus Elateropsis, more 
probably belongs to the genus Derancistrus, Serv., and is 
possibly the male of D. elegans, Beau v. 

IIakmosternus, gen. nov. 

Head excavated in the middle in front ; the excavation 
continuous with a rather broad and shallow channel above. 

West-Indian Longicorn Coleoptera. 31 

Maxillary palj)! imioli longer than the labial, their last joint 
securiform ; the last joint of the labial suboblong. Antennai 
reaching beyond the niicUlle of the elytra, with the joints 
from the third slightly dilated towards their apices and each 
provided with one or two poriferous pits. Prothorax about 
as long as broad, and furnished on each side with two spines 
— one just behind the middle, the other between this and the 
anterior border ; with the margin cut away obliquely in 
front of the anterior spine and sinuate between the two spines, 
as well as behind the submedian spine. Scutellum broader 
tlian long, slightly emarginate in the middle behind. Elytra 
very sliglitly and gradually narrowed towards the posterior 
extremity, each provided at the suture and at the extremity of 
the lateral margin with a small tooth ; the apical margin 
between these teeth very feebly denticulate. Prosternal pro- 
cess truncate behind and very closely applied against the 
anterior border of the mesosternal process ; the latter with a 
triangular emargination behind which receives the anterior 
termination of the metastcrnum. 

This genus is j^erhaps most nearly related to Elateropsis, 
from which it differs by the bispiuose margins of the pro- 
thorax, the posteriorly truncate and non- emarginate proster- 
num, and the short and broad scutellum. 

Harmosternus anthractnus, sp. n. 

cJ . Niger ; palpis femoribusque rufis ; capita punctato ; prothorace 
dorso ina^quali, valde subruj^osoque punctato ; scutoUo subconcavo, 
sparsim puuctato ; elytris valdc crebreque punctatis, puuctis ver- 
sus basin majoribus ; tibiis tarsiscpic castaneo-fuscis ; abdomine 
nigro, nitido, sparsissime puuctato ; autennis nigris, sparsim 

Long. 24, lat. S mm. 

Ilab. Cuba. In the collection of Mr. Alexander Fry. 

Coal-black, with the palpi and femora reddish, the tibi^and 
tarsi dark chestnut ; sliglitly nitid on the middle of the pro- 
thorax and elytra. Prothorax uneven on the disk, stron<>-ly 
and somewhat rugosely punctured above, sparsely punctured 
underneath, with a space on the side just under the anterior 
half of tlie lateral margin more minutely and very closely 
punctured, Scutellum slightly concave from side to side 
sparsely punctured. Elytra very strongly and closely punc- 
tured, with the punctures increasing in size and less closely 
packed towards the base. Abdomen very glossy and very 
sparsely punctured. 

32 Mr. C J. (Jalian on new 

'Elaphidion mutatam, sp. n. 

Elaphidion tomentosinn $ , Cbevr. 

Castaneum, pube grisea deDse obtectum, prothoracc dorso quinque 
tuberculis — tuberculo medio cariniformi, tuberculis duobus posticis 
obsoletis ; elytris basi dense punctatis, puiictis pone medium 
evanescentibus, singulis elytris humero et plaga dorsali prope 
medium subnudis, castaneis, apicibus singulis bispinosis ; antennis 
articulis 3° et 4° uni-, o^-lO'" bispinosis. 

Hab. Cuba, Florida. 

Under the name Elaphidion iomentosum Chevrolat included 
two very distinct species. The females which he has described 
are the females of the present species, the male of which I 
saw in the possession of Dr. Horn when he was last on 
a visit to England. Two female specimens from St. Dom- 
ingo, which are undoubtedly the females of E. tomentosum, 
are in the British Museum collection. Except in the much 
shorter antennaj these two present no diflferences of import- 
ance from the male Like the male they have the pi'osternum 
truncated and vertical behind. In E. mutafum the prosternum 
is feebly arched and almost flattened behind, the species there- 
fore belonging to the Hypermallus section of the genus. The 
spines at the apices of the joints of the antennae do not stop 
with the seventh joint, as Chevrolat's description seems to 
imply, but, gradually becoming smaller, are met with up fo 
the tenth joint. Dr. Horn's male specimen, which was from 
Keys, Florida, differed from the females only in having 
slightly longer and slenderer antenna^, and in having the apical 
border of the last abdominal ventral segment pointed in the 
middle and sinuate towards the sides. In the female this 
segment is rather sharply rounded at the apex. 

E. (omentosum, Chevr., bears a very strong resemblance to 
E. mucronatumj Say, but is to be distinguished by the much 
less close punctuation of the elytra and of the sides of the 

HORMATHUS, gen. nov. 

This genus is formed for an interesting little species from 
St. Domingo belonging to the Ibidion group. It has the 
characters which Lacordaire has given for the geiuis Ci/cni- 
dolon^ \\\t\i the following ditforences and additions: — Fifth 
joint of the antenna^, in addition to the third and fourth, 
strongly thickened, none of the joints carinated. Prothorax 
very slightly constricted in front of the middle. Elytra with 

]]\t^(-I})chat} Loigicorn Coleopttira. 33 

their apices rounded and unarmed. Intermediate and poste- 
rior femora end in sliort rounded processes, and may be said 
to be unarmed. The femora have each a short carina on each 
side near their distal extremity. The antennai in the male are 
but very little longer than the body. The body is almost 
wholly glabrous and furnished with some widely scattered 
long hairs. 

From Phorvicsium, to which the genus is perhaps even more 
closely allied, it differs by the carinated tibire, the rounded 
apices of the elytra, and the two additional swollen joints of 
the antennaj in the male. 

Ilormathus cinctellus, sp. n. 
Ibidion cincteUiim, Chevr., MS. 

Niger, nitidus ; capifce punctato ; prothorace dorso leviter tri-tiiber- 
culato ; elytris chalybeato-cyaneis, vix punctatis, singulis ad 
medium fascia transversa, nee suturam nee marginem attingento, 
flavescenti-alba ; pedibus nigris, basi pedunculatis ; antennis 
fusci3,( cf )corpore vix longioribus,articuli3 tertio ad quintum valde 
incrassatis, ( $ ) corpora multo brenoribus. 

Long. 5^-7 mm. 

Hah. St. Domingo. 

Head rather thickly punctured. Prothorax and elytra 
destitute of punctures, excepting the pits from which the few 
long scattered hairs come off. Elytra steel-blue, glossy, with 
purplish tints ; each with an ivory-like transverse spot or 
fascia at about the middle of its length. Antennae with the 
scape punctured, with, in the male, the third joint much 
longer and thicker than the scape and attenuate at its base, 
the fourth joint short, ovate, the fifth longer than the fourth, 
fusiform, the sixth and following joints normal, each about 
equal in length to the fifth. Body underneath glabrous, 
excepting a faint silvery-grey pubescence on the lateral 
pieces of the mesothorax and on the postero-lateral angles of 
the metasternum. 

Phryneta verrucosa. 

Lamia verrucosa, Drury, Exotic Insects, vol. i. p. 90, pi. xl, fig. 3. 

Lamia sternutator, Fabr. Syst. Eleuth. ii. p. 293. 

Phryneta melanoptera, Thom-s. Rev. et Mag. de Zoologie, 1878, p. 05. 

This interesting species appears to have been omitted from 
Gemminger and Harold's Catalogue. The genus to which 
it belongs is peculiarly an African one ; but the present species 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 3 

34 Mr. E. W. L. Holt on the Ova o/Gobius. 

was said by Druiy and Fabriclus to come from Barbadoes, a 
locality which the recent acquisition of some fine specimens 
to the British Museum collection proves to have been quite 
correct. M. Tliorason, however, in redescribing the species 
under the name Phryneta melanoptera, ignored the fact that 
his specimen was ticketed Grenada, and assigned to the species 
the vague locality " Africa merid." M. lien^ Oberthiir, in 
wliose possession Thomson's collection now is, has, at my 
request, compared Thorason''s type of melanoptera with 
Drury's figure and description of verrucosa, and has assured 
me that the two species are undoubtedly identical. The 
species has not, so far as I know, been recorded from Africa, 
except, inaccurately, in the case just cited. Its presence in 
the Antilles can only be explained on the assumption that it 
was at one time transported from Africa. 

In Mr. Fry's collection I have seen specimens from Trini- 
dad and Barbadoes. 

III. — On the Ova o/Gobius. By Ernest W. L. Holt, 
St. Andrews Marine La])oratory. 

[Plate 11.] 

On the 13th May, 1890, a dead shell of Liitran'a elUptica 
was kindly given to me by Miss Traill, of St. Andrews, who 
had found it the previous day cast ashore on the West Sands, 
and whilst removing the sand with boiling water had detected 
certain foreign bodies adhering to it. This lady subsequently 
gave me two shells of Solen siliqna, collected on the same 
occasion, with similar bodies attached. 

On examining the shell of Lutraria, the two valves of 
which were still united by the ligament, it was found that the 
inner surface of the left valve was entirely covered, save for 
a narrow margin, by a number of little whitish bodies. 

The valves of both the razor-shells were widely open, and 
on the inner surface of the valves in each specimen a sub- 
circular patch of similar bodies (about 2 inches in diameter) 

The whitish bodies, on being submitted to the microscope, 
proved to be the ova of some Teleostean, and, from certain 
peculiarities of structure, are conjectured to be those of a 
goby, probably Gobius ;«/;h//w,s, by Professor M'Intosh, who 
has kindly asked me to undertake their description. 

The egg is elongated, its long diameter varying from 1'14 

.Mr. E. W. L. Holt on the Ova o/'Gobiii3. 35 

to 1"2 milliin. Tlic contour is somewhat pyriform and the 
narrow end (havinG: a diameter from '42 to '48 millim.) is 
blunt aiul ahnost truncated. The hirger end, on which the 
e^rg rests, is from "GS to '74 millim. at its ,2:reatest width and 
tapers rapidly below that point to a small facet or pedicle of 

As seen in PI. II. fig. 3, the shape of the egg is subject to 
slight variation. Of the egg-contents it is difficult to speak 
with certainty, as the treatment received may well have 
induced some changes. 

In those which appeared to be the best preserved the peri- 
vitelline space is large and is principally in the lower region 
of the Q^^. The yolk is bean-shaped, and the embryo, which 
is somewhat advanced though without free caudal growth, 
lies in the lone: axis of the eijir. Yolk and embryo too;ether 
have a long and short diameter of about "Ol and "37 millim. 
resj)ectively. Both are of course opaque, but it is j)ossible to 
make out what appear to be very numerous oil-globules of 
various sizes, occurring all over the yolk and apparently 
forming the bulk of that structure. 

The zona radiata is very thin, showing under a high power 
the usual closely-set minute dots or punctures. 

The apparatus for the attachment of the egg is the most 
remarkable feature. From the facet or ])cdicle of attachment 
(tig. 1, p) springs a hyaline structure, which spreads outward 
in the form of an umbrella. Under a high power this struc- 
ture is seen to be pierced by alternate concentric rows of 
diamond-shaped or ovoid apertures (tig. \jSp), which increase 
in size the further they lie from the pedicle, whilst, on the 
contrary, the proximal interstitial hyaline matter is more 
massive than that surrounding the more remote rows of 
apertures. Three or four such rows of apertures can be made 
out, beyond which the structure is continued in the form of a 
fringe of long and tapering threads, which adhere to the shell 
and to the threads of the adjacent ova (fig. \,Jil.). The ova, 
though very closely packed together (fig. 2), do not adhere 
to each other or to anything except by means of this tissue. 

From the nature of the apertures the whole structure has 
the appearance of being composed of a number of threads, 
radiating from the pedicle and so arranged as to cross each 
other frequently in the proximal part of their course. But 
the closest examination under a high power (Zeiss D, Oc. 2) 
fails to support this appearance. The interstitial matter 
between the proximal rows of apertures is entirely homo- 
geneous and cannot be resolved into fibres either in stained 
or unstained specimens ; but between the larger distal aper- 


36 Mr. E. W. L. Holt on the Ova o/Gobius. 

tnres one can frequently make out a division into two strands, 
which do not as a rule cross each other, but seem to be merely 

Filaments or processes are known to occur on the eggs of 
many Teleosteans, They were found by Hoffmann* in Gohius 
mtnufus, niger, and other species, IleUasis chromis, Belone, 
and Blennius. Eigenniann, in his recent excellent memoir 
" On the Egg-membranes and Micropyle of some Osseous 
Fishes " t, very clearly describes the development of the fila- 
ments in Fundulus. In this form they are developed all over 
the surface of the Q^g^ whereas in our ova the process of 
attachment is confined to what is presumably the micropylar 
region. In Fundulus the filaments, originally arising internal 
to the granulosa, are shown to pass through and, in further 
development^ to lie external to it, being " bent in a more or 
less regular manner first to one side and then to another," and 
" usually follow the margins of the granulosa cells," to which 
they are '* correspondingly curved." 

Eigenmann also notices rivet-shaped processes on the Qgg^ 
of FrjgostiiiSj and from certain phenomena noticed in his 
preparations suggests that " they are from the beginning 
adhesive." He describes a layer external to the zona in all 
eggs on which processes are found. Whether such a layer 
exists here 1 cannot say, nor can I speak with accuracy as to 
the relation of the attachment process to the zona. 

But it seen)s possible that filaments may be developed in 
this form as in Fundulus and Pygosteus (though confined to a 
restricted area), and penetrating the granulosa in due course, 
so as to lie along the margins of the granulosa-cells, and 
" being from the beginning adhesive," may have set up with 
each other intimate relationships, resulting in the formation, 
by the adhesion and ultimate fusion of their proximal elements, 
of such a structure as is actually found in the extruded ova 
before us. The distal parts of the filaments, not coming into 
contact with each other, and thus remaining independent, may 
perhaps have extended over a considerable part of the granu- 
losa, and the whole pedicle of attachment is probably everted 
on extrusion of tiie <i^g in the same manner as the outer mem- 
brane of the zona in Osjnerus, described by Buchholz and 

Eigenmann speaks of his " rivet-shaped processes " in 
Pygosteus as taking a much deeper stain than the membrane 
(external to the zona) in which they are set. Treated with 

♦ Hoffmnnn, *' Zur Ontogenie der Knockenfiscbe," Verliandel. d. Kon. 
Ak. T. AVetenschappen, Anist. Deel xxi. 1881, p. 19. 
t Bull. Milt. Comp. Zool. vol. xix. uo. 2. 

Mr. E. \N'. L. Holt on the Ova o/Gobius. 37 

picro- carmine tlie pedicle of attachment in our ova takes the 
carmine stain very deeply, whilst the zona (and external 
membrane it' present) is quite unatiected by it. 

This seems to induce the belief that tlie process of attach- 
ment is similar in nature to filaments of an external mem- 
brane rather than representing an everted membrane as in 

Turning to the question of the parent fish, Professor 
31'Intosli has kindly given me a drawing of the eggs of 
Gohius niyer from the Ciianncl Islands, which will be seen to 
present some points of resemblance to those under discussion. 
Both are considerably elongated and both possess filamentous 
processes at their lower ends. In G. nujer^ however, the 
meshwork is less distinct tiian in ours and the t^Z^ are fixed 
in rows by the interlacing of their filaments. In both forms 
the perivitelline space would aj)pcar to be large *. 

Ot the nature of the yolk in Professor Prince's specimens 
or in Gohius niger I am unable to speak. The yolk in our 
eggs, however, presents great likeness to that of a larval 
form common in this bay and long since identified by Pro- 
fessor M'Intosh with a species of goby. Two species are 
common here, viz. G. Ruthensparri and G. minutus. In the 
Seventh Annual Keportof the Scotch Fishery Board Professor 
M'Intosh, writing " Un the Pelagic Fauna of the Bay of 
St. Andrews during the months of 1888," mentions young 
gobies (chiefiy G. minutus) as occurring in some numbers in 
the net in July and August, ranging in size from o'o to 11 
niillira. Their occurrence much earlier (at stages too young 
for diagnosis of species according to our present knowledge 
of this genus) is frequent, but their ova have never been 
found here, probably because other forms have occupied 
attention. A few larval forms appeared this year in April 
and May, of one of which I append a figure (fig. 6). Larval 
gobies are readily distinguished by the characteristic pigmen- 
tation and very early appearance of a conspicuous air-bladder. 
The specimen figured measured 3*57 raillim. The anus is 
slightly anterior to median, the pectorals are large and fan- 

* Professor Prince, writing to me from Valentia under date Mav 25, 
1890, describes some eggs that had just been found, during the cruise 
under the auspices of the Royal Dublin Society, in the pools about the 
Beginnish Islands. In shape they strongly resemble those of G. nu/er, 
and they are placed side by side on end, as in our form. From a rougli 
sketch the perivitelline space appears very large ; the length is about 
-jV inch. Professor Prince is developing these eggs, and will no doubt 
be able to throw some light on to their species. Judging from the tact 
that a female G. Ruthensparri was taken in the same pool, he thinks it 
probable that they belong to that species. 

38 Mr. E. W. L. Holt on the (9va o/Gobius. 

shaped, the embryonic dorsal fin commences opposite the 
pectoral girdle. Embryonic fin-rays occur in the slightly 
spathulate embryonic caudal fin. There is a considerable 
preanal fin. The notochord is unicolumnar, and the hyoidean 
and mandibular apparatus well developed. The eye is 
greenish yellow. Black stellate chromatophores occur below 
the anterior end of the notochord, extending back as far as 
the air-bladder. Yellow pigment occurs amongst them. 
The air-bladder is greenish, with black dendritic pigment 
scattered over it. Above the anus and halfway between that 
point and the air-bladder occur two large masses of gamboge- 
yellow pigment (reddish brown by transmitted light), over 
each of wliich extends a large black dendritic chromatophore. 
Small black chromatophores extend along the ventral edge of 
the anterior two thirds of the abdomen and alon<r the ventral 
edge of the ])Ostanal region to a point a little short of the 
caudal extremity. Halfway between the anus and the caudal 
extremity is another large yellow patch, overlaid by den- 
dritic black pigment on the ventral region, and a similar but 
smaller dorsal patch lies just above it. No pigment occurs 
on the embryonic fins. Tiie yolk is considerably reduced. 
It is darkish and appears to consist almost entirely of small 

It is to be regretted that the information given by British 
authors as to the breeding of the Gobies is rather vague. 
Day ('British Fishes') gives June as the breeding time of 
G. nigar and G. minutus^ and May or June as that of G. 
paganelhifi. He also mentions, on the authority of a corre- 
spondent, that G. liuthensjyarri attaches its eggs to the inside 
of an empty valve of Mya ca-omria, but does not describe the 
egg; or the method of attachment. 

From the same authority it appears tliat the late Mr. Roberts, 
of the Scarborough Museum, had frequently bred this species 
in confinement. 

Parnell (' Fishes of the Forth ') mentions that G. niger and 
G. gracilis [ParneUi] spawn in June. 

Couch ('Briti^^h Fishes,' ii. p. 154) found a black Goby with 
enlarged loe in February, and very young ones which appeared 
to belong to the same species in the autumn. Beyond this I 
can find no information. 

Note. — Since making the foregoing remarks two females of 
Gohius minutus wire brought to the Laboratory from the 
estuary of the Eden *, tiie contents of whose ovaries leave no 
doubt but that this is the parent species. 
* MfiT 27, 1890. 

llr. E. W. L. Holt 0/1 the Ova o/Gobiua. 39 

I regret tliat great pressure of time * prevents me (as with 
the extriulod ova) at jtvescnt fioiii making more tlian a super- 
ficial examination of them ; hut I hope at a future date to 
treat the suhject in a manner more worthy of it. Mcanwiiile, 
howf vcr, in the light of my previous remarks a few notes may 
be of interest. 

The two specimens (the stomaclis of which were full of the 
C^/)ris-larva3 of Balanus) measure respectively 2 and 3^ 
inciies, and the ovaries, which are by no means ripe, are 
nearly in tlie same condition in both. The largest ova 
measure from '(5 to '71 millim. in long diameter; they are 
ovoidal, with one end much broader than the other. 

Numerous oil- globules can be made out, distributed in an 
irregular manner amongst tiie granular j'olk-matter. The 
thin zona is visible by carefnl focusing adhering closely to 
the yolk, and having outside it another layer in which minute 
dots, presumably nuclei, are ])resent — in fresh unstained speci- 
mens under a high power. This layer, the granulosa, is in 
its turn covered by the process of attachment (which is 
exactly similar to that of the extruded ova), a fact which 
justifies tiie supposition that the latter was everted at extru- 
sion, as is the outer membrane in Osmenis. 

The microjjyle, a minute funnel-shaped dej)ression, can be 
made out in favourable unstained specimens, where it is not 
hidden by the ruptured follicular epithelium. It lies at the 
broad end of the G^g, and the process of attachment stretches 
out on all sides. The meshwork of the latter ceases at the 
broadest part of the ^^Q, and the filaments continuous with it 
pass upwards side by side almost to the o[)posite (narrow) end 
of the Q^gj but do not actually meet there. 

In fresh specimens treated with picro-carinine the process 
of attachment takes the carmine stain more rapidly than any 
other part, the granulosa taking it slowly, if at all. In smaller 
eggs, i. e. half the size of the foregoing, the process of attach- 
ment is not seen, but minute, dcei)ly staining dots are visible 
at the broad end of the Q^^f^, and probably represent its earliest 
appearance. The larger stained eggs show an intimate con- 
nexion between the process and the zona for a short distance 
around the micropyle, being the area which afterwards be- 
comes the pedicle. The apertures are comparatively more 
elongated in this region, with finer interstitial matter (closely 
applied to the zona), which suddenly thickens at the margin 
of the pedicle. 1 could detect no layer between the zona and 

* [Mr. Holt left within a few hours for the trawling expedition on the 
west coast of Ireland.— W. C. M.] 

40 Dr. G. J. Hinde on Eadxolaria from the 

the granulosa, nor, I think, is this possible without the aid of 
the microtome. 


Fig. 1. Process of attachment of ovum attributed to Gobt'ics vimutus; 
the filaments are mostly curtailed. ^/ = filament ; /j=pedicle of 
attachment ; sp = apertures in process of attachment ; z.r. = zona 
radiata. (Zeiss D, Oc. 4.) 

Fiy. 2 Group of ova in sitti. X 3. 

Fiff. 3. Detaclied ova highly magnified, a. p. = process of attachment: e= 
embryo ; ?/=y<)lk. 

Fiffs. 4, 5. Ova of Gobius niyer from glycerine-preparations, enlarged 
under lens. 

Fig. 6. Larval Gohius of 14th May, 1890 ; length 3-57 millim. a. 6. = air- 
bladder ; A=beart ; n=notochord; i/=yolk. Magnified. 

IV. — Notes on Badiolaria from the Lower Palceozoic Bocks 
{Llandeilo- Caradoc) of the South of Scotland. By GeoRGE 
Jennings Hinde, Ph.D. 

[Plates in. & IV.] 

The Eadiolaria described in this paper are contained in speci- 
mens of chert collected from several different localities in the 
Southern Uplands of Scotland, and sent to me for examina- 
tion by the Geological Survey of Scotland through B. N. 
Peach, Esq., F.G.S. From the most promising pieces of 
this chert a number of microscopic sections have been pre- 
pared, and from these the forms have been studied. I may 
premise that the occurrence of these minute organisms in this 
chert was first announced by my friend Prof. H. Alleyne 
Nicholson, M.D.'^, of Aberdeen ; but the specimens which he 
examined did not show the structure sufficiently well to allow 
of positive determination as to their real nature. 

The chert containing the liadiolaria occurs in beds and 
intercalated nodular masses in a portion of the well-known 
scries of Ordovician or Lower-Silurian strata forming the 
Southern Uplands of Scotland ; and it is more particularly 
developed in the counties of Lanarkshire, Peeblesshire, and 
Edinburghshire. ]\Ir. B. N. Peach fj "^vho has lately been 
resurveying the district, informs me tliat he has traced a defi- 

• Trniis. Edinb. Gcol. Soc. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 50 (1800). 

t A full description by Mr. Peach of the geological and stratigraphical 
relations of these rocks will appear in a forthcoming Geological Survev 
Memoir on Sheet 10. 

Loicer Palceozoxc Rocks of the South of Scotland. 41 

nite zone of this Kadiolarian chert over a considerable area. 
The zone is bounded below by a thin band of black shale 
containing Glenkiln graptolites of Llandeilo facies, and above 
it there is another mass of black shale with Lower Hartfell 
fossils, having a Caradoc facies. The zone included between 
these two beds of graptolitic shale consists, from below up- 
wards, of nodular red and green cherts and red and green 
mudstones, followed bj massive grey mudstones and cherts, 
mudstones and shales, succeeded above by black flints and 
shale, with a few Glenkiln graptolites. This lladiolarian 
zone of J\lr. Peach thus corresponds with the Lower and part 
of the ^liddle Division of the Moffat Terrane of Prof. Lap- 
worth (Geol. Mag. dec. iii. vol. vi. (1889) p. GG). Hitherto 
in this series of rocks the graptolitic zones have been chiefly 
studied and the intermediate beds of chert, regarded as unfos- 
siliferous, have been neglected ; but it is now certain that 
these latter are of organic origin equally as much as the 

The Eadiolarian chert is a very hard compact rock, with 
the usual hackly fracture ; when unweathered it is for the 
most ])art of a steely-blue tint, but sometimes of a dull to a 
bright red ; less frequently it has a greenisli tint, and some 
jiicces are even of a bright green. The rock is traversed in 
all directions by microscopic cracks and fissures, these latter 
now filled with crystalline quartz, and not unfreqaently it is 
stained in irregular patches by a dark brown or blackish sub- 
stance, which often follows the course of the microscopic 
cracks, so that they appear in sections like an intricate web of 
dark threads crossing a clear field. The mudstones accom- 
panying the chert are greenish or reddish in tint and very 
fine-grained ; in some cases they become siliceous and ])ass 
gradually into chert ; in these transition-beds casts of Radio- 
laria are present in the rock. 

In thin sections under the microscope the unstained portion 
of the chert is nearly transparent ; it has a faint cloudy appear- 
ance, due to the presence of extremely minute irregularly- 
shaped mineral particles and small crystalline rods ranging 
from "002 to '06 raillim. in length, with which it is filled. 
The nature of these minute particles cannot well be ascer- 
tained ; but Mr. J. J. H. Teall, F.R.S., who has examined 
the sections, thinks that some may be flakes of mica, whilst 
the rods are suggestive of rutile. In polarized light, between 
crossed Nicols, this chert has a mottled appearance, more like 
that of flint than of ordinary chert. 

Even with the aid of an ordinary hand-lens the fractured 
surface of the chert is seen to be filled with countless numbers 

42 Dr. G. J. Hinde on Radiolaria Jrom the 

of tlie Radiolaria, wliicli appear as minute, clear, circular 
specks ; in thin sections of the unstained rock under the 
microscope tliey look like larger and smaller shadowy circles 
tilled with a somewhat lighter material than the surrounding 
matiix ; but in this condition no structure has been pre- 
served. In sections of the red or jaspery chert the outlines 
of the Radiolaria are more clearly defined ; the inner tests are 
occasionally shown as small red globes in the centres of larger, 
nearly transparent spheres, and not unfrequently the radiating 
spines are also indicated. In the red jaspery chert the enor- 
mous number of these organisms in the rock can be clearly 
seen, for the entire area of the section is occupied by their 
small circular outlines, which range from '01 to ''Id millim. 
in diameter. 

In the unstained and reddish chert just referred to the 
Radiolaria are only represented by casts, their tests having 
been dissolved or otherwise rendered undistiiiguishable ; but 
where the chert has been stained by the darker substance 
mentioned above, which may be either due to carbon or iron, 
the tests themselves have been preserved in this material, 
which has replaced the original silica. In this condition the 
delicate lattice-like structure of many of them is now repre- 
sented by a more or less dark mcshwork, which, though as 
regards clearness of outline cannot be compared with the tests 
of recent or Tertiary fossil Radiolaria, is yet sufficient to show 
that the structure of these Palaeozoic forms is essentially of 
the same character as that of their modern descendants. In 
these stained portions, which, as already noticed, occur as 
irregular patches in the generally transparent rock, fairly 
perfect specimens of Radiolaria showing one or more concen- 
tric spheres, and spines projecting from their surfaces, are 
intermingled with fragments of the meshwork, and entire and 
broken spines of other individuals, much in the same way as 
the entire forms and the fragmentary debris of these organisms 
occur in the unconsolidated l\adi(darian earth from Barbados. 

It is, however, often very ditlicult to ascertain with pre- 
cision in the sections those particular features which form the 
basis of most of the family and generic characters in Iliockel's 
classification of these organisms. The tests are usually so 
filled with the dark staining material that they are either 
entirely opaque or present a blurred a})pearanee. In these 
cases it is impracticable to determine definitely whether the 
structure was originally " lattice-like '^ or of an irregularly 
reticulate or " spongy " character, or whether an inner medul- 
lary test is present or not. The specimens available for study 
are limited to those shown in the sections of the chert, and 

Loicer Pahvozotc Rocks of the South of Scotland. 43 

consequently very few in conij)ari.<on with the numbers wliich 
mny be obtained troni a reeent ooze or from loose fossil 

A\'ith two or tinee doubtful exceptions the forms which I 
have been able to determine in this chert may be all incliideil 
in one of the four legions or subclasses into which lltiickel 
has divided the Kadiolaria, viz. that of the Spumeliaria or 
Peripylea. Within this subclass but two suborders, tlie 
Beloidea and the Sphceroidea, are represented. In the first 
of these there is no connected siliceous test ; but the skeleton 
consists of imnierous solid siliceous spicules irregularly scat- 
tered in the soft structures surrounding the central capsule. 
Spicules of similar form and proportions to those of the exist- 
ing members of this grouj), represented in plates ii. and iv. of 
lla^ckel's 'Challenger' Report, are abundant in the chert. 
Some of them with three- or four-pointed rays (woodcut, a-f, 
p. 56) are very similar in form to the spicules of Calcisponges ; 
others, however, Avith a central rod giving off divergent rays 
from its extremities (woodcut, g) are quite distinct from any 
known type of sponge-spicule. These detached spicules 
are in the same condition as the lattice-like Radiolaria with 
which they are intermingled, and there can be no doubt that 
like these latter they were originally siliceous. Though now 
detached from their normal positions, the inevitable result of 
the decay of the soft structures, yet instances are not unfre- 
quent in this chert where several of these Beloid spicules 
occur in close proximity to each other, forming small groups, 
much in the same Avay as we should expect to be the case if 
forms like the recent Lampoxanthium pandora^ Hseckel *, 
and Sj)hcerosoum pandora^ H.f, were fossilized under favour- 
able conditions. 

The great majority of the Radiolaria in this chert, how- 
ever, belong to the more normal types of the suborder Spha3- 
roidea, in whicii the test consists of one or more rounded shells 
with a lattice-like or irregularly reticulate, so-called "spongy*' 
structure. The simplest forms of these, in which the test is 
without spines or with only very minute secondary spines, 
are comparatively rare (PI, III. figs. 1, 2). Tests in which 
there is a single large radial spine, with or without secondary 
spines, are abundant. In some the outer or cortical test con- 
sists of simple lattice-like structure with subcircular or irre- 
gular meshes (PI. III. figs. 3, 4, 5, PI. IV. fig. 3) ; in others 
the structure is " spongy ■" (PI, III. fig. 7), whilst in another 
genus with the same structure there is a concentric inner or 
medullary test (PI. III. figs. 8, 9). Shells with three or with 

* Chall. Report, pi. ii. fig. 1. t Ihid. pi. iv, fig. 6. 

44 Dr. G. J. Hinde on Radiolaria from the 

four primary radial spines, some with, some without an inner 
or medullary test, are also common (PI. III. fig. 6, PI. IV. 
figs. 2, 4-7, 9-11) ; the structure of these appears to be uni- 
formly of the irregularly reticulate or spongy character. The 
spines in some of these shells are of unusual length (PI. IV. 
figs. 2, 9), but it is very rare to meet with specimens in which 
they all remain intact. There are also a few specimens with 
lattice tests and numerous smaller spines (PI. IV. fig. 1) 
included in the well-known recent genus Acanthosphcera, 
Ehrenberg, and others with larger spines (PI. III. fig. 11, 
PI. IV. fig. 8) which I have referred to Haliomma. 

In addition to the above, mention may be made of some 
peculiar spicules (woodcut, p. 56, i, k, I) of the same general 
characters as the Beloid forms already referred to, which seem 
to correspond to the spisular skeletons of some existing 
Radiolaria, which are regarded by Ilreckel as the simplest 
and most primitive types of the great primary division ot" the 
Kassellaria, in which they form the distinct subDrder Plec- 
toidea *. The spicules in question consist of a variable 
number of simple or branched arms or rays proceeding from 
a centre ; the rays may be either free or connected by irregular 
fibres with each other. Spicules of this type are rare and 
not often entire, and their true position is not altogether free 
from doubt. 

These Palaeozoic Radiolaria, so far as can be judged from 
their present condition, do not differ in any striking respect 
from the existing forms of the group or from those numerous 
fossil ones which have been lately described by Dr. Riist f 
and others from Jurassic and Cretaceous strata. Some of the 
more peculiar forms with one or with three primary radial 
spines bear a close resemblance to specimens figured by v. 
Dunikowski % from the Lower Liassic strata of Schafberg, in 
the Tyrol. The detached spicules of the Beloidea have like- 
wise been noticed by Riist in the Radiolarian Jurassic strata 
of the continent. The quantity of this ancient chert which 
has as yet been examined is too small to permit of any general 
deductions as to the characters of the Radiolaria contained in 
it ; but it is noticeable that so far, if we except the iaw 
spicules doubtfully referred to the Nassellarian Plectoidea, the 
forms belong to only two divisions of the Spumellaria, the 
Beloidea and the Sphajroidea j and there is an apparent 
absence not only of the discoidal and elliptical forms of the 

• Chall. Report, pt. ii. p. 890, pi. xci. 

t ' rahvoutujifinphica," Jid. xxxi. ^188o), Bd. xxxiv. (1888). 
X Deukscbr. d. k. Akad. d. \Niss. Wien, Bd. xlv. (1882), pp. 187, 188, 
Taf. V. Hgs. 53-55, 59. 

Lower Pahvozoic Hocks of the South of Scotland. 45 

other suborders of this legion, but also of the important 
NasseUarian Cystelhuia, which are extremely abuiulant both 
in recent deposits and in all Tertiary and Mesozoic Radio- 
larian beds which have as yet been examined. 

AVith the exception of the Kadiolaria very few other 
ore:anisms can be recognized in the sections of this chert-rock. 
There are one or two spicules of Ilexactinellid sponges, 
readily distinguishable from the detached IJeloid si)icules by 
their larger size and distinctive forms, and I have met with a 
few minute toothed j)lates and detached denticles, which bear 
a certain resemblance to the radulic of naked Molluscs ; there 
are further numerous almond-shaj^ed hollow bodies about "1 
niillim. in length, with imperforate siliceous walls, of whose 
nature I am quite ignorant. This Ordovician chert may 
therefore be fairly considered to be due to the accumulation 
of the tests of Radiolaria, and is thus a pure Radiolarian rock, 
equally as much as the Tertiary beds of Barbados and the 
Kicobar Islands, which, according to Ilaickel, correspond to 
the recent Radiolarian ooze, " and are certainly of deep-sea 
origin, having probably been deposited at depths greater than 
2000 fathoms " *. If the same conclusion is applicable to 
this fossil chert, It represents, as Prof. H. A. Nicholson f has 
already pointed out, a true deep-sea deposit in the Palaeozoic 
period, the existence of which in the geological series has of 
late been disputed. The beds of fine-grained red and green 
niudstones associated with this chert likewise favour the same 
view of its origin in deep water. 

Hitherto only a single species of Radiolaria has been 
described from tlie entire Palaeozoic series, and this was dis- 
covered by Dr. Rothpletz | in siliceous shale of Upper Silu- 
rian age at Langenstrlegls, In Saxony. This Radiolarian 
shale, like the Scotch chert, is accompanied by beds with 
graptolites. It is only since 1876 that Radiolaria were known 
in any rocks older than Tertiary by the discovery by v. Zlttel § 
of a few forms in the Upper Chalk of Germany ; since then 
the existence of an abundant and varied Radiolarian fauna in 
beds of chert and jasper of Lower Cretaceous and Jurassic age 
has been proved by Br. Riist ||, and v. Dunlkowskl*[[ has 
described numerous species in the Lower Lias of the Tyrol. 

• Chall. Report, vol. xviii. pt. i. p. clxix. 

t Trans. Edinb. Geol. Soc. vol. vi. pt. i. p. 56. 

X Zeitschr. d. deutsch. ^eol. Gesellsch. Bd. xxxii. (1880) p. 447, pi. xxi. 

§ Ibid. Bd. xxviii. (1876) pp. 75-86, pi. ii. 

II ' Palaeontographica,' Bd. xxxi., xxxiv. 

f Op. cit. 

46 Dr. G. J. Hinde on Radiolaria from the 

Lately Dr. Riist * has announced tlie occurrence of Radiolaria 
in all the principal divisions of the Palaeozoic series, but a 
detailed descrij)tion of the forms has not yet appeared. 

Very few Radiolaria have been as yet noticed from the 
rocks of this country. Mr. W. H. Shrubsole f has recorded 
three or four species from the London Chiy of Sheppey ; Dr. 
Riist has discovered two species in the flints of the Upper 
Clialk \ and a few remains in coprolites from the Lias of 
Gloucester §; and Prof. SoUas ||, many years since, noted 
their occurrence in the Cambridge Greensand, but he has not 
yet described the species. The presence of Radiolaria in the 
Coal-measures of Lancashire^ and in the Carboniferous Lime- 
stone of North Wales'^* has been reported from time to time ; 
but the minute spherical bodies in the Coal-measures known 
as Traquairia have been shown by Prof. W. C. Williamsonff 
to be vegetable structures, and the same author considers that 
the objects in the Carboniferous Limestones, presumed to be 
Radiohiria, are really composed of carbonate of lime, and he 
has named them Catcispha;r<i\\. 1 have examined microscopic 
sections of limestones containing these organisms, and I 
agree with Prof. Williamson that there is no evidence to 
support the view that they were originally siliceous. 

The apparent rarity of Radiolaria in the later Palteozoic 
and more recent strata in this country renders their occurrence 
in such great abundance in this Ordovician chert still more 
remarkable. Considerable atteniion has been paid latelj- to 
the nature of the chert and allied siliceous rocks of the ditie- 
rent British sedimentary formations, but hitherto no other 
siliceous organisms than sponges have been found in them ; 
and this Scotch chert is the first instance in which in our area 
this description of rock has been traced to the skeletons of 
other organisms than sponges. A large series of sections of 
chert from different formations has come under my own notice 
of late years, but in only one instance, that of a chert-bed in 
the Carboniferous Liinestone of Flintshire, have I met with 
Radiolaria, and in this there were oidy a few individuals of a 

* .Tahresb. d. naturkistor. Gesellsch. zu Hauuover, 1883-8" (1S8S), 
pp. 49-56. 

t Quart. Juurn. Cieol. Soc. vol. xlv. (1880) p. 121. 

\ ' rala^onlograpliica,' Bd. xxxiv. p. l85. 

§ l/jid. 15d. xxxi. p. 278. 

II Quart. Juurn. Ueol. 8oe. vol. xxix. 1873, p. 78. 

il iirit. Assoc. Iveport, Brighton, 1872, p. 12(5. 

** ' Nature,' March 1877, p. 401 ; Ann. Hep. Chester Soc. Xat. Hist. 
1870-77, p. 10. 

tt riiil. Trans, vol. clxxi. (1880) pt. ii. p. 511. 

\X Ibid. p. 620, pi. XX. %s. 07-81. 

Lower Paheozoic Rocks of the South of Scotland. 47 

single species. Tlic preservation of the lladiolaria in tliis 
Ordovician chert, whicli has evidently been subjected to con- 
siderable disturbance, is an indication that if these organisms 
had entered largely into tiie composition of other beds of chert 
in this country they wduld probably ere now have been recog- 
nized in them. The observations of Dr. liiist * have led him 
to conclude that on the continent in the majority of cases chert 
and other siliceous rocks may be attributed to lladiolaria ; but 
in this country, according to present experience, similar rocks 
are mainly derived from the remains of siliceous sponges and 
very exceptionally from those of lladiolaria. 

Descri'piiun of Species, 

In attem{)ting to classify these ancient lladiolaria I have 
followed as far as possible the latest system of Prof. Ha;ckel, 
contained in the ' Challenger ' lleport on this group. In this 
elaborate work the limits assigned to genera are extremely 
narrow and precise, and it is no wonder therefore that even 
with the greatest desire for comprehension it should be found 
impracticable to fit all these fossils into the divisions, nume- 
rous though they are, which have been already established, 
and I have therefore reluctantly been obliged to propose 
additional a'enera to include some of them. 

Class RADIO LABIA, MuUer. 

Subclass SPUMELLARIA, Ehrenberg. 

Order SPH^ERELLARIA, H^ckel. 

Suborder S P ll ^ R I D E A, Ha^ckel. 

Family Liosphserida, Ha3ckel. 

Sphffiroidea without radial spines on the surface of the 
spherical shell ; living solitary (not associated in colonies). 
(' Challenger ' lleport, part i. p. 59.) 


Liosphffirlda forming a solid sphere of spongy framework, 
without enclosed medullary shell and without central cavity. 
(Chall. Rep, part i. p. 86.) 

Styptosphcera antiqua, sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 1.) 
• The irregularly reticulate or spongy framework appears to, 
* Jahresb. d. naturhist. Gesellsch. zu Hannover, 1883-87 (1888), p. 56. 

48 Dr. G. J. Hinde on Radiolaria from the 

be of an equally close character throughout the test, the inter- 
spaces are very minute, showing sometimes as minute circular 
pores about '005 millim. in diameter, sometimes as sinuous 
apertures. Surface usually smooth and even, occasionally 
with minute spines. Diameter of test ranging from '15 
to 24 millim. 

Distribution'^. Abington, Lanarkshire; Broughton, Har- 
tree Hill, Peeblesshire. 

Genus Spongoplegma, Hfeckel. 

Liosphaerida forming a sphere of spongy framework, which 
encloses in the centre one single latticed medullary shell. 
(Chall. Rep. part i. p. 89.) 

Spongoplegma priscum^ sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 2.) 

The surface of the cortical shell relatively smooth, with 
apparently regular apertures, the reticulate or spongy frame- 
work between the cortical and the medullary shell with circular 
or irregular apertures about '01 millim. wide ; the medullary 
shell well marked by its closer and denser structure. The 
specimen figured is shown in section. Diameter of cortical 
shell '15 to "2 millim., thickness of shell "012 millim. ; width 
of medullary shell '016 millim. 

Distribution. — Hartree Hill, Kilbucho, and Broughton 
Heights, near Broughton, Peeblesshire. 

Genus Diploplegma, gen. nov.t 

Liosphgerida with a relatively large inner (cortical ?) test of 
irregularly reticulate or spongy framework and an outer shell 
of the same structure, the two connected by radial bars. In 
this genus the inner test is sufficiently large to be regarded as 
an inner cortical shell, and in this respect it resembles Lio- 
sphcera, Ha^ckel (' Challenger ' Report, pt. i. p. 76), which 
has two cortical shells. It diiFers from Liospha'ra, however, 
in the irregularly reticulate or spongy nature of the tests. 

Diploplegma cinctum, sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 10.) 

Surface of outer test uneven, but without definite spines. 
The inner test connected by numerous short radial bars with 

* As all the specimens are from the same geological horizon (Llandeilo- 
Caradoc) referred to in the previous part of the paper, it is not necessary 
to indicate it in coimoxiou with each species. 

t dm'Koos, double, TrXf-y/na, network. 

Lower Pahrozoxc Rocks of the South of Scotland. 49 

the outer, so that in section the outer sjjhcre has the appear- 
ance of an encircling ring. The framework of both outer and 
inner spheres apparently similar. No central medullary shell 
can be recognized. The minute structure of the meshwork is 
obscured by the dark infilling. Diameter of outer sphere 
•25, of the inner '15 ; length of radial beams '015 millira. 

Distribution. Abington, Lanarkshire ; Ilartree Hill, 

Family Staurosphaerida, Ilieekel. 

Sphaeroidea with four radial spines on the surface of the 
spherical shell, forming a regular cross, being opposite in 
pairs in two axes perpendicular to one another. (Chall. Rep. 
pt. i, p. 151.) 

Genus Staurodoras, Haeckel. 

Staurosphferida with spongy splierical shell and four crossed 
simple spines. (Chall. Rep. pt. i. p. 168.) 

Staurodoras gracilis^ sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 7.) 

The siliceous mesh apparently of a close irregular character, 
with apertures of about '01 millim. wide. The radial spines 
slender, evenly tapering, about two thirds as long as the 
diameter of the shell. In the specimen figured one of the 
spines has been broken off. Diameter of the sphere '11 ; 
length of spines 0*7, thickness at base "01 millim. Another 
specimen has the spines stouter, measuring "02 millim. at the 

Three species of this genus have been described by Duni- 
kowski * from the Lower Lias of Schafberg, near Salzburg ; 
but in these the siliceous framework appears to be more 
regular and the spines stouter than in the present species. 

Distribution. Abington, Lanarkshire ; Hartree Hill, 

Genus Stauroplegma, gen. nov. 

Staurosphferida with solid, irregularly reticulate or spongy 
shell, a concentric medullary shell, and four simple spines 
approximately in the form of a cross. This genus differs 
from Staurodoras by the possession of an inner medullary 

* Denksclir. d. k. Akad. d. Wiss. Wien, Bd. xlv. p. 188, pi. v. figs. 56, 
67, 68. 

Ann. (I- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 4 

50 Dr. G. J. Hlnde on Rculiolaria from the 

Stauroplegma hrevispina, sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 5.) 

Surface of cortical shell smooth, the outer wall distinct 
from the interior meshwork, tlie medullary test now shown 
by its darker structure. Radial spines conical, shorter than 
the radius of the test. Diameter of shell -10 millim., of 
medullary test "06 ; length of spines "04, basal thickness '017. 

Distribution. Hartree Hill, Kilbucho, Peeblesshire. 

Stauroplegma compressum^ sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 6.) 

Test slightly elliptical, in part perhaps due to compression ; 
surface uneven, with here and there circular pores '015 millim. 
wide. The spines tapering, about two thirds as long as the 
diameter of the test, apparently unequal in length ; they can 
be traced to the surface of the inner shell. Diameter of test 
•16, of inner shell '06 ; length of spines "09 to "12, width at 
base '013 millim. In the specimen figured one spine has 
been broken off. Rare. 

Distribution. Near Moorfoots, Edinburghshire. 

Stauroplegma barbatum, sp. n. (PL III. fig. 6.) 

Surface of cortical test rougli, as if with minute spines. 
The medullary test indicated in the specimen figured by a 
partially clear subcentral space. Spines longer than the 
diameter of the sphere ; they are not strictly in the form of 
a cross, but their present position may in part arise from sub- 
sequent misplacement. Diameter of sphere '135; length of 
spines '18, thickness at base "02 millim. Rare. 

Distribution. Hartree Hill, Kilbucho, Peeblesshire. 

Stauroplegma diffusum^ sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 4.) 

Surface of cortical test irregular and uneven ; an inner 
medullary shell is shown by a ring of darker structure, and 
within this is a central lighter space, which may perhaps indi- 
cate the presence of a second medullary test. The radial 
spines are shorter tlian the radius of the sphere, measuring 
Irom the surface. Diameter of sphere '13, of outer medullary 
test "07, of inner test (?) -03 millim. ; length of spines '04, 
thickness at base '012 millim. 

Distribution. Hartree Hill, Kilbucho, Peeblesshire. 

Family Astrosphserida, Hseckcl. 
Spha^roidea with innr.erous (8 to 12 or more, commonly 

Lower Paheozoic Rocks of (he South of Scotlun 1. ")1 

l)et\veen 20 and fiO) radial si)ine3 on the snrfiice of the splieri- 
cal shell ; living solitary. (Chall. Rep. pt. i, p. 200.) 

Genus Acanthospilera, Ehrenberg. 

Astrosphrerida with one simple lattice sphere, covered with 
simple radial spines of the same kind. (Haeckel, Chall. Rep. 
pt. i. p. 209.) 

Acanthosphfira antiqua^ sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 1.) 

Shell thin-walled, pores subcircular and wider than the 
inclosing framework. Spines short, conical, apparently 
numerous, though, owing to the way in whicii the specimen 
figured has been infilled with dark staining material, only 
those near the outer margin can be clearly seen. The missing- 
part of the specimen figured has been cut off by a quartz- vein. 
Diameter of test 'IG, of the ))orcs "015 to "02 ; length of spines 
•02, thickness at base "01 millitn. Rare. 

Distribution. Hartree Hill, Kilbucho. 

Genus HaliOMMA, Ehrenberg (in part) . 

Astrosphferida with one medullary (intracaj)sular) and one 
cortical (extracapsular) shell, which are connected by radial 
beams piercing the central capsule. Shell-surface covered 
with simple radial spines of the same kind. (Hteckel, Chall. 
Rep. pt. i. p. 220.) 

Haliomma vetustum, sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 11.) 

Cortical test moderately thick, with small circular pores and 
relatively robust, short, conical spines, of which there are nine 
on the surface exposed. The specimen figured is partly a 
section ; there are no traces of radial beams connecting the 
inner with the outer test ; their apparent absence may be due 
to the fossilization. Diameter of sphere '22, of the iiuier test 
'08, pores '013; length of spines '06, thickness at base '02 

Distribution. Hartree Hill, Kilbucho, Peeblesshire. 

Haliomma cornutumy sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 8.) 

In the specimen figured the characters of the cortical test 
are obscured by the dark infilling, and the inner test is only 
indicated by a lighter area. There are at least seven equal, 
slender, tapering spines nearly as long as the diameter of the 


52 Dr. G. J. Ilinde on Radiolaria from the 

test. Diameter of sphere -09, of inner test "03 ; length of 
spines "075, basal thickness "01 millim. 

Distribution. Hartree Hill, Kilbucho, Peeblesshire. 

The genera described below, though embraced in the same 
suborder — Sphajroidea — as the preceding forms, do not find 
a place in any of the families of this group, as described by 
Ha;ckel in the ' Challenger ' Report. They may possibly 
represent new families ; but as their condition of preservation 
and mode of occurrence are very unfavourable for a thorough 
determination of their structural characters, I do not propose 
to define their position in Haeckel's system, but shall limit 
myself to giving generic and specific descriptions, so far as 
these can be ascertained. 

Genus DoRYSPHiERA *, gen. nov. 

Sphffiroidea with simple spherical lattice-shells and a single 
radial spine extending from the surface of the test. No 
medullary test. 

Fossil forms of this genus have been already figured by 
V. Dunikowski from the Liassic strata of Schafberg, but no 
name was given to them, possibly under the idea that they 
were imperfect specimens of forms with normally two or four 
radial spines. In this Ordovician chert, however, specimens 
with but a single radial spine are not at all uncommon, and 
they may be regarded as being in their original condition. The 
genus Litliapium f, Hieckel, has a simple lattice-shell, with 
only a single radial spine ; but it is ellipsoidal or pear-shaped, 
and thus is included in a different suborder. 

Dorysphcvra reticulata, sp. n. 
(PL 111. fig. 3, PI. IV. fig. 3.) 

The framework of the shell thin, of an open, subpolygonal, 
reticulate character, the meshes unequal in size, subcircular 
to subpolygonal. Radial spine short, styliforrn. Diameter 
of sphere '18, meshes from -005 to 'Olo millim., thickness of 
framework about "OOo millim. Radial sjiine (probably im- 
perfect) '07, breadth of base "01 to '02 millim. 

Dit^trilnition. Abington, Lanarkshire; Broughton Heights, 

* 86pv, a spear, atfidlpa, sphere. 
t * Cballouger ' Rep. pt. i. p. 303. 

Lower Piihpozoic Rochs of the South of Scotland. 53 

Dorysphipra niccula, sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 5.) 

The shell smaller and the framework tiiicker than in the 
preceding form. Pores subcircular. Radial .s[)ine short, 
styliform. Diameter of shell '13, pores 'Ol, intermediate 
spaces about 'OO? ; spine 'Oo, thickness at base '02 milUm. 

Distribution, llartree Hill, Kilbucho, Peeblesshire. 

Donjsphcvra laxa^ sp, n. (PI. III. fig. 4.) 

Framework of test thin, reticulate, the meshes subcircular, 
unequal, relatively large. Spine short, in the specimen 
figured it is seen projecting obliquely. Diameter of shell "12, 
mesh-apertures from "01 to "025 millim. in width, intermediate 
framework about "007, thickness of base of spine '015 millim. 
This form differs from D. reticulata principally in the distinctly 
larger size of the mesh-aj)ertures. 

Distribution. Abington, Lanarkshire ; llartree Hill, 

Genus Doryplegma*, gen. nov. 

Sphseroidea with cortical shells of irregularly reticulate or 
spongy framework, inclosing a central medullary shell and 
with a single primary radial spine. Secondary or smaller 
spines occasionally present. The structure of the shell in 
this genus is the same as in Spongoplegma, Hteckel, but with 
the addition of a radial spine and sometimes of secondary 
spines. From Dorysphcera it is distinguished by the different 
character of the framework and the presence of a medullary 

Doryplegma nasutum, sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 9.) 

The wall of the sphere well marked and distinct from the 
reticulate structure of the space within. Radial spine conical, 
tapering, shorter than the diameter of the sphere ; secondary 
spines small, acute, in some specimens none can be distin- 
guished. The lower portion of the specimen figured has been 
displaced by a quartz-vein, and the interior structure is only 
partially shown. Diameter of sphere *2, of medullary test 
•08, thickness of cortical shell 'Ol? ; length of radial spine -11, 
thickness at base "02 ; length of secondary spines "015 millim. 
Specimens not infrequent. 

Distribution. Hartree Hill ; Broughton Heights, Peebles- 

* 86pv, a spear, nXtyna, network. 

54 Dr. G. J. Iliiide on Radiolaria from the 

Dor2/pkgma f/racile, sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 8.) 

'J'he reticulate or spongy framework close, with small irre- 
gular apertures. Spine conical, tapering, about as long as the 
diameter of the shell. Smaller than the preceding form and 
with longer spine. Diameter of cortical shell '13, of medul- 
lary test -05; length of radial spine -15, basal thickness 'Olo 

J)istnhution. Hartree Hill, Peeblesshire. 

Genus DORYDICTYUM *, gen. nov. 

Sphseroidea with tests of irregularly reticulate or spongy 
framework and a simple radial spine, with or without secon- 
dary spines. The structure of the test corresponds with that 
of htyptosphcera, llajckel, and it differs from this genus by 
the addition of a radial spine. It is distinguished from 
Doryplegma by the absence of a medullary test. 

Dorydictyum swiplex, sp. n. (PI. III. fig. 7.) 

The reticulate framework of the same character throughout, 
with very minute pores. Radial spine robust, styliform, 
nearly as long as the diameter of the shell. Occasional 
minute secondary spines. Diameter of the test '15} length 
of radial sj)ine '12, basal thickness '022 millim. Rare. 

Distribution. Broughton Heights, Broughton, Peeblesshire. 

Genus Teiposph^ra f, gen. nov. 

Sphseroidca with an irregularly reticulate or spongy frame- 
work, a medullary shell, and three primary radial spines. 
Smaller secondary spines occasionally present. 

Forms with sj)herical shells and three prominent radial 
spines, but without a medullary shell, have been described by 
Dunikowskil from the Liassic strata of Schaf berg, and placed 
by him in the genus tSj^ongechinua^ Haickel ; but in the 
'Challenger' Report § one of them is regarded as discoidal 
and referred to the genus ISponyotrijius, H. Dr. Riist has 
also described rounded Utttictd forms with three prominent 
spines I'rom Jurassic and Cretac(;ous strata; they were origi- 
nally placed in the new genus Triactoma (Palajontogr. 

* hopv, a spear, biKTvou, network, 
t TpiTTovs, a tripod, a(j)a~ipa, ^pheio. 

X Denliselir. d. k. Akad. der Wiss. Wieii, Ikl. slv. p. 188, pi. v. 
ligf. 54, ol>. 
§ Pt. i. p. 581. 

Lower Paleozoic Rocks of the South of Scotland. 55 

Bd. xxxi. p. 289), l)Ut in a subsequent memoir tliey are con- 
sidered as Discoidea under the modified name Triactis 
(PaUvontoi^r. Bd. xxxiv. p. 197), llteckcl * lia-i referred 
other discoiihil three-spined forms to the genus Triactiscua. 
ISo far as 1 can ascertain no spherical "spongy" forms vvitli 
a mcdulhuy shell and three radial spines, as in the proposed 
genus, have as yet been described. It is difficult to ascertain 
with absolute certainty now that these minute shells are 
imbedded in the solid chert whether particular specimens are 
discoidal or spherical ; but their outlines are uniformly cir- 
cular, and if discoidal shells hail been present one would have 
expected to meet with lenticular or elliptical forms in the 

Tnposphcera Peachi'i, sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 9.) 

Shell approximately spherical, the reticulate framework 
close. The radial spines nearly twice as long as the diameter 
of the test, straight or curved, tapering gradually, inequi- 
distant from each other. In no specimen are all the spines 
intact, but they ap|)ear to have been equal in length origi- 
nally. The medullary test is not shown in the specimen 
figured owing to the dark infilling, but it is present in others. 
Diameter of shell '18, of medullary test '05 ; length of spines 
'42, basal thickness '02 millim. This species is named after 
B. N. Peach, Esq., F.G.S., of the Geological Survey of 
Scotland, to whom I am indebted for the opportunity of 
studying these fossils. 

Distrihition. Abington, Lanarkshire ; Broughton Heights, 

Tri'posphcera Jiastata^ sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 2.) 

Shell of close framework, with minute pores ; surface 
uneven and rough, as if with minute blunt spines. The 
medullary test in the specimen figured is indicated by a light 
central space. Spines straight, robust, nearly twice as long 
as the diameter of the sphere, inequidistant from each other. 
Only one is preserved intact in the specimen figured, the other 
two are indicated by their stumpy bases. Diameter of sphere 
"27, of the medullary test '055 ; length of spines '5, basal 
thickness '025 millim. 

Distribution. Near Abington, Lanarkshire. 

Triposphcera densa, sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 10.) 
Surface of shell nearly even, the three radial spines slender, 
* Chall. Rep. pt. i. p. 432. 


Dr. G. J. IHnde on Radiolaria from the 

conical, nearly as long as the radius of the shell ; they are 
inequidistant and do not seem to be all in the same plane. 
The specimen is so infiltrated with dark, material that the 
medullary shell cannot be distinguished. Diameter of test 
•18 ; length of spines '06, basal thickness 'Olo millim. 
Distribution. Broughton Heights, Peeblesshire. 

Triposphcera armata, sp. n. (PI. IV. fig. 11.) 
The primary radial spines stout, styliform, nearly equi- 
distant from each other, about as long as the radius of the 
shell ; surface with numerous minute secondary spines. 
Diameter of cortical test '15, of medullary test '065 ; length 
of primary spines "08, thickness at base "016 ; length of secon- 
dary spines '01 to '035 millim. 

Distribution, Abington, Lanarkshire. 

Detached spicules of Eadiolarift. — a-f. Three- and four-rayed spicules of 
Spfifprozotnn pnWin», sp. ii. </,/). Sphanzointi pnfu!ut)u sp. u. : *?, 
geminate, A, cruciform spicule. »'. A-, /, spicules of Ph ctoid Radiolaria. 
All enlarged to the scale of 200 diameters. 

Lower Pahvozoic liochs of the South of Scotland. 57 

Order COLLODARIA, Haeckel. 

Suborder B E L i D e A, liEeckel. 

Spumellaria with an imperfect skeleton composed of nume- 
rous solid needles or spicula, scattered irregularly in the 
calymma. (Chall. Hep. pt. i. p. 28.) 

Genus Sph^rozoum, Meyen. 

Beloidea socialia or " Sphferozoida with branched or radiate 
spicula of one kind." (Chall. Rep. ))t. i. p. 38.) 

Sphcerozoum pri'scum, sp. n. (Woodcut, a-f.) 

Under this name I propose to include spicules of various 
dimensions, mostly with four rays, more rarely with only 
three. The rays are usually straight, simple, apparently 
conical, gradually tapering from a common centre to a point. 
Three of the rays are either in a plane or form a low tripod, 
and the fourth ray is nearly vertical to the others. There is 
a close resemblance in form, and a})proximately in size, of 
these detached spicules to the spicules of recent species of this 
genus and of allied genera of the same group, as shown in the 
' Challenger ' Report, pis. ii. and iv. The spicules are very 
abundant, for the most part indiscriminately mingled with 
one another and with the ordinary spherical shells ; some- 
times several are now situated close together, as if resulting 
from the disintegration in position of individual Radiolaria. 
It is very probable that these spicules may represent more 
than one species, and they are grouped under one name simply 
for convenience of reference. In form they are very similar 
to the spicules of Calcisponges ; but there is not the least 
ground for suspecting that tliey may have belonged to these 
organisms, since their condition of preservation is the same as 
that of the undoubted Radiolarian shells amongst which they 
occur, and they are associated with other spicules which as 
regards form have no counterparts amongst sponge-spicules. 

Detached Radiolarian spicules, both three-rayed and other 
forms, have already been described by Dr. Riist * from the 
Jurassic Strata of Western Switzerland and from the Neo- 
comian of Gardenazza, and they are stated to be abundant 
in all Jurassic Radiolariau-bearing rocks. 

The rays of the spicules range from "04 to '14 raillim. in 
length and from "005 to *015 millim. in thickness. 

• ' Paleeontographica,' Bd. xxxi. p. 284, pi. xxxi., Bd. xxxiv. p. 190. 

58 Dr. G. J. Ilinde on Radiolaria from the 

Distribution. Abington, Lanarkshire ; Broughton, Hartree 
Hill, Kilbucho, Peeblesshire ; Moorfoots, Edinburghshire. 

Sphrnrozoum patulum, sp. n. 
(PI. IV. fig. 12 ; woodcut, r/, h.) 

The spicules included under this term are geminate and 
cruciform. In the geminate forms there is a short central rod, 
from both ends of which two simple, subcylindrical, divergent 
rays arc given off, approximately in the same plane (PI. IV. 
fig. 12 ; woodcut, y). The rays are similar in the cruciform 
spicules, but the median rod is reduced to a slight central 
expansion (woodcut, h). Both kinds of spicules are present 
in recent species of the genus *, and they have been likewise 
noted from Jurassic strata. The geminate spicules differ from 
any known kind of sponge-spicules. 

The central rod of these spicules is from "Olo to '03 millim. 
in length, and the rays are from '03 to "13 millim. in length. 

Dititribution. Brougiiton, Ilartree Hill, Peeblesshire. 

Subclass NASSELLARIA, Elirenberg. 
Order PLECTELLARIA, Hteckel. 
Suborder Plectoidea, Haeckel. 

Nassellaria with a rudimentary, originally tripodal, skele- 
ton, composed of radial spines arising from one common 
central point or central rod. (Chall. Rep. pt. ii. p. 898.) 

There are a few forms in the chert which appear to belong 
to the above suborder, but they cannot be included in any of 
the known genera referred thereto by Ilajckel ; and it seems 
undesirable, since the specimens are rare and not perfect, to 
propose three new genera for them. In one specimen (wood- 
cut, *) there are five straight, nearly cylindrical rays proceeding 
from a minute rounded centre ; three of the rays are in one 
])lane and one above and tlie other below this plane. On two 
of the rays are small .opines or processes. The rays, when 
entire, are T5 millim. in length. In another specimen (wood- 
cut, k) there are five basal rays, with a stout ray rising from 
the centre. The rays are spinous, and there are traces of 
irregular tissue connecting them, as in the recent Plectanida 
(Chall. Rep. pt. ii. p. 919, pi. xevii.). In the third speeinieu 
(woodcut, ?), whicii is of unusual size, there are four basal 
rays radiating from a centre, from whicii also an upright ray 
s])nngs. The rays are cylindrical and smooth and bifurcate, 

* ' ChalleugiT ' lu'port, j.t. i. pp. 40-45, pi. iv. 

Lower Pu/ieozoic Rocks of the South of Scotland. 59 

the secondary rays tapering to an acute point. The entire 
length of one ot" the rays is "37 millim. I liave only seen a 
single impcrt'ect specimen of this form in the chert from 
Hartree Hill. 


Plate IIL 

liy. \. Sfifptosphcrra aiitiqua, ?p. n. 

Fi</. 2. f^/)o/ii/(>j)/cyma j>riiicuin, sp. n. Tlie iuuor medullary sphere is 

shuwu by tlu> dark central portion. 
Fi(/. 3. Dunjiipluera reticuhita, sp. n. The radial spine in this specimen 

has been partially dislocated, and some of the mesh-apertures 

are inlilled with tiie dark staining material. 
Fiy. 4. Dorifsph(cra tii.vd, sp. n. la this specimen the radial spine is 

viewed obliquely. 
Fiy. 5. Dory.<ph(er(i nucula, sp. u. 
Fiy. 0. Stauropleyma barbatum, sp. u. The medullary sphere in this 

specimen is indicated by the partially clear central space. 
Fiy. 7. Dory diet yum simpler, sp. n. 
Fiy. 8. Dorypleyma yracile, sp. n. 
Fiy. 9. Dorypleynta naxufum, sp. n. The lower portion of this specimen 

has been displaced by a quartz-vein. The iimer or medullary 

sphere is indicated by the darker central area. 
Fiy. 10. Diplopleynta cinctum, sp. n. 
Fiy. 11. Hdliumina vcfiistiiDt, sp. n. The mesh-apertures in the specimen 

are indistinct, owing to the dark infilling. 

Plate IV. 

Fiy. 1. Acanthosph(pra (oitiqiia, sp. u. The specimen is iiiperfect, a por- 
tion to the right having been cut oil by a quartz-vein. 

Fiy. 2. Triposphcera hastata, sp. n. In tliis specimen only one of the three 
radial spines is preserved entire, the bases only of the other two 
remain. The inner sphere is partially clear and has not been 
infilled with the opaque material like the outer sphere. 

Fiy. 3. D(jrysphcera reticulata, sp. n. 

Fiy. 4. Stauropleyma diffusum, sp. n. A quartz-vein traverses the right- 
hand portion of the specimen. 

Fiy. 5. Stauropleyma brevispina, sp. n. The upper portion has been dis- 
placed by a quartz-vein. 

Fiy. 6. Stauropleyma compressum, sp. n. 

F'ig. 7. Stnurodoras yracilis, sp. n. Only the base of the lower spine 
remains. A quartz-vein traverses the specimen. 

Fiy. 8. Haliomma cornutum, sp. n. 

Fiy. 9. Tripoq)hcera reachii, sp. n. 

Fiy. 10. Triposphcera densa, sp. u. 

Fiy. 11. Triposphcera armata, sp. n. 

Fiy. 12. Sphccrozouyn patulum, sp. n, A geminate spicule, the rays im- 
perfect, referred to this species. 

The figures have been drawn by transmitted light from microscopic 
sections of the chert-rock in which the Radiolaria are imbedded ; they 
are all enlarged to the same scale of 200 diameters. The specimens are 
all from the same zone in the Ordoviciun or Lower Silurian strata of the 
Southern Uplands of Scotland ; the particular localities are given in the 

60 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

V. — Revision of British Mollusca. By the Kev. Canon 
A. M. Norman, M.A., D.C.L.,F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 

[Continued from vol. v. p. 484.] 



Superorder I. EUTIIYNEURA. 

Order I. P T E R P D A. 


Fani. 1. ClionidaB. 

Genus Clione, Phipps. 

21. Clione limacina, Phipps. 

CUoUmac'ma, Phipps, Voyage North Pole (1773), p. 195. 

Clione horealis, Pall-ia, Spicilegia Zoologica, fasc. x. (1774), p. 28, pi. i. 

tigs. 18, 19. 
Clione limacina, G. O. Sars, Moll. Regionis ArcticsB Norvegiae, p. 322, 

pi. xxix. tig. 4 a-c. 

Mr. T. Scott (Report Fishery Board Scotland, 1889, 
p. 325) has procured a specimen of this species in the towing- 
net ofi" Inclikeith in the Firth of Forth, which he kept alive 
for two days ; and Professor M'Intosh records that on April 
11 and 12, 1887, and during a week or two afterwards, a 
considerable number of the species were captured near shore 
at St. Andrews. 

Pelseneer (' Challenger ' Report) says, " Tiiere is in the 
collection of the Museum d'Hi.stoire Naturolle of Paris a 
p])ecinien from Falmouth presented by Leach." Leach cer- 
tainly procured it living otf the coast of ^lull in 1811 [vide 
Forbes and Ilanley, ' British Mollusca,' vol. iv. p. 292). 

It is the Clio retusa of O. F. JMiiller, Clione papilionacea 
of authors, Clio miquelonensis of Rang, Clione ele(jantifisima 
of Dall, and Clione Dalli of Krause. 

Very abundant in the Arctic seas. The British localities 
are its most southern limit in the Eastern Atlantic, while in 
the Western Atlantic it was found in 1S.>3 as far south as 
New York. It has been taken in Finmark, but is not known 
to reach the Norwegian coast. 

of British MoUusca. Gl 

Fam. 2. Limacinids. 
Genus 1. LiMACiNA. 

22. Limacina retroversa (Fleming) = Spirialis retroversUy 

Var. 1. Macandrei, F. & H. 

A pvoduced form, of which several specimens were 
dredged by Mac Andrew 15 miles south of Mizen 
Head, south of Ireland. The form ap{)roaches that 
of L. huUmoideSj d'Orb., but the shell is smaller 
and more delicate than in that species and the suture 
more deeply cut. 

[Var. 2. Jeffreysii, F. & H. 

Only a single " very young shell " was found. 
Stated by Jeffreys himself to be only the young.] 

23. Limacina helicoides^ Jeffreys. 

Limacina helicoides, JefiErevs, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xix. 

(1877), p. 338. 
Limacina helicoides, Pelseneer, Report * Challenger ' Pteropoda, pt. 2 

(1888), Thecosomata, p. 23, pi. i. fig. 1. 

* Porcupine ' ex})edition, 1869, off the west of Ireland, 
Stat. 28, lat. 56° 44' N., long. 12° 52' W., dead at bottom. 
It was also procured in the North Atlantic in the ' Valorous ' 
expedition, by the 'Challenger' off the Azores, and by the 
* Travailleur ' in the Bay of Biscay. 

{^Limacina hulimoides (d'Orbigny). 

Atlanta bidiinoides, d'Orbigny, Voy. dans I'AmcSr. m^rid. vol. v. (1836), 

p. 179, pi. xiii. tigs. 36-38. 
Liynacina bidimoides, Boas, Spolia Atlantica, Bidrag til Pterodernes 

(1886), p. 47, pi. iii. figs. 36, 37. 

Pelseneer (' Challenger ' Report) records this species, which 
occurs in all the oceans except the Arctic and Antarctic, as 
" found by the first ' Porcupine ' expedition, 1869." I do not 
know whence he procured the information, as I have no remem- 
brance that Jeffreys has recorded it. It may be that speci- 
mens are preserved in the British Museum. It depends upon 
the station at which it was found whether it can be included 
in our lists.] 

62 Rev. Canon Norman's Rpvi-<ion 

Genus 2. rKKACLi:, Forbes. 

24. Feracle diversa, Monterosato. 

Spirialis diversa, Monterosato, Nuova Revista delle Conchiglie Medi- 

terranee (1875), p. 50. 
Feracle diversa, Monterosato, Bull, della Soc. Malacol. Ital. V(j1. vi. 

(1880), p. 80. 
Peracle diversa, E. A. Smith, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. iv. 

(1889), p. 42]. 

Dead shells, doubtfully referred to this species, recorded by 
E. A. Smith as procured off the south of Ireland by the 
'Flying Fox' in 1889. 

Fam. 3. Cavolinidse. 
Genus 1. Clio, Linne. 

25. Clio ityramidata^lAXiW^. 

Dr. Jeffreys and myself frequently dredged this species in 
the Shetland seas, but did not find it living. It v\'as taken in 
many of the ' Porcupine ' dredgings of 1869, and during the 
recent cruise of the ' Flying Fox ' off the south of Ireland 
(1889) it is stated that " the surface waters teemed with 
Pteropods, Cleodora lanceolata [i. e. Clio j^yt'Cift^iddtd] being 
taken in abundance." 

Genus 2. Cavolinia, Abildgaard. 

26. Cavolinia trispinosa (Lesueur). 

Hi/alcea trispinosa, Lesueur, MSS. in de Blaiuville (Hyale), Diet, des 

"Sd. Nat. (1821), vol. xxii. p. 82. 
llyuUca mucronata, Quoy and Gaimard, Ann. d. Sci. Nat. s»?r. i. vol. x. 

(1827), p. 231, pi. viii! B. tigs. 1, 2. 
Jli/a/cea trispinosa, Boas, Spolia Allantica,BidragtilPteroderues (1886), 

p. 92, pi. i. fig. 3, pi. ii. tig. 14, pi. iv. iig. 52, pi. v. fig. 93. 
Cavolinia trispinosa, I'elseneer, ' Uliallenger ' Ivoport, Pteropoda, pt. ii. 

(1888) p. 7(3. 

A specimen was washed ashore at Youghal (Brit. Conch. 
V. ]). 117) attached to a mast and found by Dr. Ixobort Ball 
in 1820. Dead shells from 250-1000 fathoms off the south 
of Ireland, ' Flying Fox,' 1889 {E. A. Smith). It was 
dredged also by the ' Porcupine,' 18G9, Stat. 1, off Valentia. 

It is a very common species in the more southern parts of 
the North Atlantic, and is found iu the South Atlantic, Pa- 
cific, and Indian Oceans. 

of Bn'tisli Mollusca. <>3 

Older 11. U r 1 .S T 11 O B U A N ClI I A T A. 

A. E 1' ir A L A s r I D i: a. 

Fain. 1. Actaeonidae. 
Genus Act.<eon, Moutfort. 

27. Aclwon tornatlUs. 

Var. 1. suhulaia, Searles Wood. 
Var. 2. tenella, Loveii. 
Var. 3. buUceformis, Jeffreys. 

28. ActcBon exiUs, Jeffreys. 

Actfeon e.rilis, .Tefl'reys, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. vi. (]8r0), 

p. 21, and vol. xix. (1877), p. 335. 
Auriculina insculpta, Verrill, I'ruc. U. S. Nat, Mas. vol. iii. (1880), 

p. 381. 
Actcpon nitidus, Verrill, Trans. Conn. Acad. vol. v. (1882), p. 640, 

pi. Iviii.fig. 21. 
Actceon cxilis, Dall, Bull. Miis. Conip. Zool. vol. xviii. (188!)), p. 38. 

* Porcupine ' expedition, 1869, in 1215 fathoms, off Ireland 
to the south-east of Rockall (Stat. 28). 

It has been found also in tlie North Atlantic in 1450 
fathoms, ' Valorous,' off the Jjusitanian coasts, 227-994 
fathoms, 'Porcupine/ 1870, and in the Mediterranean, 92- 
1456 fathoms. Off" east coast of Florida, 150-200 fathoms, 
and Gulf of Mexico, 200 fathoms {Dr. Rush) ; off Martha's 
Vineyard, East America, 312-407 fathoms {Verrill). 

Jeffreys states tliat it has been found by the late Prof. 
Seguenza fossil in the older Pliocene of Calabria. 

Fam. 2. Tornatinidae. 

Genus 1. Tohnatina, A. Adams, 1850 {= Utriculus, 
Brown, 1845, non Schumacher, 1817). 

29. Tornatina obtusa (Montagu). 

Var. Lajonkaireana (Basterot). 

30. Tornatina mammillata (Philippi). 

31. Tornatina truncatula (Bruguiere). 

^ ^x . liellucida (Brown). 

32. Tornatina umbilicata (Montagu). 

Var. striyella (Lov^n). 

33. Tornatina nitidula (Lovdn). 

64 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

34. Tornatina ovata (Jeffreys). 

Bulla conulm, Searles Wood, Crag MoUusca, p. 173, pi. xxi. fig. 2 a-c. 
Cylichna conulus, Forbes aud Ilanley, Brit. Moll. vol. iii. p. 517, 

pi. cxiv. c. fig. 7. 
Cylichna timbilicata, var. conzz/ws, Jeffreys, B. C. vol. iv. p. loO. 
Cylichna ovata, .Jeffreys, Proc. Roy. Soc. 1870, p. 156 (name only). 
TJtriculus conulus, G. 0. Sars, I. c. p. 287, pi. xvii. fig. 17 a, b. 
Cylichna ovata, 'Wa.tson, Report 'Challenger' Gast. p. 664, pi. xlix. 

fig. 9. 
Retusa (?) ovata, Dall, Bull. Mus. Corap. Zool. vol. xviii. p. 49. 

Deal Voe, Shetland {Jeffreys) ; ' Triton ' exped., 1882, 
St. 13, lat. 59° 51' N., long. 8° 18' W., 570 fathoms; 
' Knight Errant; 1880, St. 7, lat. 59° 37' N., long. 7° 19' 
W., 530 fatlioms; off south of Ireland, 1000 fath., ' Flying 
Fox,' 1889 {E. A. Smith). 

Its extra-Britannic range is ' Porcupine,' 1870, Stat. 16, off 
Portugal, 994 fathoms ; ' Travailleur,' 1880, Bay of Biscay ; 
* Washington,' 1881, Mediterranean, 337-461 fathoms; 
' Challenger,' 350-1000 fathoms, off the Azores ; off Culebra 
Island, West Indies ; off Pernambuco ; by G. O. Sars off 
Lofoten Islands, 300 fathoms ; Straits of Florida, 150-465 
fathoms {Dr. Rush) ; east coast of North America, 124-400 
fathoms {Dall). 

It occurs fossil in the Coralline Crag of England. 

Jeffreys says that it is not the Bulla conulus of Deshayes. 
I have no opportunity here of consulting that work. It is 
certainly not Bulla striatula, Yorhes = Bulla conulus, Wein- 
kauff=5. {Cyliclina) Hoernesi, Weinkauff = C cuneaia, Ti- 
beri, which I have from Algiers and Palermo. That is a 
larger shell, remarkably attenuated above, with deeply in- 
verted spire, which is quite open above (the margin of tiie 
last whorl not projecting over the edges of the inversion as in 
T. ovafa), and the shell strongly striated vertically, especially 
at the apex. 

Nor is it Diaphana conulus, Brugnone, which Dall states 
is the Cylichna ohesiuscula, Brugnone. It is to this last 
species moreover, according to him, that the shells found by 
Seguenza in the Italian Pliocene really belong, and not to 
T. ovata, to which they were referred by Jeffreys. 

I have followed Sars in placing the species in the present 
genus as its characters come near to those of T. umbilicata 
and T. nitidula, which Sars lias shown by examination of 
the masticatory apj^aratus are true Tornatina'. 

[In the Keport 'Porcupine' Exped., 1869 (Proc. Royal 
Soc), Jeffreys gives under St. 42 ^^ Cylichna pyraniidata 
(Norwegian and Mediterranean) ; " and in B. C. v. p. 223, 

of British MoUusca. 65 

under Cylichna umbilicata, he writes : — " Var. conulus, Loflfo- 
den I., 300 i\ (Sars), not var. conulus of WeinkaufF, which he 
has since named C. Iloernesi ; this is C. jvjramidata oi A. 
Adams." It appears probable from the words ^' Norwegian 
and Mediterranean'^ in the lirst of these quotations that he 
there used C. pi/rarntdnta for tlic shell we now understand as 
Tornatina ovata, Jetfr., whereas in the second he makes 
C. pyramidata synonymous with the shell I have above 
spoken of as (7y/«o///ta [Bulla) striatula, Forbes =C. Hocrnesi, 

Genus 2. Volvula, Adams. 
'65. Volvula acuminata (Brugui^re). 

Off Berwick [R. Howse in Newcastle Museum). This is 
the only instance of its occurrence off the east of England. 

Fam. o. Scaphandridse. 
Genus 1. Cylichna, Loven. 

36. Cylichna cylindracea (Pennant). 

Var. linearis^ Jeffreys. 

37. Cylichna alba (Brown). 

At the time when ' British Conchology ' was published 
the only known British locality for this species was north- 
north-west of Unst, Shetland, where Jeffreys and myself 
dredged it on several occasions. It has since been found 
north-north-west from the Butt of Lewis in 189-530 fathoms 
(' Lightning,' Stats. 12, 13) ; off the west of Ireland in 430- 
13GG fathoms ('Porcupine,' 1869, Stat. 23a, 19); near the 
same ground as by the ' Lightning,' in 530 fathoms (' Knight 
Errant,' Stat. 7). 

Genus 2. DiAPHANA, Brown, 1833 
=Amphisjjhyra^ Loven, 1846. 

38. Diaphana hyalina (Turton). 

39. Diaphana expansa (Jeffreys) . 

40. Diaphana ventrosa (Jeffreys). 

41. Diaphana (jlobosa (Loven). 

Utriculm ylobosus, Jeffreys, Brit. Couch, vol. v. p. 223, pi. cii. tig. 8. 
Diaphana ylubusa, G. 0. Bars, /. c. p. 21)0, pi. xviii. tigs. 4 and 3 c. 
Diaphana hyemalis, G. 0. Sais, l. c. p. 2IJ1, pL xviii. fig. 4. 

Ann. & May. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 5 

66 Rev. Canon Norman^s Revision 

The only British specimens of this shell I myself dredged 
in St. Magnus Bay, Shetland, in 60-80 fathoms, when my 
friend Jeffreys was not out with me. These were in his col- 
lection, and are among the many interesting specimens which 
have gone to America*. 

I have frequently dredged it in the Norwegian west-coast 
fiords. A small specimen was taken by the ' Travailleur ' 
in the Bay of Biscay {Jeffrey h). 

Geuus 3. Scaphander, Moutfort. 

42. Scaphander Ugnarius (Linn.). 

Var. 1. alba, Jeffreys. 
Var. 2. ciu'ta, Jeffreys. 

43. Scaphander punctostriaf us (Mighels). 

Bulla pundostriatus, Migliels, Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vol. i. (1841)> 

p. 49. 
Scaphander Uhrarins, Loven, Index Moll. Scand. 1840, p. lU. 
Scaphander Ubrarivs, JettVey.s, B. C. vol. iii. p. 44(j, vol. v. ]>. 224. 
Scaj)hamler pundodriatus, G. O. Sars, /. c. p. 202, pi. xviii. fig. 6. 

One small specimen off Shetland (see Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, 
vol. iii. p. 446) ; ' Lightning/ off Butt of Lewis, 189 fathoms 
(Stat. 13, lat. 59° 5' X., long. 7° 29' W.) ; ' Porcupine,' 
1869, off the west of Ireland, 420-1380 fathoms (St. 23 a and 
30) ; ' Triton,' St. 13, lat. 59^ 31' N., long. 8= 18' W., 570 

Its distribution includes Norway, where I have frequently 
dredged it ; Iceland ; Bay of Biscay, to 1054 fathoms ; uff 
Azores, 1000 fathoms, and off Culebra Island, West Indies, 
390 fathoms [^Challenger ') ; Palermo [Monteromto) ; offcast 
coast of United States ( le/v///) ; Gulf <tf Mexico and near 
Bavbadoes, 533 and 288 fathoms {Dall). Mediterranean, 
* Washington,' 85-1536 fathoms, recorded by Jeffreys, who 
also states that Seguenza has found it fossil in the older 
Pliocene of Sicily. 

Genus 4. Okvitaxis, Jeffreys. 

44. Cri/j>Uuct.-< crel>rijji(Hc(atutij Jeffrays. 

Cnjptaxis crehripitudalus, .Jeflivys. Proc. Zool. S^h-. 1883 (June), 
p. 398, pi. xliv. tigs. 11, 11 a-c. 

* In our many dredging expeditions the choicest of the Molliisca weiit 
to my iiieuds cullectiuu. while the animals belonging to other classes ui 
the Inveitehrata fell to my sjiar.'. He vns always most generous in this 

of British Molliisca. 67 

" SIk'11 <iv;il, tliiii, >riiiiti\ius|);irciit, ;i!ul i^'Iossy : sculpture^ 
very muiierous ami n-giiliir tine spiral or revolving strias, 
which are closely punctured ; they are stronger at the base 
than at the crown : colour white : spire deeply sunken, and 
for the most part concealed in a small cavity in the centre of 
the crown ; but the bulb-shaped apex is visible at the bottom 
of the cavity: mouth seminblong, contracted above and ex- 
))anding belov,- : outer ///> slightly raised above the crown and 
channelled, curved in the middle and at the base: inner lip 
incons|)icuuus : pillar straight du the upj)er half and incurved 
below. L. 0-2, B. O'l." 

Three specimens from ' Triton ' exped., Stat. 13, lat. 50^ 
ol' X., long. 8^ 18' W., .")70 fathoms {'/efre?/s), and I have 
a small specimen (L. O'l) which I found in ooze from the same 

As far as the above description goes the shell might be a 
Tornatina ; but the figure represents a shell nearly allied in 
form to Scaphander and with sculpture somewhat like that of 
S. punctostriatus. Compared with my smallest example of 
the latter species, less than 0*2 long, my little Cryptaxis 
differs in its mure equal breadth tliroughout, the lip being 
more ex|)anded below and the apex at the other extremity 
being broader, and the small S. jJunctostriatus shows no more 
sign of perforated apex than does the adult. I have likewise 
compared it with Cylichna insculpta, Totten, which shell is 
more broadly ovate and has the apex closed. 

Fam. 4. Bullidse. 
Genus 1. Bulla, Klein. 

45. Bulla utrtctdus, Brocchi. 

Var. a. oblonga, Jeffreys. 

46. Bulla sewilevis, Seguenza. 

Bullii ifemilevis, ^e<xnenza, P'orm. Ii'It;. della Proviiicia di Reggio (Cala- 
bria). 1870, p. 241,1)1. xvi. tig. '>. 

/jidla se»nlevii<, Jet\ve\H,, Report • Travailk'ur' Dredgiugs, Brit, Assoc. 
Rep. 1880, p. 10 (name uiih). 

Bulla (h) eburnea, Dall, Bull. Mus. L'ump. Zool. ix. (1881), p. 98 ; ib. 
xviii. (188U), p. oo, ]il. xvii. tig-. (> : Bull. U.S. Nat. Mus. no. o? 
(1889), p. 8S, pi. xvii. tig. 0. 

Bulla Gueriifi, Dautzenberg, Result des Camp, scieut. par Priuce de 
Monaco, Contrib. a la Faiuie malacol. de.s Azores, 18b9, p. 24, pi. i. 
tigs, o a-d. 

Oil" the south of Ireland, lOOD fathoms, 'Flying Fox,' 
1889 {E. A. Smith). 


68 llev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Distribution. ]iay of Jiiscay, ' Travaillcur ' [Je.ffreyH)) ; off 
Azores, 450-1000 fathoms, ' Clialleng-er ' ( Watson) ; Azores, 
1287 metres {Dautzenherg) ; ' Blake,' Stat. 43, lat. 24° 8' 
N., long. 82° 51' W., 339 fathoms {Dall). 

Fossil. Middle Pliocene of Calabria {Seguenza). 

Mr. E. A. Smith has kindly, at my request, compared the 
s])ecimens of this species which are in the British Museum 
with the figures and description of D. Guernei, Dautzenberg. 
and has confirmed my expectation that the latter cannot be 
regarded as specitically distinct from B. seinilevis. It is clear 
also, I think, that B. ehurnea, Dall, is the same thiug. 

Genus 2, Haminea, Leach. 

47. IJaminea hydatis (Linn.). 

Yar. glohosa, Jeffreys. 

Genus 3. Aceka, Miiller. 

48. Acera hullata, Miiller. 

Var. 1. nana^ Jeffreys. Length -jV inch. 
Var. 2. Farrani, Norman. Length If inch. 

Ahera bullrda, var. yicjantea^ Norman, Museum Normau- 
iauum, iv. Mollusca, 1888, uo. 101. 

The variation in size in this species is most extraordinary, 
and ])erha[)S the forms here treated as varieties should rather 
be regarded as entitled to rank as s})ecies. The full size of 
ordinary specimens may be taken as an inch ; but no Sj)cci- 
mens of var. nana, which was dredged by Jeff'reys and 
myself in shallow water at Balta Sound, Shetland, exceed 
three twentieths of an inch. On the other hand Dr. Farran 
i'ound many years ago (see Nat. Ilist. Keview, vol. iv. (1857) 
p. 74) the gigantic variety which I here name after him. 
The specimens were dredged near Birterbuy Bay, L'eland : 
the animal measured 3 inches long and 2^ wide, and 
weighed 2^ ounces. The shell of one of these giants, now 
in my collection, measures 1| inch long and an inch wide ; 
hundreds of specimens of var. nana might be placed in 
it as in a box! In 1870, in company witli my friend Mr. 
David Koberlson, 1 dredged diligentl>' the S[)ot carefully 
described by Farran, but without again meeting with this 
form ; but Mr. A. G. More informed me that the year before 
that just mentioned he had found a similar-sized specimen in 
a lough nearer Galway. 

of British MoUusca. 69 

Fam. o. Pliiliuidae. 
Genus Philine, Ascanius. 

49. Philine o2)er(a (Linne). 

Var. jmtulo, Jeffreys. 
.">0. Philine nifida, Jeffreys. 

51. Philine scabra (Miillei). 

52. Philine catena (Montagu). 

Var. zo7ia^ Jeffreys. 

53. Philine anyulata^ Jeffreys. 

54. Philine quadrata (Searles Wooil). 
d5. Philine inmctata (Clark). 

50. Philine pruinosa (Clark). 

Var. dilafafa, JcfiVeys. 

B. A X A s p I D i: A. 

Fam. 6. Aplysiidae. 

Genus Aplysia, Linne. 

57. Aplysia depilans (Linne). 

Major A. R. Hunt took many examples of this fine species 
in Torbay in 1875 and 1877 (see Trans. Devon Assoc. 
Advanc. Sci. Liter, and Art, 1877 and 1888) ; the larger 
specimens weighed from 19 to 40 ounces. Major Hunt 
remarks that these large specimens did not discharge any 
purple, but some pink dye. One of the shells of these large 
specimens which he kindly sent me measures 2^ inches long 
and If inch wide, and exactly corresponds in its characters 
with Mediterranean examples of the same species and size in 
my collection. 

58. Aplysia punctata^ Cuvier. 


Fam. 7. Pleurobranchidse. 
Genus Pleurobhanciius, Cuvier. 

59. Pleiirohranchus memhranaceus (Montagu). 
Off Cumbrae, Firth of Clyde {A. M. N.). 

GO. Pleurohianchus 2'ltn'tulci (Montagu). 

70 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Fam. 8. Runcinidae. 

Genus RuNCiNA, Forbes, 1853, 
= Felta, Quatrefages, 1844, nee Beck, 1838. 

f)l. liuncina coronata (Quatrefages). 

PeUa coronata, Quatrefages, M^iuoire sur les Gasteropodes phlelienteies, 

Anil, des Sci. Nat. o* ser. i. (l'^44). 
Peltn sp., Alder and Hancock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. ilist. xviii. 1840, 

p. 289, pi. iv. figs. 1-7 (figurrt! optimae). 
Buncina Hancochi, Forbes, in Forbes and Hanley, Hrit. Moll. iii. (18o3), 

p. 612, pi. ccc. fig. 2. 
Pelta coronata, Vayssiere, Ann. de.s Sci, Nat. (5* ser. xv. (1883), p. 0, 

pis. i., ii. figs. 1-24. 

Isle of Cumbrae [A. M. X.). 

Difttrihiition. 'BriU any (Quatrefages) , .Marseilles [Vnyssihre) . 

Order 111. N U D I BE A N C H 1 A T A. 
Suborder T. HOLOHEPATICA, Bergli. 

A. A N T H 1 1 1} K A X C H I A T A. 

Fani. 1. Dorididae. 
Genus Duins, Linne. 
Subgenus 1. Abchidoris. Bergb. 
62. Doi-l.H tuherculata, Ciivier. 

Distribution. Mediterranean ( I 'ayssih-e iUbc.) , Adriatic 
[Sanc/ri d)c.)f Western France (Fischer), Denmark (Murch)^ 
Sweden (Lnren), Norway and Finmark (G. 0. Sars), Faroe 

It is D. nrgOy Peini., D. pseuduargunj liapp, and peiliaps 
D. Delle Chiajii (Verany) and D. Leuckarti, Del. Cli., D. 
areolata, Stnvitz, D. britannica and Montagui, Leach, and 
D. mertty Aid. & Hanc. 

l33. Doris fianiinta, Aid. «\; llauc. 

(^mnbrae (-^1. M. X.), Plynioutli {Garstang, in litt.) *. 

* Species thus ivcoidid — •' (( iarstang, in litt.)" — are from a list Mipplied 
nie by Mr. ( Jarstaiig. of those wiiicli ht> has found at tho Biological Labo- 
ratory, I'lynioutli, since tlic publication of his li?.! ('• lu>port on the Nudi- 
braucliialc MoliuM-a of I'lyiiii«utli Sound,'' .lournal Marine Biological 
Assoc, of United Kingdom, vol. i, Oct. l88'J, p, 173), 

of British MoUusca. 71 

S«iib;r«"iius 1*. .loiuNW, Uersrl). 

64. Doris Jofi)istoni, Aid. t^' Hanc. 

St. Andrews {M'Intosh), Liverpool district {HerdnKiu) , 
Plymouth {Garslafig), Shetland (..I. M. X.) ; Moray Firth 

Distribution. Adriatic {(Jraefe), 6.W. France {Fischer), 
Denmark {Morch), Christiania Fiord and W. Norway {G. 0. 

This is perhaps D. tomentosa of Ciivier, and it is D. oboe- 
lata of Johnston. 

Subgenus 3. Addisa, Bcrgh. 

65. Doris testudina7'ia, Risso = Z). planata, Aid. & Hanc. 

Plymouth {Garstang), Arraii, X.B. {Herdman). 
Distribution. Western France {Fischer), 

66. Doris zetlandica. Aid. & Hanc. 

Distribution. W. Norway and Lofoten Islands {G. 

67. Doris millegrana, Aid. & Hanc. ? An Addisa. 

Subgenus 4. Caldixa, Bergh. 
QS. Doris repanda. Aid. Sc Hanc. 

St. Andrews, abundant {Mcintosh), Firth of Forth {Leslie 
ct" Ilerdrnan), Shetland (.L M. X.). 

Distribution. Palermo {Schultz), Adriatic {Tiberi), Den- 
mark, Sweden {Morch), Norway, Finmark, and Spitsbergen 
{G. 0. Sars), N.E. America. 

This may be D. Icevis of Fleming. It is D. obvelata of 
Loven and perhaps of Mllller, but not of Fabricius, Johnston, 
&c. D. plamdata, Stimpson. 

Subgenus 5. Eostagxa, Bergh. 
69. Doris coccinea. Aid. & Hanc. 

Plymouth {Garstang). 

Distribution, ^geau {Forbes) , ^.^nat\c {Graefe &c.) , whole 
of Western France {Fischer), Denmark {Morch), W. Norway 
{G. 0. Sars), Faroe {Morch). 

72 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Fam. 2. Polyceridae. 
Genus 1. Acanthodoris, Gray. 

70. Acanthodoris pilosa (Miill.). 

Firtli of Forth [Leslie d- Herdman)^ Liverpool district 
[Ihjerley), Plymoutli {Garstang), ofF Lowestoft, 16 fatli. 
[Meyer), Shetland {A. M.S.), Moray Firth [Gordon), Arran, 
N.B. [Ilerdman). 

Distribution, ^gean [Forbes), whole of Western France 
[Fischer), Kiel [Meyer <£; Mobius), Denmark [Morch), all 
coasts of Norway and Finmark [G. 0. Sars), Sweden [Lo- 
ren), Faroe and Iceland [March), N.E. America [Gould), 
Heligoland [Meyer) . 

Synonyms are D. stellata, Gmelin, D. sublcevis, Thompson, 
D. fusca, Lovdn, D. rosinela, Leach ; and of the black 
variety, D. nigricans, Fleming, and D. Flemingii, Forbes. 
It is also D. similis. Aid, & Hanc. 

7L Acanthodoris subquadrata, Aid. & Hanc. 
Doris quadranyulata, JeflVeys, 15. C. v. p. 93. 
Liverpool district [Byerley). 

Genus 2. Lamellidoris, Aid. & Hanc. 
72. Lamellidoris aspera. Aid. & Hanc. 

St. Andrews (M'Litosh), Plymouth [Garstang), Moray 
Firth [Gordon). 

Distribution. Coast of Finistcre [Crouan), Kiel [Meyer li' 
Mobius), Denmark, Greenland [Murch), N.E. America 
[Stim2)son) . 

Synonyms. D. 2)allida (Agassiz), Stimpson, D. fusca, 
Mlilh, D. muricata, Mey. & Mob. (iion Miill.). 

7i3. Lamellidoris muricata (Miill.). 

Distribution. Denmark (March), Sweden [Loven), Norway 
and Finmark [G. 0. Sa7's). 

74. Lamellidoris ulidiana (Thompson). 

75. Lamellidoris diaphana, Aid. i!*c Ilanc. 
7G. Lamellidoris bilavicllata (Linne). 

Firth of Clyde and Northumberland coast [A. M. X), 

of British Molhisca. 73 

Moray Fiitli (Gordon), St. Andrews {M^In(osh), Chcsliirc 
coast {Bj/crle>/), Plynioutli (Garstanq). 

Distribution. "Wostorii France (Fischer), Denmark {March), 
West Norway and Finmark {G. 0. Sars), Iceland and 
Greenland {Morch}, N.E. America [Afjassiz d:c.). 

Sijnonyms. ]). verrucosa of Pennant and Fleming, D. EJ- 
fortiana, Blainv., D. vulgaris, Leaclij D. tuherculata, lOckhofF, 
D. liturata, ^rijllcr, D. ohvcJata, Bouch. -Chant., D. Leachii, 
Blainv., D. aj^nis, Thompson, J>. coronata, Agassiz. 

77. LamelUdoris depressa, Aid. & Hanc. 

Hilbre Island, Cheshire {Byerleij), Moray Firth [Gordon). 
This is perhaps Vi/lersia scutigera, d'Orbigny. 

78. LamelUdoris inconspicua, Aid. & Hanc. 

Distribution. Denmark (March), who also records it with 
doubt from Iceland and Greenhmd ; Arcachon (Fischer). 

79. LamelUdoris pusilla, Aid. & Hanc. 

Moray Firth (Gordon). 

Distribution. Recorded from Christiania Fiord and \Yest 
Norway by G. O. Sars, who places it in a genus Onchidoris. 

80. LamelUdoris sparsa. Aid. & Hanc. 

Plymoutii, 15 fath. (Garstang). 
Distribution. Faroe (March). 

81. LamelUdoris oblonga, Aid. c^ Hanc. 

Subgenus Adalaria, Bergb. 

82. LamelUdoris proxima, Aid. & Hanc. 

St. Andrews (M'Intosh), Liverpool district (Byerley). 
Distribution. Kiel (Meyer & Mobius), Denmark (March), 
West Norway and Lofoten (G. 0. Sars). 

83. LamelUdoris Loveni, Aid. & Hanc. 

The only known British example of this was taken by me 
in Bantry Bay between tide-marks in 1858. 

Distributioii. Sweden (Loven), Christiania Fiord and AVest 
Norway (G. 0. Sars) ; recorded with a ? from Faroe (March). 

74 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Genus 3. Goniodokis, Forbes. 

84. Goniodoris nodosa (Montagu). 

Moray Firth {Gordon), St. Andrews (Mcintosh), Arran, 
N.B., and Firth of Forth [Ilerdrnan), Penmaen Ro.s and 
LLandrillo Bay, North Wales {Price), Plymouth {Garstanrj) , 
Puffin Island, Anglesea {IJerdman). 

Distribution. Western France {Fischer), Denmark {Kroyer), 
Sweden {Lovcn), West Norway {G. 0. Sars). 

It is Doris harvicensis, Johnston, and probably Doris 
emarginata, Forbes, and Doris elonyatciy Thompson. 

85. Goniodoris casfanea. Aid. & Hanc. 

Isle ot'Man and Arran, N.B., 25 fath. {Herdman) , Plymouth 

Distribution. Genoa {Verany), Trieste {Graejf'e). 
It is Doris Paretti, Verany. 

Genus 4. Idamna, nom. nov. { = Idalin, Leuckart, 1828, nee 
Jdalia, Hiibner, 1816, nee Idcdia, Saviguy, 1820, nee 
Idalia, Muls., 1846). 

86. Idalina elegans (Leuckart). 

Distribution. Cette {Leuckart), Marseilles, Genoa, and 
Naples {Beryh), I'rieste {Staz. ZooL, tide Cams), Western 
France {Fischer), Denmark {.March). 

it is/, laciniosa, Philip))!. 

87. Idalina Leachii (Aid. vi; iianc.). 

Slictlaud, deep water {A. M. N.). 

iSubgemis, liergh. 

88. Idalina incequalis (Forbes). 

89. Idalina aspersa, Aid. & Hanc. 

Plymouth {Garstany),off t]\Q Bass Rock, 24 fath. {Meyer). 
Distribution. Sweden {Lovcn, as /. cirrigcra, Phil.), West 
and S.W. France {Fischer). 

90. IdidiiKi iiuadricornis ^Montagu). 

91. Idalina itutchella {\\A. Si llano.). 

Distribution. \Vi'St Norway and Lofoten (6^. 0. Sars). 

of British MoUxisca. 75 

(ieiuiso. ANf'ULA, [jn'i'ii. 
W2. Ancula cristata (Alder). 

Shetland {A. M. X.), Moniy Firth {(ror</oii), St. Andn-ws 
[Mcintosh), Plymouth [GarstiuKj] . 

Taken abundantly at llilbre Island, Cheshire, by Prof. 
Herdnian, who found one specimen " entirely of a hyaline 
transparent white colour, without any yellow markings on 
the dorsal papillae, and with no opaque white pigment on any 
part of the body." Arran, X.B., and Firth of Forth {^llercl- 

Distribution. Boulogne {Boiich.- Chant.) ,Uenmark(/u'Oj/e>"), 
W. Norway {G. 0. Sars), Kiel {Mei/er <(: Mobius), Heligo- 
land (i'Ve?/ tC' Leuckart), Iceland {March) ^ Sweden [Loven). 

Genus 6. Tiiecac'EKA, Fleming. 
D.J. rhecacera pennigera (Montagu). 

t)tl Lowestoft, lb fath. {Meyer), 20 fatli. off" Uame Head, 
Plymouth {Garstany) . 

JJistrilmfiott. Sicily {Quatrefages), X. and N.W. France 
{Fischer) . 

94. Thecaceru oirescens, Aid. ^^' Hanc. 
yj. Thecacera capitnta, AM. i.^ ilanc. 

Genus 7. Ckimoua, Aid. t^- Ilanc. 

96. Criiiiura paj)il(atUy Ahl. v^ Hanc. 

The only two known specimens of this Nudibraiich are 
those which 1 took at Guerusey, the one in 1858 the other in 
1865. They occurred in shallow water. 

Genus 8. Polyceka, Cuvier. 

97. Polycera quadrilineata (M tiller). 

Shetland and Oumbrae {A. M. N.) ; St. Andrews (Ji'iw- 
losh)y Plymouth {Garstany), Moray Firth {Gordon), Firth of 
Forth {McBain). 

Distrihutioh. Mediterranean {Marion (C-c), Adriatic {lieryh 
dL'c), Kiel {Meyer di Mobius), Denmark {Kroyer &c.). 
Western France {Fischer), Sweden {Loven), S. and W. Nor- 
way (G. 0. )Sars), Heligoland, 5-6 fath. {Meyer). 

Synonyms. Doris cornuta, Abildgaard, D. jiacu, jlontugu, 

76 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

D. varianSj M. Sars, P. oniata, d'Orbigny, P. Uneata, Risso, 
P. typica, Tliompson. 

Subgenus Palio, Gray. 

98. Polycera Lessoniij d'Orb. 

i\Ioray Firth {Gordon), St. Andrews {M'Tntosh), Avran, 
N.B., 20 falli., and the Mersey [Ilerdman). 

Var. ocellata, Aid. & Hanc. 

Shetland (A. M. iV.), Moray Firth [Gordon), St. Andrews 
{^[^Intosh) ,'L\\Qy\iOo\ [Byei-lei/), Plymoutli [Garstang). 

Distribution. The type : Xorthern and western coasts of 
France {Fischer), Kiel [Meyer cfc Mobius), Denmark [Liit- 
hen &c.), Bergen and Manger, Norway [Friele & Hansen), 
Iceland and Greenland [Morch). Var. ocellata is recorded 
from the Adriatic [Marenzeller) , W. France [Fischer), Den- 
mark [March), Sweden [Lovea), and N.E. America [Gould). 

Synonyms of the type. P. modesta, Loven, Doris Ulurninata, 
Gould ; P. citrina, Aid. & Hanc, is the young. Another 
variety is probably P. fusca, Frey & Leuckart, which is the 
P. dubia, M. Sars. 

Genus 9. Tkiopa, Johnston. 

99. Triopa clavigera (Miill.) . 

Moray Firth [Gordon), St. Andrews (Mcintosh), Firth of 
Forth [F. M. Balfour), Cumbrae and Lamlash Bay, Arran 
[A. M. N.), Plymouth {Garstang). 

Distribution. Sweden [Loven), W. Norway, 5-20 fath. [G. 
0. Sars). 

Synonyms. Tergipes indcher , Johnston, Fuplocamus jfhimo- 
sus, Thompson. 

Genus 10. aEuiKUS, Loven. 

100. JEgiriis punctilucens (d'Orbigny). 

Shetland [A. M. N.), Firth of Forth [Balfour), Moray 
Firth {Gordon), St. Andrews {Mcintosh), Plymouth [Gar- 
stang) . 

Distribution. Moditerrauoan'? [Dicring), Brest [d^ Orbigny), 
\V. Norway, 10-20 fath. [G. 0. Sars). 

It is Doris maura of l\>rbes. 

vf BriUsh MoUusca. 77 

ISuboHlfi- 11. CJ.ADOIIEPATICA, Bergh*. 

B. I N F i: i: (t D n a n r n i a t a. 

Fam. o. Pleiirophyllidiadae. 

Genus PLEUKOi'iiYLLiDiA, Mcckcl, 181G { = Di'j)/ii/i/idia, 
Cuvier, 1817). 

101. PIciiroi)hylUdia LovSni, Bergh. 

Off Dunbar, ^\B., 30 fatli., in mud (/'; M. Balfour), St. 
Andrews {M'lntos/if in litt.). 

Distribution. Denmark {Lynghege i^ Ilorring), Sweden 
{Lovcn), Cliristiania Fiord, Norway ((7. 0. Sars). 

It is the Diphyllidia Uneata of Lov(?n and of Forbes and 
Hanley, but not of Otto. The hitter is a Mediterranean 

C. P O L Y B i; A N C H 1 A T A. 

Fam. 4. TritoniidaB. 
Genus Tritonia, Cuvier. 

102. J'ritonia liomhergi, Cuvier. 

Shethmd [A. M. N.), St. Andrews {Mcintosh), Firth of 
Forth, 30 fath. {Meyer), Moray Firth [Gordon), Mersey and 
Isle of Man, 25 fath. (Herdnian) , Plymouth [Garstang). 

Distribution, Marseilles [Marion cf'c), W. France [Fis- 
cher), Denmark {Morc/i), Sweden (Loven), S. and W. Nor- 
way [G. 0. Sars). 

It is Doris atrofusca, MacGillivray, and Sphccrostonia 
Jamesonii, MacGillivray. 

103. Tritonia alba. Aid. it Hanc. 

Subgenus Caxdiella, Gray. 

104. Tritonia plebeia, Johnston. 

Moray Firth [G. Murray), Shetland [A. M. X.), St. An- 
drews [Mcintosh), Firth of Forth, Hilbre Island^ Cheshire, 

* The aiTaugemeut here followed is for the most part that of Bergh iu 
his paper just published, "Die Cladohepatischen N udibrauchieu/" 1690. 
The most important difference is that 1 have retained I'leurophyllidia 
in a separate section Inferobranchiata. 

78 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

and Puffin Island, Anglesea {tlenlinan)^ Mersey and Dee 
{ColUnfjtcood) ^ Peterhead, oO fatli. {Meyer) , Plymouth {Gar- 
staiuj) . 

Distribution. Smyrna {Forbes) ^ Marseilles {Marion), West 
France {Fischer)^ Denmark {March), South and West Nor- 
way, 10-30 fath. (G. 0. Sars), Heligoland, 19 fath. {Meyer). 

105. Tritonia lineata, Aid. & Ilaiic. 

In 20 fath., Arran, N.B. {Ilerdman). 

Distribution. W. France {Fischer)^ Denmark { Morch) , 
West Norway, 20-30 fath. (G. 0. Sars). 

Faiii. ■'). Scyllaeidse. 

( renus ScvLL-EA, Linne. 

106. Scydcea j)ela(/ica, Liuji. 

Distribution. Mediterranean, Athuitic, Pacitic^ and Indian 

Bergli makes four varieties: — 1. raarginata, Bergh=.S. 
Grayoj, A(\. = Ed>.cardsii, Verrill ; Atlantic Ocean. 2. S. 
(fhouifodensis, Forskal ; Red Sea. 3. sinensis, Bergh ; 
China. 4. orientalis, Bergh =6'. (jhomfodensis, Q. & G. ; 

Fani. (]. Dendronotidae. 
(lenus Dexdronotus, AM. \- Hanc. 

1<>7. Dendronotus frondosus (Ascanius). 

Anij>hitrite fronJo>'u-<. Ascauiiis. Kjrl. Norske Vid. Selsk. fSkiift. o Pet^l, 

1774, 8. 114, pi. V. Hg. :i. 
Doris f ri>ii(Joxa,y{\i\^. Zool. J)aii. I'lcul. (]77ti), no. 1*777. 
Duris (irb(iri-if(')is, id. ibid. no. i'77tl. 

Tn'foiiia tactea, Thompson, Nat. Hist. Ireland, iv. (l"?oti), p. i'70. 
Ih-ndronotux lactens. Hecher. MoUuisker von Jan Mayen (18f?ti), p. 14, 

pi. vl. Kg. 8. 
Dcndriiuotus luteolns, Latuut. Xoti- pour -evvir ;'i la Fraiicf ilf la 

(4ironcU', no. 11, pi. xvii. tijr. 1. 

^loray Firth [G. Murray), St. Antlrews, where the wjiite 
variety, var. lactea, Thompson, has occurred {M'Litos/i), 
Firth ot Forth {Leslie cC- Jlerdman), near Dogger Bank, 
34 fath. {Meyer), oft" Great Onne's Head and Hilbre Island 
{Herdinan), Plymouth, 25 fath. {Garstang). 

Distribution. S.W. France {Fischer), Kiel {Meyer (f- Md- 
bius), Denmark {Liit/cen dr.), all coasts of Norway and Fin- 
mark to 100 fath. (G. 0. Sars), Sweden {Loven), Faroe, Ice- 

of British Mollusca. 79 

land, aiul Groeiilaml [Murc/i), Jan Maycu [Becher), Spits- 
bcTLCcn {G. O. Stn-.s), N.E. America {Coadtou// ((-c), Arctic 
Paciric {Ben//i), JJclirini,^ Strait {Aunoillius). 

It is Triton ii/ lut/itohlaii, Coiitlioiiy, Tritonia pulc/tclla 
and Dtndrutus arOorenccns, Aid. c^ Ilauc, and perhaps Den- 
ilrunotu.s rhyaii.s, Verrill (Troc. V. S. Nat. ^[u.<. 1880, 
p. 385) . 

Fain. 7. Dotonidae. 
Geuu.s Doru, Ciivier. 
108. Dutv fray His (Forbes). 

Firth of Clyde and Shetland [A. M. A".), St. Andrews 
[Mcintosh), Norfolk coast, 12-lG fath. [Mei/er), off Puffin 
Island, Anglesea {Iferdi/ian)^ Plymouth [Garstang). 

Distribution. Adriatic (&r«ej^e),Christiania Fiord, Norway, 
20 fath. (G. 0. Sars). 

Synonym. Meliboea pinnatiti'Ia, Johnston. 

ion. Dot'j /Ktinatifida (Montagu). 

110. Doto coronata {GmeVm). 

Shetland (.4. M. X.), Moray Firth {G. Mxrray), St. An- 
drews {M'Jntosh), Arran, N.|}., 10-20 fath., and Liverpool 
district, many places {//en/tnan), Plymouth {(rarstan<j), Firth 
of Forth {F. M. Balfour). 

Distribution. Mediterranean ( Fe/-«/ty tOc), Adriatic {Sto.'i- 
sich), S.W. France (Fischer), Kiel [Meyer d- Mobius), Den- 
mark {Kroyer), Sweden (Loven), Norway and Finmark 
down to 10 fath. {(t. 0. Sars), N.E. America (Stimjjsou lijc). 

It is Scilbia punctata {Bouch.-Ghixut.) , Me/ibceaornata, Aid. 
& Hanc, Melibtea arbuscula, Agassiz, and Tergipes lacinu- 
latus, DcUe Chiajc, and, according to Bergh, Doto Forbesii, 
Deshayes, D. iincinata, Hesse, D. pinnigera, Hesse, D. armo- 
ricana, Hesse, and D. confluens, Hesse. 

111. Doto cuspidata, Aid. c^ Plane. 
Shetland {A. M. X.). 

(jrenus Haxcockia, (tossc, 1877 
= Govia, Trinchese, 1886 *. 

Bergh thus defines this interesting genus :— 

" Margo frontalis utrinque digitatus ; rhinophoria quasi ut 

* Trinchese, " Kiclierclie anat. siil geuere Goviu '' (Mem della R. Ace. 
delle Sc. dell' Instiluto di Bologna, s, o, vol. vii. pp. 183-11»1, pi. 

80 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

in Tritoiiladis, tentacula nulla. Papilla; dorsales cuciilli- 
tormes (facie concava externa cnidocjsti.s prajdita) ; anus 
latero-dorsalis. Podariuni antice truncatum. 

"Margo niasticatorius inandibula; singulaserie denticulorum 
armatus. liadula triseriata, quasi oninino illi Galvinaruni 
similis. Otocy.sta cum otolitlio. Penis inennis." 

Trincliesehas described two species from the Mediterranean. 

112. Ilancockia eudactylota, Gosse. 

Hcmcockia eudactylota, Gosso, Ann. & Mag. Xat. Hist. ser. 4, xx. (\fi71) 

p. -jIO, pi. xi. 
Guvia dactylota, Bergh, Diu Claclohepatischen Nudibranchien, 1890, 

p. 53. 

Dredged by Mr. A. K. Hunt near Tur(|uay, Aug. 1<), 1877. 

Fam. 8. Lomanotidse. 
Genus LOMANOTUS, Veranj. 

113. Lomanotus marmoratus, Aid. & Hanc. 

Lomanotus varians, Garstang', Journ. Maiine Biol. .-Vssuc. uf Great 
Britain (1889), p. 185. 

Off Lowestoft, 25 fath. {Meyer), Shetland [Peach). 

Distribution. West Norway, 10-20 fath. 

Mr. Garstang has found three specimens of this genus at 
Plymouth, and it appearing to him that they were intermediate 
forms between so-called species described, he has proposed to 
group the whole under the name L. varians. Of course, 
however, if they are so united, the laws of nomenclature 
require that it should be under the earliest name, L. marmo- 
ratus. Further observations are desirable. It is very 
probable that Mr. Garstang's conclusions are correct. 

114. Lomanotus Jiavidus, Aid. iSi Hanc. 

115. Lomanotus portlandicus, W. Thompson (of Weymouth). 

116. Lomanotus HancocJci, Norman. 

Lomanotus Hancocici, Norman, Ann. it Mag. Xat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xx. 
(1877), p. 618. 

Body elongated, of a very light pinkish-orange tinge, very 
transparent, so that the internal organs are clearly seen through 
the skin ; below white, the front margin of the foot micro- 
scopically sprinkled with red specks. Veil with two tentacular 
processes on each side, overhanging the mouth ; these pro- 
cesses are orange-coloured below, and above are microscopically 

of British MuUusca. 81 

sprinkled with red in tlic same manner as the margin of the 
loot. Tentacles terniinatini;- above in a calyx-like expansion, 
formed of five leatkt-like points, from the middle of which 
rises the small, conical, smooth termination of the tentacle ; 
this conical ])rocess is of small size, not exceeding that of the 
divisions of the calyx, liranchinl processes in the form of a 
waved raised curtain, surmounted by tiat triangular papilhe, 
passing down each side of the back and uniting behind ; the 
undulations of the curtain consist of three outwardly and four 
inwardly directed folds on each side ; the fold which is nearest 
the heatl is the largest ; the ))apillai on this fold are 18 to 
20 in number; the papilh\j on all the folds vary consider- 
ably in size, but there appears to be always one larger 
than the rest ; they are capable of contraction and dilatation, 
and are constantly changing their apj)arent dimensions while 
the animal is in motion ; they are banded with deep dark 
orange, while the small points in which they terminate are 
pale orange. Lemjth 2\ inches. 

I dredged a single specimen of this very fine Nudibranch 
off Berry Head, Torbay, June 25, 1875. 

It approaches both L.jiavidaSj A. & II., and L. porllaadi- 
cus, Thompson, but differs in many particulars, and espe- 
cially in the form of the tentacles, which have a very marked 
character in the sniall size of their a[)ical portion, which pro- 
jects beyond the calyx-like sheath and is quite simple and 
shows no sign of ringing. The small size of these simple 
and non-laminated tentacles and their peculiar cut-edged 
sheath prevent my thinking that L. marmoratas is the young 
and L. Uancocki the adult of one species, as has been sug- 
gested by Mr. Garstang. 

Fam. 9. .Eolididse. 

Subfara 1. ^OLiDiN^. 

Genus 1. iEoLis, Cuvier, n9S = ^olidia, 
Cuvier, 1817. 

Subgenus 1. ^olis, Cuv. (seus. strict.). 
117. jEolis papulosa (Linn.). 

Cumbrae and Shetland {A. M. N.), ]\Ioray Firth (G. Mur- 
ray), Hilbre Island [Byerley), North Wales and Isle ot Man 
{Herdman), St. Andrews {M'Mos/i), Plymouth {Garslaiuj), 
Firth of Forth [McBain ^'c). 

Distribution. \V. and S.W. France (F/scAer) , Kiel {Meyer 
^ Mobius), Denmark {March), Sweden {Lovea), Norway and 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. G 

82 Kev. Canon Norman's lie vision 

Finmark [G. 0. Sars), Faroe and Iceland (Morch), N.E. 
America (Gould). 

It is Doris hodoensis, Gunner, Doris ^-ermigera, I'urton, 
Eolis Cuvieri, Lamarck, Eolidn zetlandica, Forbes & Good- 
sir, Eolis Murrayana and Lesliana, MacGillivray, F^olis 
rosea. Aid. & Hanc., Eolis ohtusalis, Aid. & Hanc, and Eolis 
farinacea, Gould. 

Subgenus 2. ^olidiella, Bergh. 

1 1 8. JEolis glauca, Aid. & Hanc. 

North Wales [Herdman). 

Distribution. Genoa {Trinchese), Adriatic (Graefe), S.W. 
France (Fischer), Denmark (Collin). 

119. ^olis Alderi, Cocks. 

Plymouth ((rarstoM^', in litt.). 
Distribution. St. Malo [VaiUant) . 

120. jEolis sanguinea,1^0Ymi\n. 

Holis sanffuinea,'Nonn&n, Aun. & Ma-g. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, xx. (l'S77) 
p. 517. 

This is a very beautiful species, the type of which was 
taken August 26, 1874, at low water, spring tides, on the 
islet known as Innislacken, at the entrance of lloundstone 
Bay, Connemara. The radula of this species lias not been 

Subfam. 2. Cratenin^. 
Genus 2. Cuthona, Aid. & Hanc. 

121. Cuthona nana, Aid. & Hanc. 

llilbrc Island, Cheshire, and Puffin Island, Anglesea 
(//m//ym«), Firth of Forth (T. S. Wright). 
Distribution. Boulogne [Bouch.- Chant.). 

122. Cuthona (?) aurantiaca (Aid. & Hanc). 

Shetland (^1. M. N.), Liverpool district (Price ^r.), Peter- 
head, 30 lath. [Meyer). 

Distribution. Lofoten Islands (G. 0. Sars), Sweden [Lo- 
ve n). 

It is Eolis bellula, Lov^n. 

of British }[oUHScfi. 8^-i 

Gomis i\. Ckatkxa, Rcrgli 
(= Cavo/ina, Cuvicr, uon Abildgaard). 

123. Cratena viridis (Forbes). 

-Moray Firtli {G. Murro}/), St. Andrews, abundant (M'ln- 
to.s/i), Arran, N.B., 20 fatli., and Puffin Island, Anglesea 
{IJerdmon), Plymouth {Garstang^ in litt.). 

124. Cratena amnna (Aid. & Ilanc). 

Arran, N.B., 20 fath. ; off Port Erin, Isle of Man, 15 fath. 

125. Cratena olivacea, Aid. & Ilanc. 

Shetland {A. M. N.), St. Andrews, not uncommon {M^In- 
tosh)^ Moray Firth (G. Murray), Mersey {Herdman), the 
Dee {Colling wood) , Plymouth {Garsfanr/) . 

Distribution. West Norway, 5-10 fath. (G. 0. Sars). 

126. Cratena pustulata (Aid. &Hanc.). 

127. Cratena glottens is (Aid. & Hanc). 

128. Cratena arenicola (Forbes). 
North Wales (Herdman). 

129. Cratena concinna (Aid. & Hanc). 

't EoUs (/ymnota (Couthouv), Gould, Invert. Mass. edit. Binney (1870), 
p. i>4l), pi. xvi. figs. 2381241. 

Mersey, common {Colling wood). 

Distribution. Christiania Fiord {Asbjornsen), West Nor- 
way, 5-100 fath. (G. 0. Sars). 

loO. Cratena {?) Peachii (Aid. & Hanc). 

131. Cratena (?) stipata (Aid. & Hanc). 

132. Cratena (?) angulata (Aid. & Hanc). 

Off the Bass Rock, 24 fath. {Meyer), Plymoutli {Garstany) , 
Moray Firth (G. Murray). 

Distribution. Sweden {Loven, fide Alder), Normandy 
{Quatrejages, as Eolidina jiaradoxa). 

133. Cratena (?) inornata (Aid. & Hanc). 

134. Cratena (?) Couchii (Cocks). 

135. Cratena (?) northumbrica (Aid. c^ Ilauc). 


84 llev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Subfam. 3. Teroitedin^. 
Genus 4. Tergipes, Cuvier. 

136. Tergipes despectus (Johnston). 

Arran, N.B., and Hilbre Island, Cheshire (flerdmau), 
Filth of Forth [Leslie S^ Herdman), Mersey {CoUimjioood), 
Plymouth {GarstaiKj). 

Distribution. West Norway, 0-10 fa th. {G. 0. Sar.s), N.E. 
America [Stimpson). 

Bergh suggests that Tergipes claviger, Menke, is a synonym. 

Genus 5. Embletonia, Aid. & Hanc. 

137. Embletonia 2} tilchr a, Aid. & Hanc. 
Distribution. Mediterranean (Ihering), Brest [Crouan). 

138. Embletonia minuta (Forbes & Good.). 

139. Embletonia pallida, Aid. & Hanc. 

Mersey {Herdman). 

Distribution. Kiel {Meyer &; Mobius), Denmark [Morch), 
Bergen Fiord, Norway, 14 fath. {Meyer). 

Var. Grayi, Saville Kent. 

Embletonia pallida, Meyer and Mobius, Fauna der Kieler Bucht, I860, 

p. 17, pi. iigs, 1-3. 
Evthletonia Grayi, Saville Kent, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18G9, p. 109, pi. viii. 

Oral lobes highly developed. Eyes deeeply sunk beneath 
the integument and situated some distance apart, immediately 
behind the tentacles ; they are, however, often scarcely 
discernible. Branchial pajnllce in five transverse rows, two 
on each side; but in the adult generally three in each fascicu- 
lus of the second row, and rarely three in the first. In the 
form figured by Meyer and ]\Iobius there are throe papilUv in 
first and second fasciculus and four in the tiiird ; but the 
additional papilla? beyond the primary two are not one third 
the size of these. Colour transparent white, antero-dorsal 
region usually more or less sprinkled with minute ramifying 
pigment-cells of a blackish hue, which occasionally also cxtoml 
over the papilla?. Length two tenths to three tenths of an 

Feeding on Cordylophora lacHstrisj\\\\\^:\\ lives on the sub- 
merged timber-balks at the Victoria Docks, London, where 
the water contains about one third of the saline constituents of 
pure sea-water. Spawn masses of an irregular oval form. 

of British MoUusca. 85 

Genus fi. Amphorina, Quatrefages. 

140. Amphorina C(vruJea (^lont.). 

Distribution. Genoa [Trinchese), Adriatic {Graoffe), West 
France (Fischer). 

141. Amphorina (?) /)ur/)arasc€ns (Fk'Miing). 
A species doubtful iu all respects. 

142. Amphorina moh'os (Ilcrdmau). 

Eolis mnlios, Ilerdman, Proc. Rov. Plivs. Soc. Ediiib. vol. vi. 1881, 
p. 28, pi. i. figs. 1-3. 

^^Body longish, tapering to a fine point posteriorly, and of 
a yellowish-green colour. Oral tentacles of the same colour 
as the body, very short. Dorsal tentacles also yellowish green, 
short and thick. Branchial processes stout but not large, 
dark blue, with large cadmium-yellow tips, encircled near the 
top by a narrow brown band ; they are set in eight transverse 
rows, having five processes iu each [there is some mistake iu 
this number five, as according to the figure there must be 
double that number at least] ; the three anterior rows are 
placed close together, the rest having greater intervals between 
them. Radula formed of overlapping plates, each of which 
has a central spine and five lateral denticulations, which 
decrease in size trom the centre to the edii'c, Leno;th 10 mm." 

Two specimens dredged in about 10 fathoms, Arran, N.B., 
by Professor Herdman. 

Genus 7. Galvina, Aid. & Ilanc. 

143. Galvina exigua^ Aid. & Hanc. 

St. Andrews [Mcintosh), Mersey {Collingwood)^ North 
Wales [Herdman). 

Distribution. Bergen Fiord, Norway, 14 fath. [Meyer] ^ 
Adriatic [M. JSars), Kiel [Meyer 8^ Mobius) , Sweden [Loven), 
Jugor Schar, ' Vega ' exped. [Aurivillius) ; recorded with 
doubt from W. Norway [Friele ^ Hansen). 

It is Tergipes lacinulatus, Lov^n (nee Gmelin). 

144. Galvina tricolor (Forbes). 

Moray Firth (G. Murray). 

Distribution. Brest (Crouan), Sweden [Loven), Floro, 
Norway [Friele & Hansen), Arran, N.B. [Herdynan). 

86 Rev. Canon Xorman's lievision 

It is E. purpurea, E. amethystina, and E. violacea, AM. & 

145. Gahina pi'cta, Aid. & Hanc. 

Shetland {A. M. N.), Arran, N.B., 10-20 fath. ; Liverpool 
district and oft" Port Eiin, Isle of ^lan {llerdraan), ^loray 
Firtli {G. Murray). 

Distribution. G {inoa. (Trinchese), Adriatic {Graefe), West 
Norway, 5-10 fath. {G. 0. Sars). 

146. Galvina Farrani, Aid. & Ilanc. 

St. Andrews {Mcintosh), ]\loray Firth {G. Murray). Mr. 
Garstang finds the species at Plymoutlij and describes several 
interesting colour varieties (Journ. .Marine Biol. Assoc. Gt. 
Brit. vol. i. 1889, p. 193). 

Distribution. Mediterranean [Ihering), Br^hat, France 
[Quatrefages) . 

Jt is Awjihorina Alberti, Qnatrefages, and Eolis andreapolis, 
]\['Intosh. Tlie last is a variety with more or less purple 

147. Galvina adelaidce (W. Thompson). 

Weymouth (Thompson), St. Andrews {M'Intosh). 
This is Eolis Robertianw, M'Intosii. 

148. Galvina vittata. Aid. & Ilanc. 

149. Galvina cingulata. Aid. & Ilanc. 
It is also Eolis hystrix, Aid. & Ilanc. 

Subfam. 4. Cobypbellins. 
Genus 8. CORYPHELLA, Gray. 

150. Coryphella rujibranchialis (Johnst.). 

Shetland {A. M. N.), Moray Firth {G. Murray), St. An- 
drews {Mcintosh), Ililbre Island (Herd/nan), near Plymouth, 
20-25 fath. [Garstang), Arran, N.B. {llerdman). 

Distribution. j\le(literranean [Berg/i), Denmark (Morc/i), 
Ikrgen and Floro, Norway [Friele c^ Hansen), Kiel {Meyer i^- 
Mobius), N.E. America (Stimpson), Hehring Sea [Bergh). 

Synonyms. Eolidia Embletoni, Johnston, Eolis 7nananensis, 

Trinchese regards the four Coryphella' which next follow as 
only so many colour varieties of C. rujibranchialis. 

of British Mollusca. 87 

151. Cor yphella gracilis^ Aid. v.^- Ilanc. 

Off Pumn Island, Angleseu, 11-13 tatli. {TlerJinan), Ply- 
mouth {Garstangy in litt.). 

Distribution. Denmark (Mbrch). 

lo2. Coryphella sma'ragdina, Aid. & Ilanc. 
Moray Firth {G. Murray). 

153. CorypheJhi Laudsburgii^ AM. i^ Ilanc. 

Slu-tland and Cumbrae {A. M. N.), Firth of Forth 
(McBain), .Moray Firth (G. Murray), Hilbre Island, Chesliirc 
{Her Jinan). 

iJistrihution, Mediterranean (Trinchese), S. W. France 
{Fischtr)j Floro, Norway {Friele ^ Hansen). 

151. Coryphella pellucida, Aid. & Hanc. 

Lamlash Bay, Firth of Clyde, 10 fath. [Herdman). 
Distribution. Ciiristiania Fiord and \V. Norway, 10-20 
fath. [G. 0. Sars). 

155. Coi'yphella lineata (Loven). 

Off Port Erin, Isle of Man, 15 fath. [Herdman). 

Distribution. Mediterranean ( Verany), Sweden [LovSn)^ 
\V. Norway, 'li)-oO fath. {G. 0. Sars). 

It is jEolis argento-lineata, A. Costa, and Eolidia Demar- 
tinii, Verany. 

Subfam. 5. Favokixid^. 
Genus 9. Favokinus, Gray. 

15 ). Favorinus albus. Aid. & Hanc. 

Favorinwi ulbus, Trinchese, Atti della 11. Ace. dei Liucei, ser. 3, vol. xi. 
(1882), p. b'.>, pL^. xxxi., xxxii. tig. 2. 

One variety figured by Trinchese lias the branchiae white, 
another green, another orange, a fourth brown. 

Isle of Cumbrae and Shetland [A. M. N.), Moray Firth 
{G. Murray), Plymouth [Garstang, in litt.). 

Distribution. Mediterranean [Trinchese ^c), Adriatic 
{Graeffe), S. \V. France {Fischer), Kiel {Meyer 6f Mdbius)^ 
Denmark {Morch), Sweden {Loven), W. Norway, 10-20 
fath. (G. 0. Sars). 

157. Favorinus carneus, Aid. &Hanc. 

88 Rev. Canon Norman's Revifti'on 

Genus 10. Facelina, Aid. & Hanc. { = Acanthopsole, 

158 Facelina Drumrnondu {W . Thompson). 

Facelina Drtimmondii, Trinche^je, Atti della R. Ace. dei Lincei, ser. 3, 
vol. xi. (1881) p. 41, pi. X. fig. 3, pis. xii., .wiii., xix., xxi., xxiv., 
XXV., xxvi., xxviii., xxix., xxx., xxxi. 

Trinchese, as above, figures two very marked colour 
varieties, and goes very fully into the anatomy of the species. 

Cumbrae, Arran, N.B., and Falmouth {A. M. xV.), Firth of 
Forth [McBai'ii), Mersey and Dee, very common [Colli ntj- 

Distribution. Mediterranean [Costa ^c), S.W. France 
{Fischer), Kiel [Meyer &; Mobius), Denmark [March), W. 
Norway, 0-10 fath. [G. 0. Sars). 

Synonyms. jFoUs gigns, A. Costa, Eolidia Jyinii and 
Pantiizce, Verany, Eolis Quatrefagesi, Vayssiere ; and a 
British variety is E. temiibranchialis, Aid. & Hanc. 

159. Facelina coronata (Forbes). 

Moray Firth [O. Murray), St. Andrews [Mcintosh), 
Cumbrae and Arran, N.B. [A. M. N.), Firth of Forth [Mc- 
Bain), Hilbre Island {Herdman), Plymouth [Garstang) . 

Distribution. Mediterranean [Trinchese ct'c), W. France 
(Fischer), Denmark [March), Floro, Norway [Friele (L* ILni- 

160. Facelina jyuncfata, Aid. & Ilanc. 

Facelina punctata, Trinchese, Atti della R. Ace. del Lincei, ser. 3, xi. 
(1882), p. 38, pis. ix., x. figs. 1, 2, pLs. xi., xiv., xv., xvi., xvii., xxii. 
figs. 1, 2, pi. xxiii. figs. 3-5, pis. xxvii., xxx a. tigs. 3-8. 

One of the Mediterranean varieties figured by Trinchese 
has the branchiie of a rich rose colour. 

Plymouth [Garstang). 

Distribution. Mediterranean [Ihering cCr.), S.W. France 

161. Facelina elegans. Aid. & Hanc. 

Subfani. 6. FzASEZLiyix^. 

Genus 11. Calma, Aid. & Hanc. 

162. Calma glaucoides, Aid. & Hanc. 

of Jiritish MoUuscn. 89 

Suhlam. 7. Fiomd.k. 

Genus 12. Fion'a, Hancock & lOuibleton. 

1G3. Fiona marina (Forskal). 

Fiona nobi/is, AM. it Tliinc. Ih'it. Nud. Moll, fiira. iii. pi. xxxviii a. 
Fiona aflan/ini, IJcr;.'-!!, Anatoin. I'luler.''. af Fiona atlantica, Vid. Medd. 

Natiir. For. i Kjiibinliavn, IHoT. 
Fiona marina (Forskftl), Bergh, Scient. Results Explor. Alaska, vol. i. 

(1879) p. 14i>. 

Penniaenniawr, N. Wales (Thompson), Southport Pier 
( TVcrtrs) . 

Distribation. ]\Iediterraiiean [Bergh tt'c), W. France 
(Fischer), North Pacilic (Bergh). 

Synonyms. Limax marinus, For.skal, yEolis fascicalata, 
Lamarck, Eolis Cuvierij Del. Ciii., 1 1 y nienoiolis elegantissima 
(A. Costa). 

Subfam. 8. Antiopin^. 

Genus 13. Antiopa, Aid. & Hanc. 1848 (= Janus, 
Verany, 1844, nee Stephens, 1835). 

164. Antiopa cristata (Delle Chlaje). 

Shetland, and Sealiani Harbour, co. Durham (A. M. N.), 
Kiver Dee (Coiling wood), j\leisey and N. Wales (Ilerdnian), 
Plymouth (Garsfang). 

Distributiun. Mediterranean ( Verany d;c.),K(\x'vAt\ii(Graej^e) , 
Boulogne (Bouch.- Chant.). 

Synonyms. Antioj)u sj}/endida. Aid. & Hanc., Janus spi- 
noke, Yerany, and perhaps jEolis carinata, Costa. 

165. Antiopa hyalina. Aid. & Hanc. 
Hilbre Island, Cheshire (Byerley (fee). 

Genus 14. Proctonotus, Aid. & Hanc. 

166. Proctonotus mucronifer, Aid. & Hanc. 
Arran, X.B., in 15 fathoms (Herdman). 

Subfam 9. Heroinm. 
Genus 15. Heijo, Lov^n. 

167. Hero formosa, Loven. 

Hero formosa, Herdman, Proo. Roy. Pliys. Soc. Edin. vi. (1881) p. 15, 
pi. i. figs. 4-6. 

Lamlash Bay, Arran, 10-20 fath., and off Salen, in tiie 
Isle of" Man (Herdman). 

90 Revision of British MoUusca. 

Distribution . Deumark {March) ^ Cliristiania Fiord and 
Lofoten Islands, 15-100 fath. (G. 0. Sars). 

Sijnonyrns. CUelia trilineata, ^I. iSars, and Trit)iiia vehila^ 

Fam. 10. HermaeidsB. 
Genus 1. IlER.^rjiA, Loven. 

168. Ilenncea hijida (Montaguj. 

Plymouth [Garstamj^ in litt.). 
Distribution. Naples ( Cos^a) , Genoa {Trinchese) . 
It is U. Ilancocki, Tiincliese, and perhaps H. cruciafuSj 
Agassiz 5 it is also P/tysojjneumon carneuiHj Costa. 

169. Ilerma'a dendritica, Aid. & Hanc. 

Distribution. Naples {Costa), Genoa {Trinchese), Trieste 

It is //. brevicormSj lutescens, and orbicularis of Costa. 

Genus 2. Alderia, Alhnan. 

170. Alderia modesta (Loven). 

Distribution. Sweden {Loven). 
Ir. is Alderia amphibia, AUnian. 

D. P E L L I B R A N C II I A T A. 

Fani 11. Elysiidae. 
Genus Elysia, R.isso. 
171. Elysia viridis (Montagu). 

Cunibrae and Plymouth {A. M. X.). 

Var. olivacea, Jeffreys. 

Distribution. Mediterranean {Marion tC'c), Adriatic {Bergh 
d-c), yFgoan {Forbes), Kiel {Mei/er tf- MiJbius), Denmark 
(Bergh), i^wcdcn {Loven), Norway and Finmark, 0-10 t'atli. 
{G. '0. Sars). 

Ml. (I. A. l)iiulriij;er o« (t now Snake. 91 

F;im. 12. Limapontiidse. 
Genu-; 1. LiMAPONTIA, Johnston. 

172. Liinapontia capitata (Miiller) = Fasciola capit/ifa, 
MxiWcr = Li inapont id nu/ni, Johnston. 

Cunibrae (A. M. N.), St. Andrews {M'lntonh), Newhaven, 
in Firth of Forth [T. b'co/(), Plymouth {Garstamj, in litt.). 
Distribution. Denmark (J/«7/e/- tOc), Sweden [Loven) , 

173. Limopontia depressa, Aid. vJc llanc. 

Genus 2. Cenia, Aid. & Hanc. 

174. Cenia Cocksi, Aid. & Hanc. 
Moray Firth (G. Murray). 

Genus 3. Act.eonia, Quatrefages. 

175. Acfceonia corrugata^ Aid. & Hanc. 

[To be continued.] 

VI. — Description of a new Snake of the Genus Glauconia, 
Gray *, obtained by Dr. Eniin Pasha on the Victoria 
Nyanza. By G. A. Boulenger. 

Glauconia Emini. 

Snout rounded ; supraocular large, nearly twice as broad 
as long, followed by a single large transverse shield ; rostral 
a little broader than nasal, not extending quite to between the 
eyes; nasal completely divided; ocular bordering the lip, 
between two labials, the anterior of which equals the lower 
portion of the nasal in size ; six lower labials. 14 scales 
round the body. Diameter of body bb times in the total 
length, length of tail 9 times. Uniform blackish. Total 
length 110 niillim. 

Two specimens were obtained at Karagvve by Dr. Emin 
Pasha and presented by him to the British Museum. 

* =SteHostoinn, Waaler, nee Litreille. 

92 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on a neio SnaJce. 

The African species of Gluuconia which, in my opinion, 
arc entitled to recof^nition are thirteen in number, and may be 
distinguished as follows : — 

A. Ocular bordfringr the lip, separated from the 

lower part of the nasal by a single labial. 

a. Snout hooked, the prseoral portion flat or 
concave inferiorly. 

Diameter of body more than 100 times in the 

total length G. mrtcrorhi/nchus, Jan. 

Diameter of body less than 100 times in the 

total length G. rostrata, Bocage. 

h. Snout rounded, 

a' . Supraocular nearly twice as broad as 
long, followed by a single transversely 
enlarged shield G. Emini, Blgr. 

h'. Supi-aocular small. 

a". Rostral not extending to the level of 
the posterior border of the eyes. 

a. Diameter of body 40 to 57 times in 
the total length. 

First labial as large as lower part of nasal .... G. 7iarirostn'<>, Ptrs. 
First labial smaller than lower part of nasal ; 

length of tail 25 to 30 times in total G. brevicauda, Bocage. 

First labial smaller than lower part of nasal ; 

length of tail 8 to 13 times iu total G. tiiyricans, Schleg. 

/3. Diameter of body G5 to 90 times in 
the total length. 

Nasal semidivided ; length of tail 14 or 15 times 

in total G. Cain, D. .^' B. 

Nasal completely divided ; length of tail 9 times 

in total G. loncjicauda, Ptrs. 

h". Rostral extending to the level of the 
posterior boi'der of the eyes. 

Rostral not twice the width of the nasal G. cotijnncfa, Jan. 

Rostral at least twice the width of the nasal . . G. sciitifruiu^, Ptrs. 

B. Ocular bordering the lip, separated from the 

lower part of the ro.stral by two labials. 

Supraocular large, as broad as the shield 

following G. Sundevallii, Jan. 

Supraocular small G. bicolor, Jan. 

C. Ocular not reaching the lip G. dissimili/t, JiocHge. 

In addition to the above-described Glauconici, the following 

On new Shells froiu Lake Tantjani/ika. 0-5 

lu'iitiU-s and Ralraeliians were sent to the Hiitish Musnini hy 
Dr. Kniin Paslia : — 

South Shore of Victoria Nyanza. — Nucras tessellat'i, Smith ; 
Eremias Spekiij Gtlir. ; Lygos^oma inodrsfnm, Crtlir. (a single 
spceinien, with 24 scales round the body and the nasal eoni- 
])letely divided into two) ; Dromojiltis ain/ofensis^ 13iteag-3 ; 
l\amino^)hifi hiseriatus^ Ptrs. ; Thelotornis Kirtlaadii, Hallo .v. 

Ugogo. — Meyalixalus Fornasiniiy liianeoni. 

VII. — On a new Genns and some new Sjiccies of Shells from 
Lake Tanganyika. By EdgAR A. Smith. 

Mr. E. Coode Hore recently presented to the British Mu- 
seum a few TanganjMkan shells preserved in spirit and con- 
taining the animals. Among them are two specimens of 
Paramelania nassa^ var. grandis *. 

This variety I now propose as the type of a new genus, 
wliich may be designated Nassopsis, distinguished from Para- 
melania t (henceforth reserved for P. Damoni and P. crassi- 
gronulata) ])artly on account of certain differences in the 
shell, but more especially as tlie operculum is of an entirely 
different type. 

In Paramelania the aperture of the shell does not exhibit 
the sinuation or subtiuneation of tlie columella which is so 
conspicuous in typical jSassopsis, and the antei'ior extremity 
of the last whorl has a slightly produced appearance ; the outer 
lip also is more thickei;ed. The operculum in Paramelania 
is large, ovate, paucispiral at the nucleus, situated a little 
within the left margin and about equidistant from the ends, 
and subsequently displays a concentric style of growth. That 
of Nassojjsis is small and somewhat paucispiral at the almost 
terminal nucleus. 

Nassopsis nassa, var. grandis. 

Animal with the foot small, broader in front than behind, 
with the anterior margin double; sides of the foot and head 
blackish ; proboscis compressed, broad and truncate at the 
end ; tentacles also black, except at the tips, which are pale, 
very short, conical, swollen at the base on the outer side, 
probably denoting the position of the eyes ; free edge of the 
mantle dark-coloured and subdenticulate. 

* Proc. Zool. Soc. 1881, p. 501, pi. xxxiv. %. 20 «. 
t L. c. p. 559 { = Bonrytdynatiu, Ginuid). 

94 Mr. E. A. Smith on new 

Radida with teeth in seven series (3, 1.3), central smallest ; 
recurved edge notched at each side, with a conspicuous cutting- 
edge; inner or first lateral obliquely subquadrate, much pro- 
duced at the outer base into a rostrate extremity, with three 
denticles on the recurved cutting-edge ; second lateral larger 
than the rest, oblique, incurved, margin tricuspidate ; outer 
or third lateral narrow, more slender at the base than above, 
curved over towards the adjacent tooth, and with five or six 
unequal denticles on the edge. 

Operculum rich brown, horny, narrow, striated externally 
with lines of growth from the paucispiral nucleus, which is 
nearly terminal ; lower surface with a broad glossy band or 
thickening along the outer or right margin, occupying about 
half the surface ; placed transversely across the dorsal part of 
the foot. Length (from a semiadult shell 20 millim. long) 
7 millim., diameter 3^. 

Mr. Gwatkin, who has had much experience, kindly 
examined the radula of this genus, and informs me that he 
is inclined to believe that Nassopsis will find its nearest allies 
in the Cerithiidge, and not amongst the Littorinoids as I had 
suggested. It also seems to me to bear considerable resem- 
blance to Planaxis. 

In general construction the operculum is very like that of 
many species of Melam'a, but the peculiar solidity of the shell 
and the slight notch at the base of the columella, besides 
certain differences in the radula, may be sufficient to separate 
this and allied species as a distinct group. 

Syrnolopsis {Anceya) Giraudi, var. 

A single specimen, kindly submitted to me for examination 
by Mr. S. I. Da Costa, agrees in most respects with ^I. Bour- 
guignat's description. It differs, however, in colour, being 
of a red tint with a white zone around the middle of the 
whorls. It does not exhibit the palatal lirje in the aperture, 
but these may be too iar within to be visible. In adult speci- 
mens of Syrnolojjsi's lacusfris the lirai cannot be seen until the 
lip is broken away to some extent. As far as I can discover 
the only distinction separating Anceya from Syrnolopsis is 
one of sculpture. The type of Syrnolopsis has smooth whorls, 
whereas that of Ayiceya is lonyitudinaUy costate. If scul(>- 
lurc be admitted as a generic character there is no reason wjjy 
Syrnolo2>sis carinifera should not be regarded as the type of a 
third genus characterized hy sj>iral ridges. The general form 
of the aperture is the same in all three forms ; it is slightly 
oblique and has an upper and basal broad sinus or slight 

ShcKs from Lake Tanganyika. 95 

caiialiculatlon ; tlic outer lip is faintly effuse and prominent, 
and the columellar tolds are similar and in the same position 
in eacii. 

TurbomHa? terebriformis. 

Testa subulata, nitida, albo-grisea, supcrne pallide lilacca, oblique 
costata et striata ; anfractus circiter 18, lente accrescentcs, a])i- 
cales — ?, sequeiitL's .'J-4 couvcxi, longitudinalitcr tenuitor striati, 
circa medium biangulati, ca^tcri convexi (superiorihus quara infe- 
rioribus couvcxioribus, fortissime costatis), costis obliiiuis, sub- 
acutis, distautibus, instructi, lineis increincnti teiiuissimis oblicjiic 
flexuosis striati : anfr. ultimus ad peripheriam rotunde snbaugu- 
latus, costis inferne obsoletis ; aportura loiigit. totius ^ adaequans ; 
columella rectiuscula, supernc obsolete uniplicata. 

Longit. 12 millim., diam. 2^. 

The costce (about eight in number) on the upper wliorls are 
stronger and further apart tlian on the lower ones, and are 
more convex in outline ; on the last volution they number 
about twelve or thirteen. The aperture is somewhat broken 
away anteriorly, so tiiat the generic position of this interesting 
species is not quite certain. The texture and costation some- 
what recall the appearance of some species of Terehra. 

Streptostele Horei. 

Testa parva, elongata, anguste rimata, eerea ; anfractus 7|, apicales 
laeves, cjeteri convexiusculi, sutura profunda leviter obliqua se- 
juncti, costoUis confertis, erectis, supcrne ad suturam denticulati.s 
instructi, inter costellus nitidi ; apcrtura racdiocris, longitudiiiis 
totius \ suba?quaiis ; pcrist. iucrassatum, album, anguste refiexum, 
margine externo prope suturam intus sinuato, columellari dilatato, 
rimam semiobtegente ; columella indistincte contorta : paries 
anfr. ultimi prope extremitatem labri tubcrculis duobis parvis 

Longit. 6^ millim., diam. 2 ; apertura Ig longa et lata. 

This species is well distinguished by the fine longitudinal 
riblels, which at the upper extremities give a finely denticu- 
late appearance to the deep suture. The single specimen 
under examination exhibits two denticles at the upper part of 
the aperture upon the wall of the body-whorl — one near the 
upper end of the upper lip, the other near it but further 
within the mouth. The labrum is conspicuously sinuated 
above near the suture and has a tubercular thickening within 
below the sinus. 

96 Mr. A. G. Butler on the 

Streptostele simplex. 

Testa subulata, tenuis, imperforata, cereo-alba ; anfractus 9, apicales 
Isevcs, cfcteri convexiusculi, sutura obliqua profunda discreti, lon- 
gitudinaliter confertim striati ; apex obtusus, globosus ; apertura 
parva, longit. totius | vix sequans, subtjuadrata ; pcrist. baud 
incrassatum, antice leviter expansum ; columeUa subrecta, reflexa. 

Longit. 8^ niillim., diara. 2 ; apertura 2 longa. 

Tliis species has I'athei* convex wliorls, is finely striated, 
and has a deepish suture. The outer lip is scarcely thick- 
ened and does not exhibit the sinus at the upper part which 
is characteristic of the genus. In form and general appear- 
ance, however, it agrees very well with the type of the group, 
8. fastiqiata^ Morelet. It also bears some resemblance to S. 
Biichholzi o^ Martens, from the Gameroons, but is considerably 
smaller, and has shorter and rather more convex whorls. 

VIII.' — Notes on the Genns Dyschorista, Led., a small Group 
of Moths allied to Orthosia. By A. G. Butlek. 

The genus Dyschorista was founded for the reception of two 
Euro])can species, D. suspecta, Hiibn., and D. i/psilon=Jissi- 
puncta, Hew. (see Lederer, Noct. p. 143, gen. 82). 

Accepting Z). suspecta as type of the genus, it will be neces- 
sary to include the bulk of the forms referred by M. Gueuee 
to his previously characterized genus Orthodes. 

Orthodes, Gu^nc^e, was described in the tirst volume of the 
' Noctuelites,' p. 371, no type being indicated ; but Gueuee 
selected two of the species, 0. t-nigrum and 0. curvirena 
(both Brazilian), for illustration. In the descrijjtion of the 
species of his second group Guence pointed out that 0. cur- 
virena differed structurally from the remainder of the genus: — 
"L'une d^elles [Curvirena) a les palpes particulitireraent 
ascendants et allonges." He thus restricted the identification 
of his type to 0. t-nigrum, the first species of his first group. 

In the ]\Iuseum collection we have an example of 0. t-ni- 
grum, and, as may be seen from the figure in the ' Noc- 
tuelites,' it has no connexion whatever with the remainder of 
the species, but is in fact far more closely allied to Leucania; 
fortunately the remaining s})ecies correspond with D. suspecta 
in size, ])attern, coloration, tiie ascending palpi, simple an- 
tenna3, and heavily tufted anal decorations of the male. 

In his ' Cheek-list of North-American Moths ' for 1882 
Grote rightly reilueed the number of M. Guenee's Nortli- 
Anieriean species, Orthodes niniia and candens being sunk as 

Genua Dyscliorista, Led. 97 

synonyms of 0. a/ni'ca, of whicli they are in fact slight 
varieties ; 0. ivfirnui, however, is a lirazilian species, and 
must be expunf^ed from the North-American fauna, the form 
described by ^J. Guenec as var. A being, as he supposed, a 
distinct species. 

In ty])ical 0. iyijinna the secondaries of tlie male are creamy 
wliite — " Ailes infer, d'un blanc-jaunatre" — whereas in the 
northern form they arc of the same glossy brownish grey as 
in the female. In the Brazilian insect the inner line of the 
central area of primaries is more oblique and much more 
irregular and the outer line more distinctly sinuated between 
the nervnres ; both of these lines and the edges of the dis- 
coidal spots which they enclose are much less prominent than 
in the northern form ; but, as M. Gudnee says, the subter- 
minal line is clearer, at any rate it is so in the female ; the 
marginal spots are very indistinct, and are thus overlooked in 
the original description of the Brazilian form ; but in that of 
var. A the pale zigzag line which shows them up in the 
northern form is noted : — " Un feston terminal clair trbs- 
niarqud." I propose to give the North-American species the 
new designation of Dyschorista crenulata. 

Four closely allied Brazilian species are in tlie collection, 
all differing more or less in the clothing of the under surface 
of the primaries, the tufting of the anal extremity in the 
males, or the palpi ; one of these is typical 0. infirma, a 
second may be 0. rubor ^ but the discoidal spots are bor- 
dered by a pale line, whereas in Guen(^e's type (a female) 
they were not ; a third I am unable to recognize from any of 
the descriptions ; it is a male with closed anal claspers, 
giving it the aspect of a female ; the eosta of the primaries is 
distinctly arched towards the base ; the under surface of these 
wings almost wholly covered with dense rough hair, which 
extends also to the basicostal area of secondaries ; tlie colora- 
tion and general pattern is that of Dijsch.orista crenulata^ but 
the "orbicular" spot is rhomboidal, the two outlines of the 
central area are indistinct and much more parallel, and the 
pale crenulated submarginal line is wanting ; the pectus and 
femora are also much more hairy. 1 propose to call this 
Dyschorista lonaris. The fourth species of the same group is 
(J. curvirena — a most remarkable insect, in whicli the palpi 
are cuived upwards like those of a Deltoid and the anal tufts, 
when fully expanded, are seen to be enormously developed. 
The genus seems to abound in extraordinary ornamentation ; 
in D. inelonogasfer M. Guenee says, " Abdomen noiratre en 
dessus, garni lateralenient de poils carncs, a I'extrcmite d'une 
brosse jaunatre," which calm descri})tion hardly prepares one 
for the large expanded rose-coloured brushes of the moth. 

Ann. & Mag. N, Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 7 

98 Mr. R. I. Pocock on two new 

IX. — Descriptions of tioo new Species of Scorpions brought 
hy Emin Pasha from the inland parts of East Africa. By 
R. I. Pocock, of the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 

[Plate I. figs, 1 and 2.] 

Buthus Emiriii, sp. n. (PI. I. fig. 2.) 

Colour. — Trunk ochraceo-fuscous ; keels of tergites and of 
cephalothorax black ; the ocular tubercle and the antero-lateral 
regions of the cephalothorax infuscate ; a fuscous patch on 
each side of the tergites. Legs and palpi ochraceous beneath, 
the upper surface of humerus and brachium and anterior sur- 
face of the legs feebly infuscate ; tail ocliraceous above, the 
inferior keels irregularly blackened ; vesicle clear ochraceous, 
aculeus black in its second half. 

Cephalothorax slightly wider than long, its anterior border 
very lightly concave ; the anterior keels well developed, 
marked by smooth and rounded granules which anteriorly 
become lost amongst the similar though smaller granules 
which adorn the antero-lateral parts of the cephalothorax ; 
ocular tubercle deeply cleft, very finely granular, the sides of 
it, which are continuous with the anterior keels, are granular 
in front and behind, smooth in the middle ; sides of cephalo- 
thorax beset with larger and smaller granules ; running 
obliquely backwards and inwards from the direction of the 
lateral eyes there are about three subparallel series of large 
granules ; the posterior keels well developed, granular, short 
and parallel, their anterior ends not connected with the very 
feebly developed external median keels and separated by a 
slight interval from the internal median keels, whicii are 
strong and granular ; the areas defined by the anterior and by 
the internal median and posterior keels beset with larger and 
smaller granules. 

Tertjites. — Thefirstsix furnished with threestrongly granular 
keels, which in the posterior half of the body project somewhat 
beyond the margin of the plate ; finely granular throughout 
and furnished in addition between the keels and especially at 
the sides with many coarse granules ; the seventh tergite fur- 
nished like the preceding with fine and coarse granules ; the 
lateral keels well developed, strongly granular, complete 
behind, united in front; the median ]noniiiicnce elongate, 
granular, and subcarinate. 

ISternites mostly smooth, spaisel}' punctured and hairy; 
the first linely granular anlero-Iaterally j the last more coarsely 

Species of Scorpions from East Africa. 99 

frraiiular at \\\v sides, Learin^^ four keels, the internal keels 
sniootli, abbreviated in front, complete behind, the external 
granular and abbreviated in front and behind. 

7 a j7 powerful, ])arallel-sided, dee])ly excavated above; the 
anterior four sej^ments furnished with ten granular keels, but 
the median lateral (supernumerary) keel becoming weaker 
posteriorly, is nearly obsolete on the fourth segment ; the rest 
of the keels on these segments all well developed, complete 
and evenly granular throughout, the posterior granule only of 
the superior keels being the largest of the series and denti- 
form ; the intercarinal spaces finely and closely granular ; the 
upper surface of the first and second segments granular, the 
tipper surface of the rest smooth ; fifth segment excavated 
and smooth above, Avith compressed granular sides, the infe- 
rior lateral and median keels evenly granular throughout, the 
space between these keels coarsely and finely granular, the 
granules in the anterior half being arranged on each side in a 
distinct longitudinal series. Vesicle large and inflated, gran- 
ular and hairy below ; aculeus of average form. 

Paljn. — Humerus thickly granular above, granular and 
tubercular in front, minutely granular beneath, hairy, espe- 
cially in front, and furnished with the usual granular keels ; 
hrachium granular and granularly costate above, smooth and 
subcostate behind and beneath, granular and granularly 
costate in front ; manus large, rounded, very finely and closely 
granular, hairy and somewhat deeply punctured, much wider 
than the brachiuni ; dactyli short, not in contact at the base, 
each furnished with a lobe, the lobe on the movable dactylus 
being smaller than and fitting behind the lobe on the immov- 
able dactylus. 

Legs granular and carinate ; coxse smooth. 

Peciines long, projecting beyond the fourth coxa?, furnished 
with 25 or 26 similar teeth. 

Measurevients in millimetres. — Total length 50; length of 
tail 30, of first segment 3, of second 4, of third 4*2, of fourth 
5, of fifth 6, of vesicle 3*5 ; width of first segment 4, of third 
4*2, of fifth (in front) 4, (behind) 3, of vesicle 3 ; cephalo- 
thorax, length 5'5, width 6 ; length of humerus 4*5 ; bra- 
chium, length 5, width 2'2 ; manus, width 3*3 ; length of 
" hand-back"" 4, of movable dactylus 5*7. 

A single male specimen taken on the south shore of Victoria 

This interesting species belongs to the group of Buthus of 
which hottentotta is a good representative, and appears to lead 
from it to those constituting the subgenus Prioniiras^ of 
which australis is the type. Thus in the number and arma- 


100 On two new Species of Scorinona from East Africa. 

tuve of tlie keels of the tail it closely resembles hottentottay 
but the fifth segment of that organ is much more deeply 
excavated, and its sides arc distinctly carinatc, though not to 
such an extent as is seen in (mstralis. Moreover, the manus 
is much larger than in hottentotta and the dactyli mucli 
shorter ; in the form of these parts it calls to mind the male 
of B. Fhili'ppsiiy Pocock, but with this species it cannot be 
confounded on account of the conformation of its caudal 

Scorpio viatoris, sp. n. (PI. I. fig. 1.) 

Colour. — Trunk above olivaceo-piceous^ paler beneath ; 
hands with reddish tinge ; vesicle ochraceous ; aculeus black 
in its hinder half. 

Cej'halothorax wider behind than long, with its anterior 
border deeply excised in the middle and denticulated at the 
sides ; lateral depressed portions of cephalothorax finely and 
closely granular; the area behind the frontal lobes also finely 
granular, but very sparsely so ; the rest of the upper surface 
smooth, bearing a ie,\\ scattered setiferous pores ; ocular 
tubercle cleft and situated just behind the middle of the 

Tergltes granular, minutely and closely in front and at the 
sides, mucli more coarsely and less closely behind ; the first 
six marked with a median smooth keel, the seventh with a 
sparsely granular median prominence, and one strongly 
granular keel on each side. 

Sternites bisulcate in front, wholly smooth, all of them, but 
especially the last, furnished witli a few setiferous ])ores. 

Tail much less than four times as long as the cephalo- 
thorax ; the first two segments slightly shorter than the 
cephalothorax; upper surface of tail almost wholly smooth ; 
the superior and supero-lateral keels distinctly denticulate ; the 
inferior keels on the first and second segments wholly smooth, 
on ihe third subdenticulatc behind ; on the fourth more denticu- 
lated than on the third, but less so than on the fifth ; the 
median lateral keel present on tiie first segment, but much 
abbreviated anteriorly, represented on the second, third, and 
fourth segments by a few granules subserially arranged ; the 
fifth segment furnished witli seven denticulated keels ; vesicle 
carinate and granular beneath j the aculeus somewhat abruptly 
curved in its posterior half. 

Palju. — Humerus smooth on its lower and upper surfaces, 
the latter defined behind and in front by a series oi denticles 
and bearing two or three setiferous tubercles, its anterior 

Mr. R. I. Pocock on Ebalia nux, }[ilne-Edwards. 101 

surface strongly dentate ; hrachium subcostate behind, 
smooth, but marked with setiferous pores ; smooth beneath 
and furnished with many setiferous pores along the iiinder 
margin ; anterior surface finely granular and sparsely denti- 
culate ; manus narrow, e([ualliiig in widtii the suj)erior ridge 
of the " hand-back," with lightly convex but distinctly den- 
tate and hairy inner margin, scarcely produced posteriorly; 
the upper surface ornamented with a reticulated pattern formed 
by the anastomosis of low smooth ridges ; above the superior 
ridge of tiie " hand-back " tiie surface is subcostate ; inferior 
surface mostly smooth, coarsely but sparsely granular in 
front, with two smooth keels ; dactijJi granular, eostate and 
hairy ; the movable dactylus slightly longer than the iiand. 

Legs, — The femora of the fourth pair feebly granular in 
front ; for the rest the legs are almost entirely smooth and not 
eostate ; coxce^ especially of the anterior two pairs, punctured. 

Pectines short, projecting as far as the end of the fourth 
00X03 ; furnished with fourteen teeth. 

Measurements in millimetres. — Total length 100"5 ; length 
of cephalothorax 15, width 15"5 ; length of tail 49, of first 
segment 6'5, of second 7*5, of third 8*2, of fourth 9'5, of fifth 
12, of vesicle Q)'5^ of aculeus 4*5 ; width of first caudal seg- 
ment 6'5, of fifth 4'5, of vesicle 4*5 ; length of humerus lo*7 ; 
brachium, length 14'5, width 5*3 ; width of hand II ; length 
of" hand-back" 10"5, of movable finger IG'5. 

A single male specimen without special locality. 

In the reticulated sculpturing of the hands this species 
resembles Sc. indicus (Linn.); but it is of much more slender 
build, with longer palpi, thinner hands, and longer tail. In 
the form of its palpi it approaches the male of Sc. fidvipes ; 
but in this species the upperside of the hand is coarsely granu- 
lar and subcostate. 

X. — On Ebalia nux, Milne-Edwards. By R. I. PococK. 

My attention has just been called to a passage on p. 316 of 
the last number of the * Journal of the Marine Biological 
Association/ in which I regret to see that Canon Nor^nan 
has taken occasion to charge me by implication with lack of 
courtesy for not giving what he considers due acknowledg- 
ment to the name he applied to the above Crustacean; and since 
such an accusation is likely to carry weight from such a source 
and to leave a wrong impression on the minds of readers not 

102 Mr. R. I. Pocock on Ebalia nux, Milne-Edioards. 

acquainted with the facts of the case, I shall be glad to be 
permitted to say a few words on my own behalf to clear away 
any misapprehension that may have arisen. 

When writing a report upon the Crustacea dredged by Mr. 
Green off the south-west coast of Ireland, I was naturally 
desirous of giving a reference to the original description of 
Ebalia mix — one of the species obtained. That the species 
had been described I did not at first for a moment doubt ; 
for in more than one case I saw it quoted as Ebalia 7iux, Nor- 
man, without any insertion of the letters MS. Anyone, I 
think, who will take the trouble to " look up " the species in 
the * Museum Normanianum,' in the Brachyura of the * Chal- 
lenger,' and in the first three of the works mentioned by 
Mr. Bourne in his useful list of the literature of the subject, 
will admit without hesitation tliat my conclusion was the 
obvious one to arrive at ; for in every case it will be noticed 
that amongst several well-known species, to each of which is 
affixed its author's name, Ebalia nux, Norman, is mentioned 
— ;iust as if this species rested upon as secure a basis as the 
others and had the same right to recognition. 

Since, however, in none of these places was there a refer- 
ence to the original source of the name, I decided, very 
naturally, to apply to the fountain-head for the information I 
required. I consequently wrote to Canon Normau asking if 
he could kindly help me out of the difficulty ; but since I 
received no reply to this letter, although I retained my manu- 
script as long as was possible in the expectation of being 
favoured with one, I was obliged to have the paper printed as 
it now stands*. But whilst awaiting an answer from Canon 
Norman I had discovered that Prof. Carus, in his ' Prodro- 
mus, 'mentions Ebalianux, Norm., and that he inserts after the 
name the words " species nonduni descriptay This was the first 
intimation I had that the crab in question had been hitherto 
known by a manuscript name. Having learnt this, it seems 
to me that, in writing on the species, I adopted the only plan 
that common sense and common courtesy alike suggest-ed, 
i. e. I described the species as new and gave Canon Nor- 
man the credit of it by retaining the name he proposed and 
by subjoining the words " Ebalia nuXj Norman, 31S." 
How by thus acting I overstepped the bounds of courtesy 
I confess my inability to see. It appears to me that [ 
gave to his species all the acknowledgment Canon Norman 
could possibly expect, and that at the same time I represented 
the facts of the case in a perfectly courteous and intelligible 

• Ann. & Mug. Nat. Hist. iv. pp. 425-431 (1889). 

Miss E. M. Sharpe on neio African LycienidiB. 103 

manner. This being so, I was not a little surprised to see 
Canon Norman's comment on the ])raiseworthy conduct of 
Messrs. Marion and Milne-Edwards and the reflection that it 
cast ujion my own ; nor, when I thought over the implied 
accusation against me of discourtesy, could I help tceling 
slightly amused as the recollection of my letter passed through 
my mind. But if I were to assume that Canon Noraiau 
received my letter and had not the — shall I say? — courtesy to 
answer it, and were to suggest that if my mode of dealing 
with his manuscript name was discourteous his treatment of 
my letter is deserving ot a much harsher ej)ithet, 1 think the 
assumption would be very unjust and the suggestion a very 
unmannerly one. I shall consequently make neither, but 
shall conclude that my letter never reached its destination ; 
for seemingly this is the only conclusion that explains to 
Canon Norman's credit the fact that the sole reply received to 
my private letter was a public, though guarded, accusation 
of discourtesy. 

XI. — On some new Species of African Lycajnidoe in the Col' 
lection of Philip Crowley^ Esq. By Emily Mauy 

Fam. Lycaenidae. 

Genus Pseudaletis. 

Pseudaletis tynfasciata, sp. n. 

Similar to P. clymenus, Druce, but differing in the extent 
of the black border on the fore wing, which reaches from the 
costa to the submedian nervure; this black portion of the 
wing is relieved by two white spots, one at the end of the 
discoidal cell, while the second is oval and extends from the 
first discoidal or radial nervule, then slanting slightly down 
to the third median nervule. 

There is a white patch along the inner margin of the fore 
wing, extending a little above the submedian nervure. 

The hind wing has a broad border of black along the mar- 
gin to the internal nervure, with a broad black bar from the 
end of the costal nervure to the border. 

The underside has this bar distinctly marked, with a second 
black bar from the base of the hind wing to the submedian 
nervure ; there is a third bar wiiich begins from the inner 

l04 Miss E. M. Sharpe on new African Lycgeniclse. 

margin and joins tlie otiier two bars, making a large black 
patch between the first median nervure and the submedian 
nervurc at the anal angle ; this patch has a little yellow in 
which are two black spots. 

On the underside of the fore wing there is an additional 
white ppot near the apical portion of the wing. 

Exp. 37 millim. 

llah. Sierra Leone. 

Genus Zeritis. 
Zeritis leonina^ sp. n. 

Similar to C. harpax^ Fabr., but is a much paler yellow, 
with a very broad black border to the hind margin and costal 
margin, and very black at the base of the fore wing. 

The hind Aving has no black border, the wing being entirely 
yellow with the exception of black at the base and a black 
streak near the first subcostal nervule. There are two deli- 
cate tails. 

Tiie underside of the fore wing is a very pale yellow, 
changing to a pale brown near the apical portion and having 
the hind margin a deep reddish yellow. There is a row of six 
silver spots along the inner side of this red marginal border, 
two small silver spots near the base, a silver black and reddish- 
yellow-bordered streak across the wing rather before the 
middU', with a shorter similar streak on each side of it (the 
outer one interrupted), and a quadrate spot between tliis and 
the marginal series of spots. The costal margin is slightly 
touched with reddish yellow. 

The hind Aving is more or less suffused with deep reddish 
yellow, with bars and spots of silver enclosed by very tine 
black lines. Tliere is a large black spot at the anal angle of 
the wing. 

Exp. '1'^ millim. 

Hah. Sierra Leone. 

Zeritis fallax^ sp. n. 

The undersiclc resembles that of Z. lotifmhriata, but it lias 
the ground-colour slightly darker rufous-brown ; all the 
markings are silver, with thin black outlines; there is a com- 
plete row of spots on a dark hind marginal border. 

The upi)erside is a deep purplish blue, with the costa, hind 
margin, and a|>ical ]ioition of the fore wing black. 

The hind wing has some blue in the centre of the wing, 
with a black costa and fringe; iVom the tirst median nervule 

Miss E. M. Sliarpc on neto African Lycjenidre. 105 

to tlic anal angle is a patch of rufous-brown, with two small 

Exp. 23 millim. 

llab. {Sierra Leone. 

Zcritis hit I'Jiinhr lata, sp. n. 

Allied to C. harpax, Fabr., but differs in the greater extent 
of the reddish yellow on the fore wing, thus making the black 
border narrower; there is a black spot at the end of the dis- 
coidal cell. The base of both wings is suffused with black. 

The hind wing has a narrow black line along the hind 
margin with a grey fringe ; the costal portion is black. 
There are two tails, the last being very thick. 

The underside is paler than in Z.harpax, with the silver lines 
more marked ; between the tw'O tails on the hind wing is a 
large spot of silver. 

This may ])robably turn out to be the female of Z.fallax. 

Exp. 30 millim. 

Genus Aphnjsus. 
Aphnceus chalyheatus ^ sp. n. 

Nearest to A. orcas, Drury, but is much smaller and the 
blue not so bright nor so distinctly marked on either of the 

The underside is a deep brownish red with spots of silver 
enclosed in black ; from the end of the discoidal cell below 
the first median nervule is a silver streak on the fore wing. 

The hind wing is similar to the fore wing, with the excep- 
tion of two oblique silver lines between the submediaii and 
internal nervures. 

Exp. 29 millim. 

IJab. (Sierra Leone. 

Genus Lyc^nesthes. 
Lyccenesthes voltce, sp. n. 

Entirely white, with the base, costa, apical portion, and 
hind margin of the fore wing light brown ; there is a trans- 
verse line of brown at the end of the discoidal cell. 

The hind wing has the hind marginal border brown, with 
three angulated lines between the second and first median 
nervules and one near the anal angle. The fringe on the 
hind wing is white^ with three tails at the end of the second 
and first median nervules and submedian nervure. 

106 Miss E. M. Sharpe on naw African LjcaenidaB. 

The underside is white, with markings of pale brownish 
yellow over the wings ; on tiie hind wing are two yellow spots 
situated one on the submedian nervure and the other between 
the second and first median nervures. 

Exp. /}3 iniilim. 

Hah. Volta River. 

Genus Epitola. 
Epitola Crowleyi^ ap. n. 

$ . Nearest to E. Dewitzi, Kirby, but larger and with the 
blue of a much deeper colour, having more of a purple tint. 

The blue patch on the fore wing extends a little into the 
discoidal cell, there being no spots of any kind on the upper- 

The hind wing resembles the fore wing in having the large 
blue patch and the black border round the hind margin. 

The underside is different in having no spots near the dis- 
coidal cell of the fore wing ; there is, however, an uneven row 
of white spots near the apical portion of the wing. The 
costal margin has a line of dull metallic golden colour. 

The hind wing has a purple ground relieved by a number 
of white silver streaks and spots. There is a broad stripe of 
silver-white extending for some distance along the costa. 

Exp. c? 50 millim. 

Uab. Sierra Leone. 

The female differs considerably from that of E. Dewitzi in 
having only a very faint indication of the pale blue patch on 
the fore wing. There are three white spots placed obliquely 
near the apex of the fore wing, a larger spot between the second 
and third median nervules, with a faint blue spot nearly at 
the end of the first median nervule. 

The hind wing has the blue paler, but it is strongly marked 
between the lower radial and tlie first median nervule, leaving 
the margin and the base of the wing black. 

The underside differs in having the four white spots from 
the costal margin to the discoidal nervules, and another large 
white spot between the second and third median nervules of 
the fore wing. 

The hind wing is entirely silver-white, with the spots and 
streaks of purjtle-bronze. The silver-white near the costa is 
very large and spreads almost to the subcost;\l nervure. 

Exp. ? 52 millim. 

Bab. Sierra Leone. 

Mr. 0. 0. Waterliouse on new African Coleoptera. 107 

XII. — On some Eastern Equatorial African Coleoptera col- 
lected by Enu'n Ptutha, with Descriptions of two new Longi- 
cornia. By CiiARLi:s O. Waterhouse. 

[Plate I. fig. 3.] 

The British ^Inseum has hitely received a series of insects 
from Eastern Africa, collected by Emin Pasha. Among 
tliem there is a mixture of East- and West-African species, as 
observed in my former paper (Proc. Zool. 8oc. Lend. 1»88, 
p. 86) on the Coleoptera from the same source. Among the 
Longicorns the following may be noticed : — Anoplostetha 
l<icfator, F., Lophoptera asperula, White, Natal species ; 
Xystrocera niyrita, Serv., Fhryneta obscura, 01., and Mecha 
hecate^ Chevr., West- African species. 

Plocopderus Emini^ sp. n. (PI. I. fig. 3.) 

Piceo-niger, parum nitidus, pube flavo-giisea vestitus. Ei)istomo 
sat profunde emarginato ; anteiiuis corpore longioribus, articulo 
basali erasso, rugoso, latitudine duplo longiore, basi vix angiis- 
tato ; thorace sat brevi, disco depresso, oblique plicato ; cl3'tris 
rufo-piceis, basi, sutura marginequc laterali reflexo nigrescentibus, 
ad apicem truucatis, angulo suturali acute spinoso, angulo extemo 
obtuse angulato. S • 

Long. 20 lin. 

This fine species is nearest to P. fucatus, Dej., but is larger 
and less convex, and differs from th at and all its allies in the 
colour of the elytra. The antenna^- have the basal joint very 
large, not quite twice as long as broad, with an obtuse ridge 
in front, extending to the middle of the joint. The third to 
sixth joints are swollen at the apex, with an acute angular 
projection ; the swelling at the apex of the seventh joint is 
less and the angular projection less acute. The thorax has 
the disk much Hatter than in P. fucatas, clothed with pale 
sandy pubescence ; with a tine longitudinal carina in front, 
and a tine transverse straight carina at the middle (angulated 
in its middle), and a longitudinal smooth space behind the 
middle ; the rest of the surface is marked by some undulating 
more or less oblique pleats. The elytra are less convex than 
in P. J'ucatus, very closely and very finely and evenly punc- 
tured, with larger punctures interspersed. The prosternal 
process has its apical portion almost parallel and very dis- 
tinctly bituberculate. 

108 Prof. Carl Glaus o« //«e 


Ceroplesis signata, sp. n. 

Nij?er, brevissirae pubesoens : thoraco disco foveato-puiictato ; elytris 
fortiter sat crcbre punctatis, fascia rufa ante medium ad suturam 
paullo interrupta ornatis. 

Long. 9 1 lin. 

Ifah. E. Africa. 

This species is very close to C. cefln'ops, but is relatively 
narrower and has the elytra a little more acuminate at their 
apex. The thorax has a strongly marked, impressed, trans- 
verse line in front of and behind the disk, so that the disk is 
more convex than in C. adJn'opSy somewhat shining, with a 
median impressed line ; the sides of the disk witli some rather 
large deep punctures. The elytra are clothed with short 
pubescence, but the rather coarse and moderately close 
punctuation is nevertheless visible, especially at the base ; 
just before the middle there is a bright red fascia, nearly 
rectilinear posteriorly, but obliquely narrowed anteriorly near 
the suture, where there is a slight interruption. 

XIII. — On the Organization of the Cy prides. 
By Prof. Carl Glaus*. 

Since the publication of Zenker's well-known ]\Ionograph 
(1854), although the number of forms described as species 
and the division of the old Mlillerian genus Cypris into sub- 
genera and new genera have advanced considerably, our 
knowledge of the orc-anization of the freshwater " Ostracoda " 
has made no particular progress. With the exception of my 
little treatise on the developmental history of Cypris, pub- 
lished twenty-two years ago, and the recently issued memoirs 
of some pupils of Weismann's (Stuhlmann, Nortquist) on the 
so-called mucous glands, recognized as an ejaculatory appa- 
ratus, of the male Gyprides, we stand essentially on the plat- 
form of Zenker's Monogra])h, and for information on the details 
of organization are compelled to go to that work, whicii, not- 
withstantling the imperfect methods of investigation prevalent 
at the time of its publication, furnished many important 
results. Nevertheless it does not come up to the present level 

* Translated from the Auzeiger d. kaisorl. Akad. d. ^^'i?'s. in Wien, 
March 20, 1890, pp. 1-0. 

Organization of the Cyprides. 109 

ot our knowledge of the organization of tlie Crustacea, and it 
was easy to foresee that with the extraordinarily perfected 
methods of recent times, and especially the preparation of 
serial sections from hardened and stained oljjects, numerous 
gaps in our knowledge of these organisms would be filled up 
without much dithculty. Consequently I only supjjlied a 
pressing desideratum when I again took up the investigation 
of Cypris. The results obtained are briefly summarized 

1. The nervous system consists, besides the brain clothed 
Avith a thick ganglionic covering, of an elongated ventral 
cord containing five pairs of ganglia. Tlie anterior section of 
the brain, representing the prosencephalon of the Arthropod 
brain, gives forth the nerves to the tripartite frontal eye and 
possesses a ])articularly strong coating of ganglion-cells, in 
which the centre of projection of the highest rank is probably 
to be sought. The mesencephalon gives off the nerves to the 
anterior antenna?, into which, however, fibres from the prosen- 
cephalon also enter ; at the sides of the metencephalon repre^ 
seiited by the exceedingly elongated commissures, which only 
unite far above the oesophagus, the nerves of the second pair 
of antennjB originate. The ventral chain of ganglia extends 
throughout the length of the body to the sexual apparatus, 
and in its anterior, broader portion passes beneatli the pro- 
jecting cariniform pectoral plate on the side of which the 
maxillai and maxillipeds (second pair of maxillai) originate. 
This section contains the closely approximated ganglia of the 
mandibles, maxillae, and maxillipeds, the muscles of which 
are supplied by the nerves issuing from them. Beyond the 
jK'Ctoral plate commences the narrower and more elongate4 
division of the ventral cord, the two ganglia of which give off 
the nerves to the pairs of legs. At the posterior of these 
terminates the cell-layer, which quite continuously coats the 
concentrated ventral cord, and the longitudinal fibres of the 
central mass are continued in two long median sten)s nearly 
toucliing each other, which ramify among the muscles of the 

2. The frontal eye^ as in all groups of Crustacea, is tri- 
partite and receives for each of its three divisions a nerve 
which is rooted in the median layer of the prosencephalon. 
Each of the three closely connected pigment-cups is occupied 
by some sixteen to twenty cells, into which the fibres of the 
nerve enter from the outside beneath a nearly spherical 
lens. Thus the eye, like the lensless median eye of the 
Cypridinaj and Phyllopoda {Branchipus) , is an inverse 
cup-eye. I have found no cuticular divisions such as occur 

110 Prof. Carl Glaus o?« ^Ae 

in the form of bacilli on the visual cells of Cypridina^ which 
are turned towards the pigment, but within, turned towards 
the pigment, 1 have found a second layer of narrow elongated 
nuclei, which must belong to a special form of cells. The 
rounded nuclei of the nerve-cells are placed peripherally, 
turned towards the entering nerves and the overlying secre- 
tion-lens, which is clothed by tiie delicate integument. In 
Notodromus the tliree divisions of the frontal eye are sepa- 
rated from each other, and here, as in the Pontellce and Onis- 
cidke among the Copepoda, we have an anterior, ventral, cup- 
shaped eye and two separated lateral eyes, which are easily 
distinguished from the composite lateral eyes. 

3. Endoskeleton. — Beneath the oesophagus, between the 
stomach and tlie anterior ganglionic mass of the ventral cord, 
in front of the transversely placed sinew of the shell-muscle, 
there is a broad, indistinctly bipartite, chitinous plate, upon 
which, in agreement with the endoskeleton of the Pliyllopoda 
and other Crustacea, as also with the so-called endostomite of 
the Arachnoidea, pairs of muscles for all the limbs of the 
trunk, including the second pair of antennae, are attached. 
On its anterior margin originate numerous muscular threads, 
which pass to the lower wall of the oesophagus, and two slender, 
long, muscular bundles, which pass through the space between 
the mandibular and maxillary ganglia to the labium. 

4. The alimentary apparatus commences by a rather nar- 
row atrium, bounded by the labrum and labium, into which 
the toothed biting edge of the mandibles enters from the right 
and left. Zenker's " rake-like masticating organs " are 
situated at the bottom of it, and belong, as a sort of hypo- 
]»harynx, to the labium. In the bottom of the atrium beneath 
the labrum commences the buccal intestine, ascending at 
tirst nearly per[)endicularly and then somewhat obliquely 
backwards to the stomach. The shorter anterior part of it 
(ccsophagus), which is about equal in length to the atrium, 
appears to be nearly cylindrical, but with a more strongly 
arched ventral wall, into which the pair of muscles springing 
from the endoskeleton and acting as dilaters enter. More 
numerous and larger muscles pass from the integument of the 
labium to the tlattened tlursal surface of the oesophagus, and 
draw uj) its very thick wall, the convex surface of which 
projects like a valve into the lumen, and thus, in conjunction 
with the dilaters of the lower oesophageal wall, enlarge the 
lumen, which is horseshoe-shaped in transverse section. The 
following larger division of the a'sophagus (gizzard) apj)ears 
to be essentially altereil in form ; it was described by Zenker 
as a very complicated trituraut organ, resembling the human 

Oryanization of the Cyprides. Ill 

larynx. It is, however, by no means free, as supposed by 
that author, but has its larger, hinder j)ortion united with the 
intestine. Only the smaller, anterior part, embraeed laterally 
by powerful muscular bands and ventrally attached by mus- 
cular threads to the endoskeletal plate, lies free in front of 
the intestine, and is drawn forward by a large pair of muscles 
originating at the summit of the labrum and running beneath 
the brain and obli(|ucly over the oesophagus, and backward 
by a second grouj) of muscles acting in the opposite direction. 
This forward and backward displacement, which reminds us 
of the motory mechanism of the gizzard in the Dccapoda, 
affects only the dorsal wall, the strong convexity of which 
projects into the lumen, beset with rows of pointed teeth, and 
acts like a rasp against the concave ventral wall, also densely 
armed with points. It corresponds with Zenker's " Heibzeug," 
while the part described by that author as " Ringknorpel " 
represents the bottom and the lateral wall of the oesophagus. 
The middle intestine is divided by a deep constriction into two 
sections, of which the anterior surrounds the throat-like 
opening of the gizzard and gives off the two hepato-pancre- 
atic tubes into the interspace of the duplicature of the shell. 
It contains a very deep glandular epithelium, and must, as 
the stomach, have the function of digesting albuminous bodies. 
The second, far longer but equally wide section of the intes- 
tinal tube, the chyle-intestine, appears chiefly to effect the 
absorption of the nutritive materials. No muscular rectal 
section in Zenker's sense is present ; the anal aperture is a 
narrow fissure concealed by a valve and placed dorsally from 
the furcal joints. 

5. Secretory organs. — Both the antennal gland and the 
gland of the second pair of maxillai are well developed in 
Cyyris^ but it is the former which is removed into the shell- 
cavity and therefore must be characterized as the shell-gland. 
Its position and form 1 have already represented correctly in 
my memoir on the development of Cypris (1868), but witiiout 
tracing the finer structure. It commences above the entrance 
of the hepato-pancreatic tube into the cavity of the carapace 
and allows a terminal saccule to be distinguished from the 
gland-duct, which is somewhat tortuous, but not folded into 
convolutions. The cells of the former contain small nuclei 
and are very intensely stained by reagents. Excretory pro- 
ducts are often deposited in its lumen. The gland-duct con- 
sists only of a series of perforated cells, the nuclei of which are 
of extraordinary size and emit digitiform branches above and 
beloWj each representing only a single perforated cell. The 

112 On the Organization of the Cyprides, 

efferent duct passing towards the antennae commences near 
the terminal saccule and is exceedini^ly difficult to trace. 

'j'lie maxillary gland is situated ventrally to the sliell- 
muscle and ap|)eavs to consist principally of the terminal 
saccule divided into several diverticula, from which the 
efferent duct runs into the shaft of the raaxilliped (second 
maxilla). Besides these excretory organs, characteristic of 
the Crustacea and representing the nephridia of the Annelida, 
there are two glands in the labrum, and further some very 
large gland-like cells in the basal joints of the limbs, and also 
under the back, and particularly numerous within the cara- 
pace attached to the hypodermis of the inner lamella. 

6. Sexual apparatus. — Like the copulatory apparatus of the 
males of Cypridina and Halocypris the complicated penis of 
the Cytherides and Gyprides represents a transformed (8) 
pair of limbs. But the external sexual parts of the female 
(still erroneously characterized as the vagina), which are 
arched like a capsule, perforated by the sexual aperture, and 
sometimes furnished with leg-like aj)pendages, are also prob- 
ably to be interpreted as the basal joints of a pair of limbs^ 
while the two abdominal appendages, which still constantly 
figure as " Kami abdominales '' (caudal rami) or as caudal 
spines, as also the so-called " ])Ostabdomen " of the Cypridinaj 
and Ilalocyprides, represent the two /ureal Joints of the Ento- 
mostracan body. 

The long, fissure-like, sexual aperture, which is surrounded 
by a chitinous band, receives the oviduct in its posterior sec- 
tion, which is susceptible of dilatation by the action of powerful 
muscles; and the oviduct runs with many convolutions by the 
sides of the intestine, and by means of its glandular epithelium 
secretes the shell-membranes of the contained ova in the same 
way as the ovarian tube of the Insecta. The genital cleft in 
its anterior angle, where it is dilated, surrounds the aperture 
for the reception of the seminal filaments, which are of pecu- 
liar form and enclosed by a chitinous loop. A com[)licated 
ap})aratus follows on this copulatory aj)erture (which is dihi- 
table by a special group of muscles), and consists in the first 
place of a saccule formed by a chitinous wall, then of a much 
convoluted glandular tube and a chitinous tube originating 
from the saccule, leading into the duct of the recoptaculum, 
which is spirally twisted like a watch-spring. 

Geohnpcdl Society. 113 


March 12, 1890.— J. \\. Hulko, Est]., F.R.S., Vice- 
President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "On a Crocodilian Jaw from the Oxford Clav of Peter- 
borough." By R. Lydekker, Esq., B.A., F.G.S., &c. 

The symphysis of the mandible of a Thecodont Reptile obtained by 
Mr. Leeds from the Oxford Clay near Peterborough was described by 
the Author, and reasons were given for referring it to the Crocodilia 
rather than to the Sauropterygia. An impeifect skull found by 
Mr. Leeds in the same formation at Peterborough apjiears to 
belong to the same form as the mandible, and show's that the 
latter cannot be referred to Machimosaunts. 

After reviewing the whole of the evidence, the Author concluded 
that he was dealing with a Crocodilian allied to Mctriorhifnchus, but 
forming the type of a new genus, to which he gave the name of 
Suchodiis, adding the specific name of darobrivensis. 

2. " On two new Species of Labyrinthodonts." By R. Lydekker, 
Esq., B.A., F.G.S., &c. 

The right ramus of the lower jaw of a Labyrinthodont, from the 
Lower Carboniferous of Gilmerton, near Edinburgh, is regarded as 
referable to the Permian genus Macromerwm, and it is proposed to 
describe it as M. scoticum. 

Another mandible, from the Karoo system of South Africa, is 
referred to the American Permian genus Eri/ops under the name 
E. Oiveni. 

March 26, 1890.— J. AV. Hulke, Esq., F.R.S., Vice- 
President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read: — 

1. " On a new Species of Cypliaspis from the Carboniferous 
rocks of Yorkshire." By Miss Coiguou, Cambridge. (Communicated 
by Professor T. M'-K. Hughes, M^A., F.R.S., F.G.S.) 

The Author describes a fairly perfect head of a Trilobite found in 
the Pendleside limestone of Butterhaw, near Cracoe, which appears 
to belong to the genus Cypliaspis, though it differs from the typical 
species of that genus in possessing two pairs of glabellar lobes. The 
name Cypliaspis acantliine is proposed for this form. 

Ann.d; Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 8 

114 Geological Society. ' 

2. " A Monograph of the Bryozoa (Polyzoa) of the Hunstanton 
lied Chalk." By George Robert Vine, Esq. (Communicated by 
Prof. P. Martin Duncan, F.E.S., F.G.S.) 

The fossils examined occurred on tests of Echinoderms and on 
the shells of Terebratula hiplicata, T. capillata. Oysters, Inocerami, 
Nautili, and Ammonites. The best of the forms of Diastopora 
and Proboscina are found on Inocerami and Ammonites, but the 
most abundant individuals are Stomatoporce, chiefly on Terebratula 
hiplicata. Species of Entulophora, Idmonea, and " Ceriopora " are 
very rare or badly preserved, and Chilostomatous forms are also 
very rare. 

In the present monograph the Author felt obliged to limit or 
rc-define the generic terms employed, and proceeded to describe in 
detail the forms which he has examined from the Hunstanton Bed 
Chalk and other Cretaceous deposits, including the following new 
forms: — -Prohosrina irreijularis, P. vberta, P. [/racilis?, var. Penssi, 
P. claviformis, P. hvnatantonensis, and var. ampliata, P. Jessoni, 
P. gigantopora, P. dilatata, var. cantahrigiensis, Diastopora Juoistan- 
tonensis, B. foecxincla, D. Jessoni, and Memhranipora gaultina. 

April 16, 1890.— J. W. Hulke, Esq., F.R.S., Vice- 
President, in the Chair. 

The following communication was read: — 

" On Ornithosaurian Ecmains from the Oxford Clay of Xorth- 
ampton." By B. Lydekkcr, Escp, B.A., F.G.S. 

Seven vertebrae, portions of the ilia and ischia, one femur, and the 
distal portion of that of the opposite side, part of a bone, probably 
from the shaft of the tibia, and two undetermined frngments, all 
associated, indicate the existence in England during the Oxford-Clay 
period of the species of Uhamphorhgnchus provisionally referred to 
R, Jesso)ii, though not definitely distinguished from P. Gemyuiugi. 

Amongst the noticeable features of the specimens are the presence 
of a distinct rib-facet at the lateral border of the inferior surface of 
the centrum of the cervical vertebra^ proving the existence of cer- 
vical ribs, and the character of the neural spine of a dorsal vertebra, 
which strikingly recalls that of a bird. 

May 14, 1890.— Dr. A. Geikie, F.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. "On some new Mammals from the Red and Norwich Crags." 
By E. T. Newton, Esq., F.G.S. 

This paper contains descriptions of mammalian remains from the 
English Pliocene belonging to eight species, nearly all being new to 

Geological Society. 115 

the Crags, and four of them new to science. A remarkable low- 
crowned, but broad, lower camassial tooth from the Norwich Crag of 
Bramcrton is referred to the genua Lutra, and named specitioally 
L. Eeevei. All the other specimens noticed below are from the 
nodule-bed at the base of the ISutfolk Red Crag, and the first 
four of them are in the possession of Mr. E. C. Moor, of Croat 
Bealings. A right ramus of a lutrine lower jaw, differing from 
the common Otter in having the hinder fangs of the premolars 
much larger than the front ones, aud agreeing in this particular 
with the Lutra dubiu of DeBlaiuville, is referred to the latter 
species. X humerus of a Seal, most nearly resembling that of 
Fhocu vitulina, but of smaller size aud more slender proportions, is 
called Phocn Moori. Another Seal's humerus, having a peculiarly 
triangular shaft, is thought to belong to the PhocaneUa minor of 
Van Benedeu. A maxilla with three teeth, evidently belonging to 
the genus Trogontherium, but of smaller size than the Troyontherium 
Cuvieri, is believed to represent another species, and is named 
T. minor. The ziphioid rostrum in the Ipswich Museum, which 
received from the llev. H. Canham the MS. name of Mesoplodon 
Floiveri, is for the first time described ; and another rostrum in the 
Museum of Practical Geology, characterized by being very short 
and with a deep boat-lilie anterior extremity, is named Mesoplodon 
scaphoitfes. The peculiar species Aili(rus inirjlicus, hitherto known 
only by a piece of a lower jaw with a camassial tooth, is now 
further illustrated by a fine upper molar recently presented to the 
Museum of Practical Geology. 

2. " On Burrows and Tracks of Invertebrate Animals in Palieozoic 
Rocks, and other Markings.'' By Sir J. William Dawson, LL.D., 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

This paper, which is illustrated by photographs and drawings, 
indicates some new facts in connexion with the markings pro- 
duced by the burrows and tracks of animals and by other causes. 
Kusichnites and Cruziana are regarded, like Climactichnites and 
Protichuites, as representing probable burrows of Crustaceans and 
Chsetopod worms. Scolithun canadensis is shown to be a cylindrical 
burrow, with accumulations of earthy castings at its mouth. The 
relation of these burrows to the forms known as Scotolithus, Astcro- 
jjhj/cHs, Monocraferion, aud Astropolitlion is pointed out. 

Under the new generic name of Sahellarites the Author describes 
certain tubes, composed of shelly and other fragments cemented by 
organic matter, found in the Trenton Black-river Limestone. They 
resemble the burrows or tubes formerly described by the Author 
from the Hastings and Quebec Groups, and appear to be the tubes 
of worms allied to the recent Sabell((ri(^ : but they are liable to be 
mistaken for Alga? of the genera PalceopJiNcus and Buthotrephis. 

Some large cylindrical bodies from the Potsdam Sandstone are 
described as having been supposed to be trunks of trees ; but the 
Author regards them as probably concretions formed around slender 

116 Geological Society. 

.stems, like some now forming in the alluvial mud of the St. 

Some curious combinations of worm-tracks with ripple-marks and 
shrinkage-tracks are described ; as also branching or radiating 
worm-trails, which present some resemblance to brauching Fiicoids. 
Pinally, the Author describes the formation of rill-marks on the 
mud-banks of the tidal estuaries of the Eay of Fundy, and indicates 
their identity with some imjjressions in slabs of rock which have 
been described as Fucoids under several generic names. 

May 21, 1890.— Dr. A. Geikie, F.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The following communications were read : — 

1. " On some Devonian and Silurian Ostracoda from ^Xorth 
America, France, and the Bospborus." By Prof. T. Eupert Jones, 
F.R.S., F.G.S. 

Of tho Devonian species herein figured and described, six species 
and one variety (four being new) from the decomposed Chert of the 
Corniferous Limestone of Ontario County, in the State of New York, 
and new species from the Hamilton Group of Clarke Co., Indiana, 
have been sent by Mr. J. M. Clarke, of Albany, X. Y., as mentioned 
in the February number of the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. p. 14. 
From Eighteen-mile Creek, Lake Erie, N. Y., there are two new 
Devonian species among s])ecinieiis supplied by Dr. Ilinde (op. cit. 
p. 28), and two new Primitiir from Thedford. Altogether five 
•genera (BoUia, J. & H., Moorea, J. & K., Octonaria, J., Eurychilina, 
Ulrich, and Uh-irJiia, gen, nov.) are hereby added to the list of 
" Hamilton " fossils. 

The Devonian Bcyrkliia collected some years ago by M. Dumont 
at the Posphorus, and noticed by I)r. Ferd. Etimcr in the ' Neues 
Jahrbuch' for 18G3, having been kindly lent by M. Dewalquc for 
examination, is figured and described in detail. It appears to be 
the same as B. devonica, Jones, lately described from Devonshire. 

Nine new species from Anticosti, in Dr. Hinde's collection, 
alluded to above, are here figured and described. They are from 
Mr. Billings's " Anticosti Group'' (Divisions 3, 2, 1, and the lowestX 
The lowest and Div. 1 are both now regarded as of Lower Silurian 
age, and Divs. 2 and 3 are either ^liddle or r]>por Silurian. A 
series of Silurian Ostracoda from Canada, submitted by Mr.AVhiteaves, 
F.G.S., and ]Mr. Ami, F.G.S., have been examined, and critical notes 
on them are here given. 

The Lower-Silurian Bo/richa Gidlhri, named and compared with 
other species by !M. ii. do Tromelin at >"autes in 1875, who found 
it at Donifront and ehcwbere in ]bitt;iny, is also figured and 
described in detail. 

Oeoh<jical Societtj. 1 1 7 

2. "On a new species of Coccodiis {C. Lindstrdtni, Davis)." By 
i. W. Davis, Esq., F.G.8. 

A description is given of a small fossil fish from the hard chalk 
of Hakel in Mount Lebanon : it is noirly related to Coccodux arma- 
iuf, I'ictet, Itut is smaller than that species, does not show an ciiui- 
valeiit of tlio pectoral spine (unless the posterior extension of the 
scapular arch should be so considered), and the posterior basal ex- 
tension of tlie dorsal sjune is very different in the two forms. 
Further, the dorsal spine is nearer to the occipital region in the 
new form than in C. iirmatas, and is, compared with the size of the 
tish, a larger fin. 

The arrangement of the fins shown in the specimen now described 
is quite difierent to that of the Siluroids(iS'///iO(;Zo*i</s and Pimelodus), 
and the great resemblance of the teeth of Coccodus to those of the 
Pycnodonts, and the cartilaginous character of the vertebrae, indicate 
a relationship with tiie Ganoids ; but its exact relationship in that 
group must remain still problematical. 

The Author proposes to name the new form Coccodus Lindstromi. 

June 4, 1890.— Dr. A. Ueikie, F.R.S., 
President, in the Chair. 

The Presidkxt referred to tlie sad loss which the Society had 
sustained through the death of Mr, Dallas, and read tlie following 
resolution, which had been passed by the Council and ordered to be 
entered upon its Minutes . — 

" The Council desires to record on its Minutes an expression 
of its deep regret at the death of the Assistant-Secretary, 
Mr. Dallas, which took place on the 29th ultimo, and of its 
sense of the loss iufiicted on the Council and Society by the 
removal of one who, for the long period of twenty-two years, 
had done them invaluable service, and who, by his courtesy, 
kindliness, and helpfulness had endeared himself as a personal 
friend to the Fellows." 

The following communication was read : — 

" North-Italian Bryozoa," By A. W. Waters, Esq., F.G.S. 

The Chilostomatous Bryozoa dealt with in the paper are, for the 
most part, from known Yicentinc localities, together with some from 
two new localities, --Monte Baldo in the Veronese and lionzo in the 
Tyrol. Keuss described a number from the Vicentine, but at a time 
when the chief attention was given to the shape of the zoarium, and 
the oral aperture, avicularia, and ovicells did not receive the attention 
now given to them. The attempt is therefore made to bring our know- 
ledge of these beds, which are the richest and most important known 
in the Lower Tertiaries, more nearly up to present ideas, so that 
more exact comparisons may be made between Tertiary and living 

118 Miscellaneous. 

Several cases are mentioned in -which there is great difference of 
zoarial shape, and also some in which there is great range in the 
zooecial characters. 

The discovery of Catenicelki in these beds is of considerable 
importance, which is enhanced by one of the species having both 
short beads and longer internodes. 

Forina coronata and Lepralia syringopora both have a closure, 
formed by a plate with a tubule in the centre, a structure supposed 
to be exclusively characteristic of the Cyclostomata. 

The position of the beds has been established by Suess, Bayan, 
Hebert, and Munier-Chalmas, of JJartonian age, and may therefore 
bo called Upper Eocene. 


William Sweetland Dallas. 
It is with deep regret, which we are sure will be shared by 
our readers, that the name of one who has for so many years 
taken a most active part in the conducting of this Magazine 
disappears from the titlepage. Our dear friend became one 
of the Editors in 18G8 ; but long before this he had rendered 
the greatest service in bringing to the knowledge of British 
Naturalists the most important researches of Foreign investi- 

For some time past his Iiealth had been failing, and on the 
29th of May he passed away, to the sad grief of his family 
and a lar^-e circle of friends. William Francis. 

Description of a new Cottoid Fish. 
By Tarleton H. Bean, Ichthyologist, U. S. Fish Commission. 

On the 27th of September, 1888, the U. S. Fieh Commission 
steamer ' Albatross' obtained in Barclay Sound, British Columbia, a 
remarkable httle fish whose affinities arc with the Cotti<l<r, but 
dificriug from all the other members of the family in characters of 
such importance as to necessitate the formati'>n of a new subfamily 
to receive it. The description is given herewith. 

Subfamily S y x c h i r i x .-£. 
Cotfi'/ip witli ventral fins thoracic, but remote from the gill- 

MisceUa neons. 119 

opening and consisting of a rudimentary spine and several rays ; 
with a short and well-developed spinous dorsal, which is separated 
bv a deep notch from the soft portion : the spines slender ; the 
branchial apertures wide and the pll-membranc free from the i.stlunus; 
gills ;H, apparently with no slit behind the last ; the pectoral tins 
continuous around the breast, the rays supported all around by 
actinosts ; the genital papilla of males capable of being received 
into a pit in front of the anal fin. 

Sr>-CHiRrs, gen. nov. 

Body slender and moderately elongate, resembling that of Tri~ 
ghps ; covered with thin, tough skin. Lateral line armed with 
spiny tubercles. Spiny scales in a series along the dorsal base. 
Head subconical, with moderately pointed snout. Mouth small, 
very slightly oblique ; the rami of the mandible a little concavo 
beneath, rremaxillaries protractile. Jaws with slender, villiform 
teeth in bands. Teeth on vomer and palatines. Pseudo-branchiae 
present. Gills 3J, no slit behind the last. Gill-openings wide, ex- 
tending above the median line, the membrane free from the isthmus. 
Suborbital connected by a bony stay with the preojiercle, which 
bears a strong bifid spine at its angle. Pectorals completely united 
around the breast, aU the rays supported by actinosts, the membrane 
free at its margin. Ventrals distant from the gill-opening, the 
pubic bones being remarkably long, the fins diverging widely and 
consisting of a rudimentarj^ spine and three rays. Dorsal long, the 
spinous portion low, with slender spines, and the soft portion twice 
as long as the spinous. Anal long. Caudal moderately elongate, 
its middle rays somewhat produced. 

S)/ncJiin(S GiUi, sp. nov. 

B. VI ; D. YIII-IX, 19-21 ; A. 20 ; V. 1, 3 ; P. 22. 

U. S. National Museum number 41820. 

The eye is about as long as the snout and | the length of the 
head, which is 2. of the total length to caudal base. The depth is 
contained 5^ times in the total length. The maxilla extends to 
about below the middle of the eye. The interorbital space is not 
quite equal to the length of the eye. There is a pair of strong 
nasal spines. The preopercle has a short and very sharp bifid spine. 
The lateral line contains about 41 spiny tubercles, and most of the 
specimens have a single series of spiny scales along the dorsal base. 
The pectorals are nearly as long as the head, and extend to about 
below the fourth ray of the soft dorsal. The ventrals are nearly 
under the middle of the pectorals and their length varies greatly. 
In some specimens they are scarcely ^ as long as the head ; in others 
they are as long as the postorbital part of the head. In some males 
the anal papilla is ^ as long as the ventral fin of the same indi- 
vidual. This papilla can be received into a pit in front of the anal 

The spinous dorsal begins over the axil of the pectoral ; the 

1^ Miscellaneous. 

length of its base is a little greater than the postorbital part of the 
head. Xone of its spines are much longer than the eye. 

The distance of the anal origin from the head is about | the 
length of the head. The rays of the soft dorsal and the anal are 
not much longer than the dorsal spines. 

The caudal is about | as long as the head, and its middle rays 
are somewhat the longest. 

The colour in spirits is a pale 5"e]lo'wish brown. The sides show 
traces of several small pale blotches, and the caudal and pectoral 
have a few very small dark blotches, those on the caudal forming 
interrupted bauds. Across the back are faint indications of about 
five pale cross bands. 

The species is dedicated to Dr. Theodore Gill, in appreciation of 
his researches upon the mail-cheeked fishes. 

Three individuals have been taken as the types of the species. 
The largest is 4f) and the smallest 38 millimetres in length. — 
Proceediiu/s National 2Iuseum, vol. xii. Xo. 787. Advance sheet 
communicated by the Author. 

Model of the " British Marine Area.'^ 
By the Eev. Canon Xormax, M.A., D.C.L., P.R.S., &c. 

SixOE writing my notes on the " British Marine Area," which 
appeared in the 'Annals' for Xay (pp. 345-353), I have learned 
that a model of sea around the British Islands had been executed 
by Mr. James B. Jordan, of the Mineral Statistics Branch, Homo 
Office, and was in the South Kensington Museum of Science 
and Art. That model I have now had the pleasure of seeing. 
It has been carefully and well executed, and cannot but prove 
very instructive to those who examine it. At the same time it 
necessarily leaves much to be desired. The executor has un- 
avoidably been obliged to draw on his imagination in filling in 
many details, where no soundings had been taken from which to 
"work his model. The most important place which thus lacks accu- 
racy is the district to the west of the north of Ireland and south of 
Scotland, and thence to the llockall Bank. Xow the hydrographer 
in liis chart has not ventured to define the 1000-fathora boundary 
even rouglily at this part; the dotted line which indicates that 
depth stops abruptly opposite Donegal Bay, and no attempt is made 
to trace it further to the north. The modeller could not thus stop, 
and has been obliged to supply the deficiency as well as he could. 
It is just in this part that we have one of tlie most interesting 
features in the outline of submarine Europe, where a tongue of the 
great abyss approaches nearest to our shores. The exact form of 
this tongue and of the slopes which surround it should be accurately 
surveyed. But while this is the most important district which 
awaits elucidation, it is at the same time much to be wished that 
a far more extensive series of soundings should be taken in 5U0 to 
loOU fathoms all round the western coast. 

May 27, 1890, 

Miscellaneous . 121 

Prelim inar If Account of a new Australian Peripatus. 
By AiiTrirK Dexdy, M.Sc, F.L.S.* 

A few months ago I bad I he pleasure of reading before the Pield 
Naturalists' Club a short account of a trip to WalbaUa f, in which I 
described some of tbo LaiKl-Tlanarians met with. As a result of 
this paper one of our members, ]Mr. H. R. Hogg, began to collect 
Planarians for me at Macedon. I requested him to look out also 
for Peripatus, and, with a view to so doing, he carefully examined 
some of my specimens of P. Leiwhartii. Mr. Hogg has not been 
long in meeting with success in his researches into the cryptozoic 
fauna of Macedon. and a short time ago he kindly brought me a 
number of beautiful Planarians, all alive, and live specimens of 
Peripatus, two alive and three in spirits. 

The Planarians I hope to describe at a future date ; the Peri- 
patus I propose to deal with in the present communication. 
Although all small, the specimens proved of the greatest interest, 
for they undoubtedly belong to a new species. The only 
Australian species of Peripatus hitherto described is P. Leuckartii, 
Sajuger, which ranges through Queensland, Xew South Wales, and 
Victoria, and for details as to which I must refer the reader to my 
paper in the ' Proceedings of the Royal Society of Victoria ' X- 
The only other Australasian species hitherto known is P. novce- 
zealandice, Hutton, from 'New Zealand. Mr. Hogg's specimens 
differ in important particulars from both these species. The 
most important difference is in the number of pairs of legs, P. 
LeucJcartii and P. novce-zealandice having each constantly 15 pairs, 
while the new species has only 14. The new species differs from 
P. Leucl-artii — to which it might be expected to be most nearly 
related — also in the structure of the jaws and in the pattern of the 
skin. The distinctness of the new species may be expressed by 
the statement that it differs more from either of the two previously 
known Australasian species than these do from one another. 

On the present occasion I shall describe only the external 
characters, but I hope in due course to be able to give a complete 
anatomical account of both the Australian species. 

Pekipaxus isrsiGNis §, sp. nov. 

Colour and Marlcings. — (a) Dorsal Surface. — The general 
appearance to the naked eye is dark, sometimes almost black, 
speckled with pale orange or yellow. Microscopical examination 
by reflected light shows that the skin is, as usual in the genus, 

* Reprinted from the * Victorian Naturalist,' April 1890. 

t "Zoological Xotes on a Trip to Walhalla," 'Victorian Naturalist,' 
December 1889. 

X " Observations on the Australian Species of Peripatus,'^ part 1, Pro- 
ceedings Royal Society of Victoria, July 1889. 

§ Insic/nis, distinguished by a mark. 

An7i. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 9 

122 Miscellaneous. 

divided into a very great number of narrow transverse ridges by 
very fine grooves of a pale yellow colour. Down the mid-dorsal 
line runs a narrow dark stripe with a very fine white, or almost 
white, line running down the middle of it as in P. Leuchtrtii. 

The general ground-colour is dark indigo-blue, often almost 
black, and this is checkered by more or less regularly arranged 
patches of pale dull orange or yellow. The typical arrangement 
of these patches appears to be as follows: — There is a squarish 
patch just over the base of each leg, more distinct than any of 
the others. Between the legs of each pair, in the mid-dorsal line, 
is a similar patch, interrupted by the median longitudinal stripe 
already mentioned, and separated from the patch over the leg on 
either side by a space of about the same width as itself. Thus 
there is a transverse row of three patches between the legs of each 
pair, and with these rows alternate other rows of only two patches 
each, in such a manner that a kind of chessboard pattern is pro- 
duced. Besides these patches there are on each side of the mid- 
dorsal line several longitudinal rows (the typical number appears to 
be four on each side) of more or less regularly arranged dull orange 
or vellow papillso. Sometimes the chessboard pattern is almost 
obliterated, leaving the longitudinal rows of papillae scattered over 
a nearly unifonn dark background. The dorsal surface of the legs 
is dark indigo-blue, with two or three orange or yellow papilla;. 

(6) Ventral Surface. — The ground-colour is pale yellowish. 
Over this are scattered a number of papillte, mostly of an indigo- 
blue colour, but some dull orange; the papillae are arranged in 
transverse rows, one row on each ridge of skin. The blue papilla? 
are most numerous along an imaginary line joining the bases of 
the legs of each side. In the mid-ventral line, between the legs of 
each pair except the last, is an unusually pale area of skin, devoid 
of papillae, and sometimes presenting clear indications of a longi- 
tudinal slit-liko aperture in its centre. I have described similar 
pale areas in P. Leudcartii, and cannot help thinking that they 
must have some important morphological signiticance. I hope to 
find out later on, when working out the anatomy, what this signi- 
cance may be. 

(c) The Antenna'. — These are of a dark indigo-blue colour. 

1 have attempted above to describe the characteristic pattern of 
the skin as deduced ft-om five specimens, but it must be remembered 
that considerable individual variations are sure to occur, though 
probably, as in P. LcncJcartii, all the variations will be found to be 
rcadilv derivable from a typical pattern. This typical pattern is 
(juitc different in the two Australian species, as will be seen on 
comparing my descriptions of i'. Leuckartii (loc. cit.). 

Size. — The five specimens at i)resent to hand are all very small, 
the largest being only about eleven millimetres in length (^excluding 
the antenna'), i^nd one millimetre in greatest breadth, after pre- 
servation in spirits. 

Legs. — These are fourteen in number on each side of the body. 
They have three spinous pads on the ventral surface, as described 

MisceUaneo us. 123 

by Sedgwick* for tho other Australian species. The feet closely 
agree with those of P. nov^f-zedlandic, as hgurcd by Sedgwick (Joe. 
cit.), being i)rovided with a dorso-median papilla above the claws 
and a lateral one on each side. 

Jans: — The outer blade of the jaw is simple, as in P. novif- 
zealandiif, and not provided with an accessory tootli as in P. 

Geniliil Aperture. — The genital aperture is situated between the 
legs of the last pair. In some specimens it is a very prominent 
white papilla ; these are probably females. The other specimens, 
in which it is less prominent, may be young females or males, but 
I have found no white papilla on the base of the last leg, such as 
exists in the males of P. Lmcl-ariil. 

Hahitat. — ilacedon, Victoria. In and upon rotten wood. 

On the Compound Eyes of Arthropods. 

' Studies from the Biological Laboratory of Johns Hopkins Uni- 
versity,' vol. iv. no. G, contains a paper " On the Morphology of the 
Compound Eyes of Arthropods," by Mr. Sho Watase, which is of 
interest owing to its bearing on the origin of the compound eyes of 

The principal subject of tho paper is the eye of Limidus ; but 
types of the three great groups of Arthropods — Insecta, Crustacea, 
and Arachnids — were studied, and the results are Lncluded in the 
generalizations at the close of the paper. 

The primitive type of tho ommatidhun, or visual unit, is traced 
into a simple open ectodermic pit, from which he believes the com- 
pound eyes of Arthropods to have developed by a vegetative repe- 
tition of similar structures, not unlike what is supposed to have 
taken place in the formation of certain compound organs in other 
animals, such as the kidney in Vertebrates or the respiratory organs 
in Lamollil)ranchs. 

Taking the number of facets as given by Lubbock, the compound 
eye of the house-tly {Musca) would represent about 4000 invagina- 
tions of the skin, and of the dragon-fly {^EscJma) about 20,000, 
while an ocellus would represent a single pit. 

In an appendix the compound eye of the starfish is briefly con- 
sidered, and is found to be morphologically strikingly similar to that 
of an Arthropod. Six lithographic plates accompany the paper and 
admirablv illustrate the author's studies. — Insect Life, vol. ii. no. 10, 
April 1890, p. 203. 

* " ^louograph of the Species and Distribution of the Genus Peripcdim 
(Guilding )," Quarterly Journal of Microscopical Science, April 1888. 

124 Miscellaneous. 

Variations in Bulimus exilis. 

Dr. Benjamin Sharp called attention to two varieties of BaVoaus 
exilis which he had found on the islands of Guadeloupe and Dominica. 
One variety was characterized by broad dark brown bauds which 
run parallel with the coil of the shell, while the other was peculiar 
in possessing small and very faint bands, which in many speci- 
mens were entirely absent. The banded variety was found to be 
common in Guadeloupe, while the bandless one was rare. In 
Dominica, which is separated from Guadeloupe by a channel of only 
twenty-three miles, the banded variety was very rare, while the 
light or bandless one was comparatively common, although indi- 
viduals were by no means so common in Dominica as in Guadeloupe. 
He spoke of the probable cause of the variation, and suggested that 
it was due to some environmental action. The island of Dominica 
being wholly of volcanic origin would produce a different kind of 
food from the Grande Terre portion of Guadeloupe, which in forma- 
tion is purely coral. It was on this portion of Guadeloupe that the 
specimens of B. exilis were collected. It is known that Dominica 
has many species and some genera of plants that are peculiar to the 
island, and this difference of food may in some way account for the 
differences in this species of land-snail. Dr. Sharp said that it is 
probable that the dearth of land-shells on the volcanic islands and 
their comparative plenty on the coral and continental islands of the 
Caribbean group is due to the absence of carbonate of lime in the 
former and its presence in the latter. 

Remarks on the Exuvitv of Snakes. 

Dr. Benjamin Sharp further spoke on the exuviic of two snakes, 
which were shed in the laboratory of the Academy two days pre- 
viously. These snakes, Eutanceia sirtalis, B. & G., had been pre- 
sented to the Academy on the 19th of March, 1890, and had been 
captured the day before in New Jersey. The whole process of 
shedding the skin had been observed. One of the snakes was in the 
water when first seen, and, coming out upon the sod, it shrugged 
and shook itself for a moment ; then, getting between the ghujs of 
the vivarium and the box containing the earth, the skin parted at 
the jaws and the animal crawled out, leaving the exuvia. The 
cerebral j)ortion being fixed, the animal passed through tlie opening, 
so that the discarded skin, as is always the case, was turned wrong 
side out. One of the specimens was interesting as it was entirely 
perfect, without the slightest rent and not a scale missing. The 
other was perfect, but there was a considerable rent on each side of 
the jaw. The operation took less than one minute. The snake was 
startled about the middle of the process. It crawled away from the 
exuvia very rapidly. — Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Fhilad., April 15, 1S90, 
pp. 148 and 149. 

Inn.S- M,ui..\\,l lli.^l . S. C Vol VI I'l . 1. 

Miriern. Bros , del . et lith . 

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No. 32. AUGUST 1890. 

XIV. — The Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism as the Exclusive 
Theory of Organic Evolution. By llev. JoilN T. 

Natural Selection an Exclusive Theory loith some Biologists. 

In a previous article entitled *' Divergent Evolution and the 
Darwinian Theoiy " f I dwelt chiefly on the need of a bio- 
nomic theory that should explain polytypic as well as mono- 
typic evolution. One of the chief deficiencies in Darwin's 
discussion of the ' Origin of Species ' is that he does not 
distinguish with sufficient clearness the conditions that are 
necessary for the transformation of an original species into a 
new species, when the former disappears in the process, leaving 
the latter to occupy its place, and the conditions that are neces- 
sary for the production of two or more species from one 
original species. In this paper it may be instructive to 
examine a vigorous attempt that has been made so to expound 
the theory of natural selection (which Darwin considered as 
inadequate to cover all the forms of monotypic evolution), 
that it shall serve as the full explanation of both monotypic 
and polytypic evolution in all organisms lower than man. By 

* From the ' American Journal of Science,' July 1890, pp. 1-14. 
t Amer. Jom-n. Sci. vol. xxxix. pp. 21-30; Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, 
ser. 6, vol. v. p. 156. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 10 

126 Rev. J. T. Gulick on the 

confining our attention to Mr, Wallace's very interesting and 
suggestive volume on ' Darwinism ' we shall be better able to 
judge of the possibility of producing a self-consistent theory 
on this basis ; but we should bear in mind that the same view 
is maintained by many naturalists, and that parallel statements 
abound in their writings. Mr. Wallace^s volume not only 
embodies the mature reflections of one of the joint autiiors of 
the theory of natural selection, but it fairly represeuts that 
phase of biological theory which considers diversity of natural 
selection through exposure to different environments the only 
cause of divergence. The following passage will show the 
exclusive nature of his theory : — " A great body of facts on 
the one hand and some weighty arguments on the other alike 
prove that specific characters have been and could only have 
been developed and fixed by natural selection because of their 
utility. We may admit that among the great number of 
variations and sports which continually arise many are alto- 
gether useless without being hurtful ; but no cause or influ- 
ence has been adduced adequate to render such characters 
fixed and constant throughout the vast number of individuals 
which constitute any of the more dominant species " (' Dar- 
winism,' p. 142). This is in strong contrast with the follow- 
ing passage from the close of the Introduction of the sixth 
edition of the ' Origin of Species,' whicli is the last one that 
received the revision of the autlior : — " I am fully convinced 
that species are not inmiutable, but those belonging to what 
are called the same genera are lineal descendants of some 
other and generally extinct species, in the same manner as 
the acknowledged varieties of any one species are the descen- 
dants of that species. Furthermore 1 am convinced that 
Natural Selection has been the most important, but not the 
exclusive, means of modification." On page 421 of the same 
edition Darwin calls attention to the fact that this passage 
has " been placed in a most conspicuous position " in the 
different editions of his work, and complains of the writers 
who misrepresent his conclusions on this point. 

Facts that are neglected or denied. 
Though Darwin maintains tliat besides the inherited effects 
of use and disuse and the direct action of the external con- 
ditions there arc other forms of variation loading to permanent 
modifications of structure independently of natural selection 
{'Origin of Species,' 6th London ed. p. 421), he does not 
attempt to exjilain how these divergences arise. Neither 
Darwin nor Walhice apjioars to have observed that, as in 
domestication, the isolatctl breeding of otiier than average 

Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism. 127 

forms, ill whatever way it is secured, is the one necessary 
and always eftective caiiseot' divergence, so, in nature, wherever 
there arises the isolated breeding of other than average 
forms, there divergence will be produced ; or that, as exposure 
to different environments is only one of the causes that lead 
isolated bands of men to desire and select different types of 
variation in the same species of animal, so exposure of wild 
species to different environments is only one of several classes 
of causes that may subject isolated portions of one of these 
species to different forms of selection, producing divergence ; 
or, again, that as differences in the uses to which men put an 
animal are not necessarily useful differences, so the differences 
in the uses which isolated portions of a species make of the 
environment, though they produce diversity of natural selec- 
tion, leading to permanent divergence, are not necessarily 
useful diff'erences. These, with other allied doctrines, which 
were presented in my paper on "Divergent Evolution through 
Cumulative Segregation," have received adverse criticism 
from Mr. Wallace in the work mentioned above. He says : — 
" In Mr. Gulick's last paper (Journ. of Linn. Soc, Zoology, 
vol. XX. ])p. 189-274) he discusses the various forms of 
isolation above referred to under no less than thirty-eight 
different divisions, with an elaborate terminology, and he 
argues that these will frequently bring about divergent evolu- 
tion without any change in the environment or any action 
of natural selection. The discussion of the problem iiere 
given will, I believe, sufficiently expose the fallacy of his 
contention ; but his illustrations of the varied and often recon- 
dite modes by which practical isolation may be brought 
about may help to remove one of the popular difficulties in 
the way of the action of natural selection in the origination 
of species " (note on p. 150). 

In this passage Mr. Wallace seems to take issue with each 
and all of my propositions ; but after a careful study of his 
whole discussion one cannot but be in doubt whether he fully 
dissents from any of them. This uncertainty arises either 
from his failing to recognize distinctions which I have made, 
or from ambiguities and inconsistencies in his own statements. 

Extending the meaning of Natural Selection does 
not save the Theory. 

He represents me as contending that divergent groups are 
frequently found in which the action of natural selection is 
wanting. He here fails to distinguish between the absence of 
diversity in the action of natural selection and the absence of 


128 Rev. J. T. Gulick on the 

any action of the same principle. I have never maintained 
that any species can long escape the action of natural selec- 
tion ; but I have that natural selection cannot produce trans- 
formation of a race unless it secures the propagation of other 
than average forms of that race ; that it cannot be a cause of 
divergence unless to this condition is added the independent 
generation (^'. e. isolation) of groups that are subjected to some 
diversity in its action ; and that, in isolated groups, some of. 
the divergent characters may be due to other causes of trans- 
formation. In the passage I have quoted from p. 142 he 
expresses great confidence in tlie proof tliat all specific cliarac- 
ters are developed and fixed by natural selection ; but in the 
discussion that follows concerning the influence of natural 
selection he claims as belonging to this principle sets of influ- 
ences whicli are usually included under sexual selection and 
which he cannot regard as due to the reactions between the 
species and its environment (see ' Darwinism,' pp. 282-285), 
and even then it is found too naiTow to cover all the facts of 
specific divergence ; for when he comes to consider the origin 
and develojmient of accessory plumes he has to abandon the 
theory to which he has clung through the greater part of the 
book. Speaking of the enormously lengthened plumes of the 
" bird of paradise and of the ])cacock," he says, on page 293, 
" The fact that they have been developed to so great an extent 
in a few species is an indication of such perfect adaptation to 
the conditions of existence, such complete success in the battle 
of life, that there is, in the adult male at all events, a surplus 
of strength^ vitality ^ and growth-'poioer^ whicli is able to expand 
itself in this xcay toithout injury. That such is the case is 
shown by the great abundance of most of the species which 
possess these wonderful superfluities of plumage. . . . HV'y, 
in allied species J the development of accessory plumes has taken 
different forms, ice are unable to say, except that it may be due 
to that individual variability which has served as the starting- 
point for so much of what seems to us to be strange in form 
or fantastic in colour, both in the animal and vegetable world." 
(The italics are mine.) According to the theory he has else- 
where maintained, these sujjerfuities of form and colour which 
are not controlled by natural selection should present " a series 
of inconstant varieties mingled together, not a distinct segre- 
gation of Ibrms " (j). 148) ; but in this passage he teaches 
tliat they have assumed difl'erent forms in allied species. On 
p. 141 he maintains that characters which are neither bene- 
ficial nor injurious are from their very nature unstable and 
cannot become specific, while here he oflers a suggestion as 
to how they have become sj)ccific. There is, then, a problcui 

Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism. 129 

that presses for solution, namely the explanation of perma- 
nent divergence in characters that are useless without being 
hurtful (p. 142), unless he considers his suggestion " that it 
may be due to individual variability " an adequate explana- 
tion ; and I presume he does not. On ])age 142 he says of 
characters that are " useless without being hurtful." " No 
cause or influence has been adduced adequate to render such 
characters fixed and constant ; " but in speaking of " the 
delicate tints of spring foliage and the intense liues of 
autumn" he says, "As colours they are uiuxdaptive and 
appear to have no more relation to the well-being of the 
plants themselves than do the colours of gems and minerals. 
We may also include in the same category those algaB and 
fungi which have bright colours — the red snow of the Arctic 
regions, the red, green, or purple seaweeds, the brilliant 
scarlet, yellow, white, or black Agarics, and other fungi. All 
these colours are probably the direct results of chemical com- 
position or molecular structure, and being thus normal products 
of the vegetable organism need no special explanation from 
our present point of view ; and the same remark will apply 
to the varied tints of the bark of trunks, branches, and twigs, 
which are often of various shades of brown and green, or even 
vivid reds or yellows" (p. 302). He here seems to admit 
that instead of useless specific characters being unknown they 
are so common and so easily explained by " the chemical 
constitution of the organism '•" that they claim no special 

Inconsistency in extending the meaning of Environment. 

If Mr. Wallace accepts the definition of natural selection 
which makes it the survival of those members of a species 
which are best fitted to its environment (and this is the scope 
he seems to assign to it in the earlier half of Chapter V., where 
the matter is under special discussion), then he ought to admit 
that changes in a species produced by the action of the mem- 
bers of the species on each other although they are adaptive 
are not due to natural selection. If, on the other hand, natu- 
ral selection is made to include the actions and reactions of 
the species on itself (and this he does on pages 282-285), then 
certainly he ought to admit that there may be changes in the 
action of natural selection without any change in the relations 
of the species to the environment. One way to escape this 
dilemma is to extend the definition of the environment, so as 
to include every influence that affects the species, whether it 
is within the species or external to it ; but this reduces his 

130 Rev. J. T. Gulick on the 

doctrine tliat without cliange in the environment there is no 
change in tlie organism to the fruitless truism that without 
some cause there is no change in the organism. An example 
of Mr. WaIlace^s extending the meaning of the environment 
so as to include the action of the members of a species on each 
other is found on page 149. After mentioning several argu- 
ments intended to show the impossibility that isolated portions 
of a species should diverge while exposed to the same environ- 
ment, he remarks, " It is impossible that the environment of 
the isolated portion can be exactly like that of the bulk of the 
species. It cannot be so physically, since no two separated 
areas can be exactly alike in climate and soil ; and, even if 
they are the same, the geographical features, size, contour, and 
relation to winds, seas, and rivers would certainly differ. 
Biologically the differences are sure to be considerable. The 
isolated portion of a species will almost always be in a much 
smaller area than that occupied by the species as a whole, hence 
it is at once in a different 'position as regards its oinn hiyidy 
He then enumerates several differences in the biological 
environment that are liable to occur ; but the point I wish 
now to note is that he mentions as one of the differences in 
the environment the " different position as regards its own 
hindy This is exactly the difference which, in so far as it is 
the prevention of intercrossing and the consequent unification 
of endowments and habits, constitutes isolation ; and unless he 
is able to show that this difference is incapable of producing 
any divergence, his contention is iinsustaincd. But he here 
yields the point at issue by mentioning this amongst the 
effective differences. The only w^ay to escape the force of his 
concession is to claim, as he virtually does here, that isola- 
tion, being the separation of the isolated fragment from the 
influence of the original stock, is in itself a difference in 
the environment. By taking this position, however, he 
involves himself in another contradiction, for, if isolation is a 
difference in the environment, why does he deny that it has a 
direct influence in producing change in the organism ? 

Diversity of Natural Selection during exposure to the 
same Environment. 

Another discrepancy in Mr. Wallace's theory is that, while 
he rightly assigns great importance to diversity of natural 
selection arising from divergent habits in appropriating the 
resources of the same environment, exhibited by ditiorent 
sections of the same species occupying the same area, he 
nevertheless insists that the re[)resentativcs of a species, iso- 

Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism. 131 

latcd in different areas of the same environment, will be 
necessarily snbjected to the same influences from natural 
selection, and will inevitably maintain the same characters 
and, of course, the same habits. That he believes divergent 
liabits may arise, when the divergent groups are occujiying 
the same area, and are prevented from crossing simply by the 
divergence of habits, will be seen by the case of the varieties 
of wolves mentioned on p. 105 and by some of the cases 
mentioned on pp. lOS and 117; also by the statement, on 
p. 119, that " AVhen one portion of a terrestrial species takes 
to a more arboreal or a more aquatic mode of life the change 
of habits itself leads to the isolation of each portion," and by 
a similar statement at the bottom of p. 145. That he believes 
there can be no change either of habits or structure when 
portions of tlie same species are isolated in (liferent areas 
under the same environment appears from the statement on 
p. 149 that " If the average characters of the species are the 
exjiression of its exact adaptation to its whole environment, 
then, given a precisely similar environment, and the isolated 
portion will inevitably be brought back to the same average of 
characters." And this he maintains will be the case even " if 
we admit that, when one portion of a species is separated 
from the rest, there will necessarily be a slight difference in 
the average character of the two portions." 

Does the difference in the Environment increase 
with each successive Mile ? 

If the divergences presented by the Sandwich-Island land- 
molluscs are wholly due to exposure to different environments, 
as Mr. Wallace argues on pages 147-150, then there must be 
completely occult influences in the environment that vary pro- 
gressively W'ith each successive mile. This is so violent an 
assumption that it throws doubt on any theory that requires 
such support. Of all the suggestions made by Mr. Wallace 
concerning possible and inevitable differences in the environ- 
ments presented in the successive valleys, it seems to me not 
one meets the requirements of the case or throws any light on 
the subject. The one suggestion which is quite applicable 
as an explanation is the one already quoted, that " the isolated 
portion is at once in a different position as regards its own 
kind." This is, I believe, a most potent difference, which (as 
Mr. Wallace's language seems to indicate) is directly intro- 
duced by isolation, and (adhering to the meaning usually 
given to environment) is not at all due to difference in the 
environments presented in the different areas. 

132 Rev. J. T. Gulick on the 

Unstable Adjustments dtsfurhed hy Isolation. 

There is a sentence in another chapter of Mr. Wallace's 
hook ■svliich attributes to isolation (though without rccognizinpf 
the important results that must follow) just that kind of 
influence in introducing a certain class of physiological diver- 
gences, which I claim for it in introducing not only physio- 
logical, but also psychological and morphological divergences. 
I claim that there is in many species more or less variation 
with unstable adjustment in the habits which determine what 
forms of food it shall a])])ropriate, and that, when a few indi- 
viduals of such a species (the offspring perhaps of a single 
female) are isolated, this adjustment is often so disturbed by 
the failure of the few individuals to completely represent the 
average character of the species and by their being freed from 
competition and wide interbreeding with those of their own 
kind that divergent habits of feeding are formed. I further 
claim that for the production of this result it is not at all 
necessary that the oivironments presented in the isolated 
districts should differ in any respect. Indeed, if all but one 
pair of a variable species should be destroyed, the descendants 
of that pair, remaining in the same area and under the same 
environment, would probably differ more or less from the 
original stock. Those that breed together must have habits 
that enable them to do so ; and the offspring of those that 
interbreed widely will for the most part inherit the powers 
and habits that enabled their ancestors to interbreed widely ; 
but if the offspring of a single family are carried to an isolated 
area juesenting the same environment, there will be nothing 
to ensure the perpetuation of exactly the original powers and 
habits, unless the power of heredity is such that each pair is 
sure to transmit the complete average character of the whole 
species ; and this is not the condition of all species that pair, 
if of any. Within the limits of each freely interbreeding 
portion of a species a mutual harmony and adjustment of 
habits is preserved, because it is the condition of propagation 
within those limits ; but between portions that are prevented 
from interbreeding there is nothing but heredity to prevent 
divergence in the kinds of adjustment ; and in variable species 
the probability is that divergence will in time show itself more 
or less distinctly. Though ^Ir. Wallace considers this reason- 
ing fallacious when applied to divergence in habits, he uses 
an exactly parallel reasoning in the portion of the following 
passage which 1 designate by italics : — " It appears as (fjer- 
tility depended on such a delicate adjustment of the male and 
female elements to each other that, unless constantly kept uj) by 

Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism. 13.'3 

the preservation of the most fertile individuals, sterility is 

ahcai/s liahle to arise So long as a species remains 

undivided arid in occupation of a continuous area its fertility 
is kept vp hy natural selection ; hut the moment it becomes 
separated, either hy geographical or selective isolation^ or hy 
diversity of station or of hahits, while each portion must be 
h-ept Jertile inter se, there is nothing to prevent infertility 
arising hettceen the two separated jwrtions. As the two por- 
tions will necessarily exist uiuler somewhat difterent con Jitions 
of lite, and will usually have acquired some diversity of form 
and colour — both which circumstances we know to be either the 
cause of infertility or to be correlated with it — the fact of some 
degree of infertility usually appearing between closely allied 
but locally or physiologically segregated species is exactly 
whatwe should expect " (pp. 184-185) . Notwithstanding this 
statement he does not seem to have grasped the idea that in 
the geographically isolated portions as w'ell as in the others 
the " different conditions of life " of which he speaks may be 
the different relations to the environment into which the 
separated portions are brought by their divergent habits, with- 
out any reference to inevitable differences in the size and con- 
tours of the different areas, or in any other features of the 
enviionments, and that the divergence in the habits may be 
directly due to the prevention of interbreeding between sepa- 
rated portions which inevitably differ in average character, 
especially if they are very small portions. 

Isolated portions differ in varying degrees from the 
average character of the Species. 

The italicised portion of the passage last quoted attributes 
to isolation, in stronger language than I should be willing to 
use, a direct influence in producing divergence in the adjust- 
ments on which fertility in the different portions of the species 
depends. I should prefer to say that in some species the 
adjustments on which fertility depends are so delicate that 
adjustments producing perfect fertility within one intergene- 
rating portion of the species will not produce fertility in 
another portion that has been long isolated. I do not make 
my statements so sweeping as his concerning the divergent 
inlluenec of isolation on any one class of characters, but I 
include all classes of inheritable characters, in sexually pro- 
ducing organisms, as coming under its influence. I also insist 
that the direct influence of isolation in producing divergence 
is in proportion to the degree of segregation, which varies 
immensely in different forms of isolation which are equally 

134 Rev. J. T. Gulick on u,^ 

complete as preventives of intercrossing. A very stable and 
homogeneous species may be divided by geological subsidence 
into two large sections, each represented by a vast number of 
individuals. In such a case the difference in the average 
character, and consequently the degree of segregation, of the 
two sections will be infinitesimally small, and the influence of 
the isolation thus produced will chiefly consist in its preserving 
in the different sections any diversities that may arise in the 
effects of natural selection or of other ])rinciples of transfor- 
mation. The isolation between the land-animals of Ireland 
and Britain, which Mr. Wallace cites as adverse to my theory, 
is of this kind. Again, there may be transportation and iso- 
lation of very small fragments of a very variable species. In 
such a case separation may involve a degree of segregation 
that from the first produces perceptible divergence. Again, 
the process by which the isolation is produced may be in 
itself segregative, in that it brings together those endowed in 
some special way, causing them to breed together and pre- 
venting them from breeding with others. This is especially 
the case with Sexual, Social, and Prepotential Segregation, 
and in some degree with Industrial Segregation. Isolation 
thus produced is in its very nature segregative, and would 
result in divergence if diversity of natural selection did not 
arise in the different sections of the species. Segregation with 
divergence may also be produced by natural selection or some 
other ])rinciple of transformation cooperating with some form 
of isolation that of itself is not perceptibly segregative. As 
segregation of other than average forms always produces 
divergence, and without it there is no divergence, I claim that 
it is the fundamental principle of divergent or polytypic 
evolution. Natural selection, which is the exclusive propa- 
gation of those better adapted to the environment, when it 
results in the preservation of other than average forms, pro- 
duces confluent or monotypic evolution ; but it is never the 
cause of divergence, except when cooperating with some 
principle of isolation in such a way that the two principles 
produce segregation. Failure to recognize these distinctions 
prevents Mr. Wallace from understanding my theory, and 
leads him to represent me as claiming for isolation all that I 
claim for segregation. 

Incompatihtlities arise during Positive Segregation. 

On pages 17H-186 Mr. Wallace maintains that "Natural 
selection is, in some probable cases at all events, able to accu- 
mulate variations in infertility between inci])icnt species " 

Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism. 135 

(p. 174); but Ills reasoning does not seem to nic conclusive. 
Even if we <;rant tliat the increase of this cliaracter occurs by 
tlie steps which he describes, it is not a process of uccumuhi- 
tion by natural selection. In order to be a means of cuuiula- 
tive modilication of varieties, races, orspecies, selection, whether 
artificial or adaptational, must preserve certain forms of an 
intergencratinj:: stock, to the exclusion of other forms of the 
same stock. Progressive change in the size of the occupants 
of a poultry -yard may be secured by raising only bantams the 
first, only common fowls the second, and only Shanghai fowls 
the third year : but this is not the form of selection that has 
produced the difl;erent races of fowls. So in nature rats may 
drive out and supplant mice; but this kind of selection 
modifies neither rats nor mice. On the other hand, if certain 
variations of mice prevail over others througli their sui)crior 
success in escaping their pursuers, then modification begins. 
Now, turning to ]). 175, we find that in the illustrative case 
introduced by i\Jr. Wallace the commencement of infertility 
between the incipient species is in relations to each other of 
two portions of a species that are locally segregated from the 
rest of the species, and partially segregated from each other 
by different modes of life. These two local varieties, by the 
terms of his supposition, being better adapted to the environ- 
ment than the freely interbreeding forms in other parts of the 
general area, increase till they supplant these original forms. 
Then, in some limited portion of the general area, there arise 
two still more divergent forms, with greater mutual infertility 
and with increased adaptation to the environment, enabling 
them to prevail throughout the whole area. The process here 
described, if it takes place, is not modification by natural 
selection. The natural selection of which he speaks does not 
arise till, with each advancing step, a new and complicated 
adjustment (which introduces the two new forms, each with 
unabated fertility with its own kind, but with diminished 
fertility with the other kind) has been attained by some other 
process. That other process is the one described in the passage 
1 have already quoted from pp. 184-185, where, according to 
my apprehension, the cause of divergence is more correctly 
stated than it is in the passage now under consideration. In 
the latter part of my paper on " Divergent Evolution through 
Cumulative Segregation " I have shown that the different 
kinds of incompatibility, preventing complete fertility between 
incipient species (and there called forms of Negative Segre- 
gation), cannot arise except as accompaniments of Positive 
Segregation in some form ; but that, having once arisen in 
connexion with partial Positive Segregation, they increase 

13G Rev. J. T. Gulick on ine 

from generation to generation ])y a law that is quite distinct 
from natural selection. It was also shown that endowments 
only partially segregative (as, for example, somewhat diver- 
gent habits of feeding), when not concurrent with any forms 
of cross incompatibility, are liable to be obliterated by 
crossing ; but, when associated with segregate fertility and 
cross infertility, will increase from generation to generation, 
even if the mongrels are as well adapted to the environment 
as the pure forms. I at the same time called attention to the 
fact that, when associated with some form of partial positive 
segregation (as divergent habits of feeding or segregative 
sexual and social instincts), greater vigour of pure forms, as 
contrasted with the mongrels, would have the same effect as 
their greater fertility. In other words. Segregate Vigour 
would preserve a partially segregated variety as effectually as 
Segregate Fecundity. 

Incovipatibilities will disappear imless preserved hy 
Positive Segregation. 

Mr. Wallace has given a very instructive computation on 
])ages 181-184 ; but it docs not seem to me to prove, as he 
supposes, that infertility between the individuals of a species 
cannot increase "unless correlated with some useful variation," 
but that it cannot arise, except as a transitory variation, 
unless associated with some positively segregative principle, 
causing those to pair together which are fertile with each 
other. My contention is that, without some positive form of 
segregation, fecundity and cross sterility can never arise, and 
that, after it has arisen under segregation, no amount of corre- 
lation with useful variation will preserve it if the positive 
segregation is removed. If, for example, all the species of 
liumming-birds were brought together in one country, and 
were deprived of all segregative habits and instincts, it cer- 
tainly would not require many generations to reduce them to 
one species. ]f equally adapted to the environment, the 
species that would succeed in perpetuating itself would be the 
one represented by the largest number of individuals ; or, if 
several species were entirely cross fertile and were in the 
aggregate represented by a larger number of individuals than 
any other similar group of species or than any single species, 
then the resulting species would be the hybrid descendants of 
this most numerous group. All the other species would be- 
come extinct through failing to mate with " physiological 

Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism. I'M 

Why anij need of distinctive Recognition Marks for those 
whose Ancestors had but one set of Marks? 

An cxaiii))le of one of the effects of divergence bein^ 
treated as if it were the primary cause of divergence is found 
on pages 217-228 and 284, where the need of distinctive 
cliaracters for easy recognition is given as the chief cause of 
divergence in calls, odours, and colours. The importance of 
distinctive characters by which the members of a species may 
distinguish their mates from those of other species cannot be 
exaggerated ; but how does it haj)pe!i that the descendants of 
one stock which had originally but one set of such cliaracters 
have become segregated into groups, needing distinctive marks? 
By confounding the problem of successive monotypic adapta- 
tion with that of coexistent polytypic adaptation the real 
causes of divergence have been obscured and misapj)rehended. 
The diversity of Sexual and Social Selection, wliieh Mr. 
Wallace in these passages speaks of as natural selection, is 
due to diversity of sexual and social instincts, which in their 
turn have been produced by different forms of segregation. 
For a fuller exposition of this subject I would refer to my 
paper on " Divergent Evolution through Cumulative Segre- 
gation " (Journ. Linn. Soc., Zoology, vol. xx. ))p. 234-238). 
The princi})les which I have called Sexual and Social Segre- 
gation Mr. Wallace has mentioned in several places under the 
name " selective association " or " selective isolation," but he 
does not recognize the fact that, whenever this principle 
gem-eo-ates forms whose immediate ancestors were not seo're- 
gated, it must be the direct cause of divergence ; and that, 
when divergent forms that have arisen under Industrial and 
Local Segregation are brought together through increase of 
numbers, this principle is often the one cause preserving 
varieties that would otherwise be obliterated. With plants 
whose pollen is distributed by the wind, and probably with 
both vegetable and animal forms whose fertilizing elements 
are distributed by water, Prepotential Segregation plays the 
same role as the segregative instincts of higher animals. As 
this principle depends on the greater rapidity with which the 
male and female elements of the same variety or species com- 
bine, as contrasted with the elements of diff"erent varieties and 
species, we might call it isolation through selective impreg- 
nation, just as Mr. Wallace has called the instinctive segre- 
gation '' isolation through selective association." Whatever 
names we give these two principles, they must be important 
factors in divero^ent evolution. 

138 On the Inconsistencies of Utilitarianism. 

Segregation produces Domestic Races j why not Species ? 

Mr. Wallace seems to be opposed to the idea that some form 
of isolation is essential to divergence ; but in his argument he 
yields so much that I cannot but think his opposition is largely 
due to his misinterpreting the theory. Mr. Romanes lias 
mentioned eight or ten forms of isolation, and Mr. Wallace 
says I have discussed thirty-eight forms ; but neither of us 
claim that these are the only possible forms, nor do we claim 
that any form of this principle is essential to the transforma- 
tion of one species into anotlier when the original one disap- 
pears in the process. The phrase " new species " as used by 
Mr. Wallace in the following passage is ambiguous ; but the 
second sentence seems to indicate that he is here discussing 
divergence as well as simple transformation. He says : — 
" Most writers consider the isolation of a portion of a species a 
very important factor in the formation of new species, while 
others maintain it to be absolutely essential. This latter view 
has arisen from an exaggerated opinion as to the power of 
intercrossing to keep down any variety or incipient species 
and merge it in the parent stock. But it is evident that this 
can only occur with varieties that are not useful, or which, if 
useful, occur in very small numbers." ... (p. 144). Xear 
the end of the same chapter, after presenting arguments in 
favour of this position, and after reviewing some of the facts 
which I have presented concerning the divergences of Sand- 
wich-Island land-molluscs, he remarks : — " We have, how- 
ever, seen reason to believe that geographical or local isolation 
is by no means essential to the differentiation of species, 
because the same result is brought about by the incipient 
species acquiring different habits or frequently a different 
station, and also by the fact that different varieties of the same 
species are known to prefer to pair with their like, and thus 
to bring about a physiological isolation of the most effective 
kind" (p. 150). Except that he has used "physiological 
isolation " where I should have used psychological segrega- 
tion, this last passage is as completely in accord with what I 
have presented in my paper on " Divergent Evolution " as it 
could have been if he had copied my statements. But how 
is this passage and one of similar import on page 185 to be 
reconciled with his own statement just quoted from page 144 ? 
On jiages 217, 218, and 22G, he bases his argument for the 
importance of different coloration in closely allied species on 
the obvious necessity for means '' to secure the pairing 
together of individuals of the same species," if a new species 
is to be kept " separate from its nearest allies." lie here 

Prof. J. Wood-Mason on a Viviparous Caddis-jJy. 139 

assumes the fundamental fact on which the theory of segre- 
gation rests. All that is wanting is its recognition as a 
universal principle on which all permanent divergences, 
whether varietal or specific, necessarily depend. In the 
formation of domestic variations it is fully recognized ; for he 
says, " It is only by isolation and pure breeding that any 
specially desired qualities can be increased by selection " 
(p. 99). If experimental biology shows this to be a constant 
law, is there any good reason for not applying it in the general 
theory of organic evolution? Seeing it is admitted that arti- 
ficial selection, unaided by isolation, is of no avail in pro- 
ducing divergent races, how can it be claimed that natural 
selection, unaided by isolation, is of any avail in producing 
varieties and species? Again, as in domestication the segre- 
gate breeding of other than average forms always produces 
divergence, have we any reason to doubt that, when the same 
process takes place in the grouping of organisms in a natural 
state, the result will also be divergence ? 

The discrepancies to which I have referred are, it seems to 
me, due to deficiencies in the theory which Mr. Wallace 
maintains in common with many others. These problems 
tiiat drive the exclusive utilitarian into various inconsisten- 
cies, can, I am convinced, be consistently explained by the 
theory of Divergence through Segregation. 

26 Concession, Osaka, Japan. 

XV. — On a Viviparous Caddis-fly. By J. Wood-MaSON, 
Superintendent of the Indian Museum, and Professor of 
Comparative Anatomy in the Medical College of Bengal, 

Some years ago, while studying a series of transverse sections 
through the body of a Trichopterous insect I had captured at 
the dinner-table lights, I noticed that the abdomen was 
crammed from end to end with partially developed ova. On 
the 25th October last I caught a second specimen of the same 
species, which also proved to be a gravid female. Remem- 
bering my former observation, and having often observed 
that gravid females of the viviparous forms of Muscidaj bring 
forth their young on falling accidentally into the spirit of the 
dissecting-dish, I threw the insect alive into a liqueur-glass of 
whiskey that happened to be ready at hand. The moment that 

140 Prof. J. Wood-Ma.son on a Viviparous Caddis-fly. 

the insect began to feel the effects of the alcohol there issued 
from the extremity of its abdomen in a dense cloud innumerable 
tiny living creatures, whicli wriggled convulsively in the fluid 
for some seconds before they died. These tiny creatures, on 
examination under the microscope, proved to be Trichopterous 
larvae possessing all the characters, namely the slender and 
tapering body, the laterally-expanded and dorsally-humped 
first abdominal segment, but above all the disproportionately 
long and slender third pair of legs, of those of typical Lepto- 
ceridffi. They closely resemble tlie larva that forms the sub- 
ject of De Geer's pi. xv. fig. 10 (Hist, des Ins. t. ii. pt. i.), 
which undoubtedly represents the larva of a species of the 
same family. They measure about '16 millim. in length and 
about "125 in breadth ; they number no less than 460, 
according to my native artist, who measured and counted 
them for me. As is often, if not invariably, the case with 
Trichopterous larvse of the first stage, no tracheal gills are 
present, at least none are to be detected. 

No trace of the gelatinous secretion by which the eggs of 
the oviparous forms are bound together in masses was detect- 
able either in the body of the mother or amongst the extruded 

The abdomen of the female still retains the distended con- 
dition it had before parturition, and presents itself as a thin 
and transparent membranous sac, the walls of which bear 
both on the dorsal and on the ventral side a longitudinal 
series of exceedingly short, transverse, brown bands, repre- 
senting the more firmly chitinized terga and sterna of its con- 
stituent segments. Tiie four penultimate of these segments 
a]ipear to be extended and stretched, both in the longitudinal 
and in the transverse direction, to the limit of the extensibility 
of all their interarticular membranes, being separated from 
one another both above and below and at the sides by long 
and equal membranous intervals, while the four basal are 
stretched to little more than half the extent of their mem- 
branes in any part; so that the posterior half of the abdomen 
would seem to be that which gives lodgment to tiie main 
mass of the brood-pouch. The abdomen is in fact expanded 
for the accommodation of the developing brood much more 
after the fashion of that of the white-ant queen for her eggs 
than of those of the viviparous Coleoptera of the genera 
SpiracJitlia and Corotoca described by Schiodte. 

The mother insect, Avhich is of a dull golden-brown colour, 
has the antenna^, equal to the anterior wings in length and is 
furnishedwitli a retinaculum; it agrees in allessential particulars 
with McLachlan's diagnosis of the genus Not<inatoIi('a, to 

On Myrwpodafi'om tJie Andes of Ecuador. 141 

vliich it is here referred under the provisional name of N. 
viviparoj in allusion to its remarkable mode of reproduction. 
The following are amongst the j)oints upon which further 
information in regard to this interesting animal is desirable, 
and will, it is to be hoped, soon be forthcoming: — (I) The 
nature of the brood-pouch — whether this is a uterine dilata- 
tion of an oviduct or of the vagina, as in some viviparous 
Diptcra, or whether it is an invagination into the coelome of 
the soft roof of the genital sinus, as in the Orthojiterous genus 
Panesthia ; (2) the habits of the larvaj — whether these are 
aquatic, as in most other species of this order, or terrestrial, 
as in the single instance of the Enoicylce ; (3) the male ; 
and (4) the form of the larva-case. 

Notanatolica vivipara, § . — a, the wings of the left side, x 2'5, * the reti- 
nacukr hooks ; b, the maxillary palp of the right side, X 2-5. 

XVI. — A Short Account of a small Collection of Myriopoda 
ohtained hy Mr. Edward Whymper in the Andes of 
Ecuador. By R. I. POCOCK, of the British (Natural- 
History) Museum. 

So little is known of the Myriopod fauna of Ecuador that any 
collection of these animals from that country is deserving of 
especial notice. But Mr. Why m per has added largely to the 
interest of his collection by devoting particular attention to 
the species found at great altitudes. This has been so rarely 
done by collectors that it is not yet possible to formulate any 
general laws with regard to the vertical range of the species 
of this much neglected group of animals ; but, so far as any 
conclusion can be drawn from the small amount of material 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 11 

142 Mr. K. I. Pocock on 

obtained by Mr. Whymper, die species found on the moun- 
tains do not for the most part differ from those of the lowlands. 
Of the seven species brought back two only are new. Both 
of these, since they belong to the rare and little-known genus 
Newportia^ are of special interest, inasraucli as tliey throw 
fresh light upon the specific characters of the genus. The 
genus tScoloiiocryptops^ too, has proved very troublesome to 
systematists, and all who are interested in the Chilopoda 
must feel grateful to Mr. Whymper for having preserved so 
large a number of individuals of He. mexicanus, for I have 
thereby been enabled to draw up with confidence the synonymy 
of this species as given below. 


Otostigma scahricauda (Humb. & Sauss.). 

Branchiostoma scabricauda, Humb. & Sauss. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1870, 
p. 203; Etudes Myr. p. 121, pi. vi. fig. 15 (1872); Koblrausch, 
Arch. Nat. 1881, p. 75 {Branchiotrema). 

OtoKtigma appendiculatum, Porath, Bih. Sv. Vet. Ak. Handl. iv. p. 23 


Mr. "VYhymper obtamed specimens in the valley of Chillo, 
8500 feet, Machachi, 9800 feet, and on Corazon at an altitude 
of 12,000 feet. 

De Saussure and Porath have recorded this species from 
Rio Janeiro, and, in addition to specimens from this locality, 
Kolilrausch had others from Popayan, in Colombia. This 
author considered the remarkable appendage on the anal legs 
to be a monstrosity. It is in reality a sexual character 
belonging in all probability to the male. 

Scolopocryptops mexicanus, Humb. & Sauss. 

Scohpocryptops mexicanus, Humb. & Sauss. Rev. et Mag. Zool. 1869, 

p. 158; litudes Myr. p. 135, pi. vi. tig. 18. 
Scolopocri/pto])s Miersii, Meiuert, Proc. Am. Phil. Soc. 1886, p. 181 

(not Miersii, Newport). 
Scolopocryptops Meinerti, Pocock, Ann. <& Mag. Nat. Hist. 1888, ii. 

p. 474. 
? Scolopocryptops hisnlca, Karscb, Abh. nat. Ver. Brem. ix. p. 60 (1884). 

From the localities that Dr. Meinert gives this species is 
common in the West Indies and Brazil. It appears also to 
be common in Mexico. In Ecuador it is very abundant, 
specimens being obtained at Chiquipoquio, on Chimborazo, 
and on tiie south side of the mountain at an altitude of 12,000 
to 13,000 feet, and on the east side at 11,700 feet; at 
rieliincli;i, 12,000 feet; at Machachi, 9800 feet; at the 

Myriopoda from the Andes of Ecuador. 143 

Hacienda of Aiitisana, 13,300 feet ; in the valley of Collanes, 
12,540 feet; and on Corazon at an altitnde of 12,00) feet. 

'J'rusting to the aecuracj of Dr. Kohlrausch's opinion on 
the question of tlie specitie identity of Sc. sexspinosus and Sc. 
mexicanus, I was led into deseribing as new, under the name 
Mei'nertt, some specimens of a Scvlopocryptops from Dominica 
which seemed identical with <S\'. Miersii of Meinert, but 
wliich certaiidy were not Sc. Miersii oi Newport. I now find 
that Dr. Kohlrausch was wrong in setting Sc. mexicanus as 
synonymous with .Sc. sexspinosusj and that Sc. mexicanus was, 
apparently in consequence of that error, redescribed by 
Meinert as Sc, Miersii. 

Newportia dentata^ sp. n. 

Coluur ochraceous ; head-plate and maxillary feet casta- 

llcad-plate somewhat quadrate; lateral margins nearly 
parallel, posterior margin lightly convex ; marked with a 
relatively small number of large punctures and with very 
many minute close-set punctures ; shortly hirsute and fur- 
nished behind with two abbreviated sulci. Antennas pubes- 
cent, of moderate length, composed of seventeen segments ; 
maxillary feet normally formed, internally hirsute ; the ante- 
rior margin of the sternite almost straight and transverse, not 
dentate, but showing faint indications of a wide prosternal 
plate on each side ; with a conspicuous seta on each side. 
First tergite marked behind the anterior margin with a con- 
spicuous semicircular groove and on each side of the middle 
line there runs backwards from this groove to the hinder 
margin a single longitudinal sulcus. The rest of the tergites 
except the last marked as in Cryptops with two conspicuous, 
longitudinal, parallel sulci, and on each side with one poste- 
riorly abbreviated oblique sulcus ; all the tergites except the 
last without raised margins. 

Anal tergite posteriorly impressed, hinder margin convexly 
produced in the middle ; sternite vi'i&Q^ with rounded posterior 
angles and very slightly concave posterior margin ; pleurce 
marked with many large pores, produced behind into a long, 
straight, slender process, terminated by a sharp spine ; anal 
legs short as compared with other members of the genus j 
the femur triangular in section, armed beneath with four 
enormously long and strong spines which progressively 
increase in length and strength trom before backwards ; the 
superior internal edge armed with a series of about six minute 
spinules ; patella nearly cylindrical, very slightly longer than 


144 Mr. R. I. Pocock on 

but as thick as the femur, its supero-internal edge armed with 
three minute spinules ; the tibia cylindrical, as long as the 
patella, but more slender ; the tarsus likewise cylindrical, a 
little shorter and distinctly more slender than the tibia ; the 
metatarsus shorter and much slenderer than the tarsus, com- 
posed of four slender cylindrical segments, which increase in 
length from before backwards and are very distinctly defined 
from each other ; the proximal segment also very clearly 
marked off from the distal end of the tarsus. Preanal legs 
long and strong, reaching when extended to the middle of the 
tibial segment of the anal ]mir, not armed with spinules ; rest 
of the legs weaker, haiiy, the distal end of the tibia, at all 
events in the middle and posterior end of the body, bearing a 
superior spinule ; the inferior surface of the femur, patella, 
and tibia also armed with a distal spinule in most of the legs. 

Stermtes punctured and marked with a median sulcus. 

Length 16 millim. 

Bab. Chimborazo (east side, 12,000 feet). 

From the form of its anal legs it is clear that this species 
is allied to both N. longitarsis (Newp.) and jV. azteca^ 
Saussure. From the latter it may be recognized by the 
form of the furrow on the first tergite and by tlie spine-arma- 
ture of the anal legs ; from the former, which is only known 
to me from Newport's figure and description, by the great 
difference in size that exists between the tarsal segment of 
the anal legs and the metatarsal j in longitarsis these segments 
are only slightly unequal. 

Newportia monttcola, sp. n. 

This species in most of its features so closely resembles 
the preceding that a reference to the points of difterence 
between the two will be the most intelligible way of describ- 
ing it. 

The anterior border of the maxillary sternitc is not trans- 
verse and straight, but is strongly and convexly produced 
forwards in the middle line. The first tergite is marked 
before its anterior border with a strong furrow ; but instead 
of being semicircular, the furrow is composed of a right and 
left portion, each of which runs obliquely backwards and 
inwards to the middle of the tergite, meeting its fellow of the 
opposite side in an angle of about 100°. The longitudinal 
sulci of this tergite converge in front and each anteriorly 
bil'iricatcs : the outer branch running obliquely outwards and 
forwards moots the anterior furrow ; the inner, shorter branch 
runs obliquoly forwanls and inwards and meets its fellow of 

Myriopoda from the Andes of Ecuador. 145 

the opposite side in a depression lying immediately behind 
the angle of the anterior furrow. 

The median sulcus on the sternites is much less conspicuous 
and the anal sternite has the posterior margin more concave. 
In the anal legs the femur is more cylindrical and the interior 
spines are not so large; the patella is armed on its inner surface 
•with two stronger spinules. The femur, patella, and tibia are 
about equal in length, but the tarsus is much shorter than 
the tibia ; the metatarsus is the longest segment of the legs 
and is composed of six or seven clearly detined segments. 
In the preanal legs there is a distinct metatarsal segment. 

Length 18 millim. 

Chimborazo (east side, 12,000 feet). 

Specimens of this genus are very rare in collections, and 
there is consequently not much known of the specific charac- 
ters of the group. I am inclined to think that in this case 
the only features to be relied upon for the separation of these 
two tbrms are those found in the sliape of the sulci of tiie first 
tergite and of the anterior margin of the maxillary sternite. 
Those found in the anal legs are, I suspect, subject to indi- 
vidual or perhaps sexual variation. 

This species differs from azteca and lonyitarsis in having 
the anterior border of the maxillary sternite produced for- 
wards. It appears somewhat to resemble the former in the 
shape of the sulci on the first tergite. 

A second specimen obtained by Mr. Whymper on La 
Dormida, at an altitude of 11,800 feet, differs from the type in 
having ten metatarsal segments on the anal legs. In this 
particular it approximates to N. hngitarsis, but until the form 
of the sulci of the first tergite in this species is known it is 
impossible to refer any species to it with contidence. 


Stenoma rufjjes (0. Koch), 
Platyrhucus ru/ij)es, C. Koch, Die Myr. i. p. 90, pi. xliv. tig. 80. 

A single specimen at Nanegal (3000-4000 feet). 

C. Koch's specimen was described as doubtfully coming 
from Brazil. This example from Ecuador agrees very closely 
with C Koch's figure of rufjjeSy except that the tergites are 
slightly smoother and the posterior series of granules smaller j 
the margins of the keels are in nearly every case quadrideu- 
tate ; the posterior tooth, however, is sometmies bifid. 

146 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

? Spirostreptus (equator ialis^ Porath. 

^ Sprostreptus cequatorialit, Porath, Ann. Soc. Ent, Belg. xxxii. 
pp. 215, 21G (1889). 

One specimen at Milligalli and one at Guayaquil (sea- 
level). Since both these specimens are females it is impossible 
to identify them with certainty. 

Spiroholus spimpodex, Karsch. 

Spiroholus spinipodex, Karsch, Berl. ent. Zeitschr. xxxii. p. 29 (1888). 

Pichincha, 12,000 feet; Chimborazo (east side 12,000 
feet, south side 12,000 to 13,000 feet). 

Dr. Karsch's specimens were from Ecuador (? Quito). 

XVII. — List of Land- and Freshwater- Shells collected by Dr. 
Emin Pasha in Central Africa, with Descriptions of neio 
Species. By Edgar A. Smith. 

[Plates V. & VI.] 

On the journey from the Albert Nyanza to Zanzibar in com- 
pany with Mr. Stanley during the latter part of last year, 
Dr. Emin Pasha found time to make collections of various 
branches of natural history ; and he has been good enough to 
send to the British Museum the shells he then obtained. 
Being from such remote and little-worked localities, it is not 
surprising that several of them are new to the National Col- 
lection, and a few new to science. The following is a com- 
plete list of the species with the exact localities which 
accompany them. Many of these places do not appear in 
maps which I have consulted, and consequently I am unable 
to point out their exact position. I therefore have merely 
copied the names as written by Dr. Emin himself. 

The majority of the new species hereafter described wei'e 
collected by the llev. J. L. Last during his residence at 
Mamboia about six years ago, and a few were obtained by 
the late Bishop Ilannington in 1883. All the species are in 
the British Museum. 

I. List or Dk. Emin's Collection. 

1. Trochonanina vwznvihicensis, PfeifFer. 
Hub. llkata; var. from Illali. 

Freshwater- Shells jrom Central Africa. 147 

2. Trochonanina Jenynsi^ Pfr., var. 

Hah. Kirassa. 

The single specimen differs from the type in having the 
umbilicus a little larger and the spiral sculpture rather 
stronger. The keel at the periphery also is somewhat more 

3. BxiUimis {R hack is) f sp. 

Hab. Htoni Iliranza. 

Two specimens in poor condition. 

4. Bulimics {Cerastus) ptychaxis^ Smith, var. 

Hah. Huala. 

The specimens from the above locality have the apical 
whorls somewhat larger than the ty|)e from Ujiji. 

5. Bulimus [Cerastus) Emini, sp. n. 
Hab. Kidete ; also Htoni Ileranza. 

6. Bulimus {Cerastus) kidetensis, sp. n. 
Hab. Kidete. 

7. Bulimus (Ena?) Hayiningtoni^ Sowerby. 
Hab. Kidete, Huala, and Hkata. 

8. Achatina, sp. 

Hab. Huini, Ussagara. 

The two specimens may perhaps be a variety of A. Craveniy 
Smith ; they differ in the spire being somewhat longer and 
the body-whorl shorter than in the type. 

9. Limicolaria Cailluudi, Pfeiffer. 
Hab. Hssanga, Ugogo ; near Huala River j Kirassa. 

10. Limicolaria^ sp. 

Hab. Lake Katue, near Albert Edward Lake. 
Three specimens in bad condition may belong to L, recti- 
strigata, Smith. 

11. Stenogyra [Subulina) usagarica, sp. n. 
Hab. Kidete. 

148 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

12. Ennea Jhrttdentataj sp. n. 
Hab. Ilkata. 

13. Eiinea consanguinea, sp. n. 
Hal. Kidete. 

14. Ennea consociata, sp. n. 
Hob. Kidete. 

15. Ennea cequidentata, sp. n. 
Ilah. Hkata. 

16. Cyclostoma [Rochehrunia) Delmaresi^ Bourguignat. 

Hah. Hadako, Ugogo ; Hkata and Longha {Ferhdni) 
(Enmi) ; Usagara [HanniJigton) . 

17. Cyclostoma^ sp. 

Hah. Longa {Ferhdni) ; Hadako, Ugogo {Emin) ] Mam- 
boia {Last) ; Usagara {Hannington). 

This may possibly be a small variety of the preceding 

18. Cyclostoma anceps. Martens? 

Hah. Hlali, Htoni Hiranza, Hkata, Kirassa. 

None of the specimens from the above localities are qiiite 
so large as the shell figured by Martens (Monatsb. Akad. 
Wiss. Berlin, 1S78, pi. i. fig. 4). In other respects they 
appear to agree with the description. The largest specimen 
has a greatest diameter of 22 millim. 

19. Cyclostoma J sp. 

Hah. Kidete {Emin); Usagara {Hannington). 

A small species, about 12 millim. in diameter, with a few 
lir£e in the umbilicus and others upon the spire and upper 
part of the last whorl. Of about the same shape as the pre- 
ceding species. 

20. Ampullaria gradata. Smith. 

Hah. ? {Emin) ; Lake Nyassa and between it and the 

east coast {Thompson). 

The ])recisc locality where this species was collected is not 
stated by Dr. Emin. 

Freshwater- Shells from Central Africa. 149 

21. Lanistes ovutn (Peters). 
Nab. Bubu. 

22. Lanistes lihycus (Morelet). 

Ilah. Longa {Ferhdni). 

This is a well-known West- African form. 

23. Paludina, sp. ? 

A series of fifteen specimens from Huala River might 
possibly be considered an extreme variety of P. unicolor. 

24. Pahcdina, sp. n. 

Hah. Victoria Nyanza, south shore {Emi'n and Hanning- 

This species, which appears to be undescribed, has a very 
long spire and is remarkable also for tiie acute keel around 
the periphery, which revolves up the spire just above the 

25. Melatiia tuherculata, Mliller. 
Hab. Huala Hiver. 

26. Cleopatra ferruffinea, Lea. . 
Hab. Longa {Ferhdni). 

27. Cleopatra Guillemeij Bourguignat. 
Hab. Hadako, Ugogo. 

28. Physopsis Leroyi^ Grandidier. 
Hab. Bubu. 

29. Corbicula radiata^ Parreyss. 
Hab. Victoria Nyanza, south shore. 

30. Unio, sp. 

Hab. Hasvea. 

A single specimen only, closely resembling U. Edwardsi- 
anusj Bourguignat, from the Victoria Nyanza. 

31. Spatha rubens, Lamarck. 

Hab. Njamagodjo, Victoria Nyanza ; also Niangivira, 

150 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

32. Mutela Bourguignati^ Ancey. 
Hub. Victoria Nyanza. 

II. Descriptions of New Species. 

Hyalinia Lasti. (PI. V. figs. 1, la.) 

Testa minute perforata, orbiculata, subdepressa, nitens, fusco-cornea, 
tenuis ; spira leviter elovata et couvexa, ad apicem obtusa ; 
anfract. G, lente accrescentes, convexiusculi, leviter striatuli, striis 
prope suturam anguste marginatum subpliciformibus, ultimus ad 
peripheriam rotuudatus, in exemplis juvenilibus obtuse angula- 
tus, infra convexus, sed in medio, umbilicum versus, concave 
impressus, radiatim striatus, striiscjue conceutricis tenuissimis 
fere obsoletis sculptus ; apertura oblique semilunata, iutus pallide 
vinosa ; perist. tenue, margine columellari leviter incrassato et 
breviter reflexo. 

Diam. maj. 15| millim., min. 13 ; alt. 9. 

Hah. On the plains within a 5U-miles radius of Mamboia 
{Last) . 

Var. pellucida. Testa subpellucida vel flavescenti-cornea. 

Hab. Mamboia, at an elevation of from 4000 to 5000 feet 
(Last) . 

As is frequently the case in this difficult group of land- 
shells, there is no special feature which at once distinguishes 
this species. The perforation is very small and the super- 
ficial gloss on both the upper and lower surfaces is very 
brilliant. Three of four examples from the high altitude are 
quite pale in comparison with the typical form from the 

Hyalinia Eminiana. (PI. V. fig, 2.) 

Testa angustissime perforata, subgloboso-deprcssa, tenuis, nitida, 
semipellucida, flavo-cornea ; aufract. 5|, subccleriter accrcsccntes, 
convexiusculi, infra suturam anguste marginati, incrcmenti lineis 
striatuli, ultimus ad peripheriam rotuudatus, infra convexiuseulus, 
in medio concave impressus et perforatus : apertura mcdiocriter 
magna, obliqua, semilunata ; perist. teuuissimura, margine colu- 
mellari breviter reflexo, umbilicum semiobtegente. 

Diam. maj. 11 millim., min. 10 ; alt. 8. 

Hab. Mamboia, 4000 to 5000 feet altitude {La^t). 

A rather convex species, with a somewhat elevated conical 
spire with slightly convex outlines. The basal perforation is 
very small. 

Freshwater- Shells from Central Africa. 15 1 

llya li n ia Ha n n ington i. 

Testa II. Eminiano' subsimilis, scd longe minor, magis apertc per- 
forata, undique minutissirnc spiralitcr striata ; anfract. 4^, ad 
suturam niargiiiati, convexiusculi, iiicreraenti lineis tenuibua, 
aliisquc spiralibiis microseopicis undique sculpti, ultimiis in medio 
rotundatus ; apcrtura luiiata : perist. ad marginem columcUarom 
levitor inerassatum, sujierne vix retloxum, eed leviter siuuatum. 

Diam. maj. (>.\ millim., min. G; alt. 4. 

J/ah. Same as //. Eminiana. 

Althougli much resembling //. Eminiana, and at first sight 
liable to be taken for the young of that species, the present 
foiin is quite distinct. The umbilicus is larger, the columella 
is peculiarly sinuated or notched near its junction with the 
body-whorl, and scarcely at all reflexed, and the surface is 
everywhere above and below microscopically spirally striated. 

Hyalinia depressior. 

Testa //. HanniiKjtoni similis, scd magis compressa, columella 
supernc brcviter expansa et reflexa, apertura latior ; superficies 
undique distinctius spiraliter striata ; umbilicus angustior. 

Diara. maj. Gg millim., min. 6 ; alt. 4. 

Hah. Mamboia, altitude 4000 to 5000 feet {Last). 

Although the measurements of this form and H. Hanning- 
toni are similar, still the two species are quite distinct. This 
can be seen at a glance when they are placed side by side, 
and the distinctness is confirmed by the differences referred to 
in the above description. 

Trochonayiina mamhoiensis. (PI. V. fig. 3.) 

Testa acute conica, ad peripheriam carinata, tenuissima, anguste 
perforata, nitida, cornea, pallide fusco-olivacea ; spira elevata, 
lateribus subrectis vel levissime concavis, ad apicem subobtusa ; 
anfract. 6-7, medioeriter lente crescentes, supremi 2| convexi, 
minutissime et confertim spiraliter striati, cseteri planiusculi vel 
vix convexiusculi, infra ad suturam carinati, increment! lineis 
obliquis striati, ultimus in medio acute carinatus, inferne leviter 
convexus, striisque tenuissimis, concentricis, sculptus, baud 
descendens ; apertura parva, triangularis, longit. totius |- baud 
aequans ; peristoma teni;issimum, margine columellari ad inser- 
tionem breviter reflexo, pallide vinoso, umbilicum semiobtegente. 

Diam. maj, 11 millim., min. 10 ; longit. 10. 

Ilah. Mamboia, 4000 to 5000 feet {Last). 

This is a very fragile shell and well distinguished by its 

152 Mr. E. A. Smitli oi Land- and 

conical form, very narrow perforation, and the minute spiral 
striation upon the apical whorls, which becomes obsolete on 
the few last. The acute keel at the periphery passes up the 
spire just above the suture, but does not reach beyond the 
fourth volution. The apical whorls are considerably convex 
and probably are not carinate at the middle. The three 
specimens at hand have a dirty appearance, through the 
presence of more or less blackish earth, which appears to be, 
as it were, gummed to the surface. This may possibly be a 
characteristic feature of the species. 

Trochonanina episcopalis. (PI. V. fig. 4.) 

Testa ang.u8te perforata, tenms, bredter conoidea, ad peripheriam 
subangulata, vel obtuse carinata, pallida fusco-cornea, interdum 
liiiea angusta rufa supra angulum anfr. ultimi cincta ; anfr. G-7, 
apicales duo laeves, politi, convexi, cajteri convexiusculi, regula- 
riter acerescentes, striis obliquis curvatis aliisque concentricis 
microscopicis sculpti, quasi subsericati, inferne ad suturam an- 
gusta carinato-marginati, ultimus interna magis politus, liueis con- 
centricis, tenuibus, confartis, minute undulatis, ornatus, lineis 
incrementi radiautibus, tenuibus, scnlptus, hand descendens ; 
spira mediocriter elevata, superne submammiformis ; apertura 
obbque scmilunata ; perist. tenuissimum, margine columellari ad 
rimam breviter axpanso. 

Diam. maj. 17J millim., min. 15| ; alt. 12. 

Hah. Usagara. 

This species is closely related to T. Jenynsi of PfeifFer, 
but may be distinguished by its colour, the less acute peri- 
phery, and the finer spiral striae on the upper surface. The 
typical form of T. Jenynsi is an opaque white shell with a 
brown zone above the periphery and distinctly spirally striated 
on both the upper and lower surfaces. T. ept'scoj^ah's is more 
transparent, of a brownish horn-colour, and sculptured on the 
upper surface with excessively fine spiral striation. 

This species was collected by Bishop Hannington, who 
lost his life a few years ago at the hands of some of the 
natives in East Africa. 

BuUmus {Rhachis) usagaricus. (PI. V. fig, 5.) 
Testa ovato-conica, angusta perforata, tenuis, albida vol dilute 
flavesccns, linais spiralibus paucis fusco-nigris punctisque uigres- 
ccntibus sparsis picta ; anfract. 0, couvexiusculi, striis incrementi 
tenuibus obliquis, aliisque spiralibus minutis, sculpti, tres api- 
cales plerumque fusccscentes, ultimus magnus, convexus : aper- 
tura longit. totius 4 aoquans ; perist. tenue, margine columellari 
siipcrno expanso et rcflexo. 
Longit. Ki^, millim., diam. 10: ajicrtura ^^ longa, n lata. 

Freshwater- Shells from Central Africa. 153 

Ilal). Usagara {Bishop Ilannington). 

Of five spocimons of this species all have a slender band or 
line at tlie periphery and another, sometimes a little broader, 
somewhat lower down. They all also exhibit a somewhat 
pellucid or brownish zone around the umbilicus. A line which 
passes round the middle *of the fourth whorl is sometimes 
continued on the fifth and last ; this line in two examples is 
interrupted, thus forming a transverse series of elongate dots. 
A single example is irregularly marked with brown at the 
lower part of the body-whorl and has a second interrupted 
line just above the peripherial zone. The dark scattered 
dots are few and irregular. Owing to the thinness of the 
shell the markings are as vivid within the aperture as upon 
the exterior. There is only the feeblest trace of spiral stria- 
tion. B. nigrilineatus from Madagascar is very like this 
species in form, but exhibits more distinct spiral striation, 
has a narrower perforation, is more numerously banded, its 
general tint more yellow, and not sparsely dotted. B. trutta^ 
Blanford, an Indian form, is also very closely related. 

Bulimus [Ehachis] quadricingulatus. (PI. V. fig. 6.) 

Testa oblonga, subturrita, perforata, tenuis, nitida, flavo-lactea, ad 
apicem purpurea, lineis saturate fuscis (in anfr. ultimo quatuor, 
in superioribus tribus) cincta ; anfr, 04, perconvexi, regulariter 
sublcnte accrcscentes, incremeuti lineis tenuibus obliquis, striisque 
spiralibus confcrtis cxilissimis sculpti, ultimus zona subpcllucida 
circa umbilicum, strigisque obliquis paucis subhyaliuis hie illic 
ornatus ; peristoma icuue, ad insertioncm columella) breviter 
expansum et refiexum ; apertura ovata, loiigit. totius ^ paulo 

Longit. 12| millim., diam, 7 ; apertura 5| longa, 3| lata. 

Hah. On the plains within 50 miles of jMamboia {Last). 

This is a narrower shell than B. usagarica^ differently 
banded, and has a smaller body-whorl and. a larger spire in 
proportion to the length of the aperture. Only a single speci- 
men is at hand, and in this, of the three dark zones on the 
penultimate whorl, the uppermost and lowest are quite close 
to their respective sutures, and the intervening band falls 
just above the middle. The three apical whorls are of a rich 
purple-brown colour, which gradually passes into a paler tint 
on the succeeding volution. 

Bulimus {Cerastus) mamhoiensis. (PL V. fig. 7.) 

Testa elongata, conica, turrita, subpellucida, albo-coruea vel opal 
escens, nitida, anguste umbilicata, liris obliquis confertis tenuibus, 

154 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

infra medium anfr, ultimi subevanescentibus, instructa ; anfr. 8, 
convexi, sublente accresceutes, sutura vix obliqua. subprofunda 
sejuncti ; spira elongata, ad apicem obtusa ; apertura ovalis, 
supeme et infra acuminata, longit. totius -fj adaequans : perist. 
tenue, margine columellari expanse et reflexo, extremitatibus 
callo tenuissimo junctis. 
Longit. 22 millim., diam. maj. 10|, min. 10 ; apertura 9^ longa, 
5 lata. 

Hob. On the plains within 50 miles of Mamboia. 

One of the four specimens of this species is somewhat 
stumpier than the others and has the aperture closed with a 
firm white epiphragm. 

BuUmus {Cerastus) Lasti. 

Testa ovata, superne producta, late perforata, subpeUucido-albida, 
epidermide tenuissima pallide flava induta, nitida, oblique con- 
fertim et regulariter striata ; anfract. 7, convexi, sutura profundi- 
uscula, fere horizontali, sejuncti, ultimus inferne leviter saccatus, 
striis ad basim productis ; apertura ovata, superne acuminata, 
antice rotundata, longit. totius ^ subaequans ; perist. tenue, 
margine columeUari late expanse et reflexo ; spira obtuse conica, 
ad apicem baud acuta. 

Longit. IS millim., diam. maj. 11, min. 10; apertura 8 longa, 5 

Hah. Same as B. mamhoiensis. 

This is a much shorter species than B. mamhoiensis, with 
the aperture rounder below, the sculpture on the body- 
whorl continued equally strong to the base, the umbilicus 
slightly larger, and the columellar reflexion broader. 

Bulimus {Cerastus) Emini. (PL V. fig. 8.) 

Testa BuJimo Lasti persimilis, diflPert apice magis acuminate, aper- 
tura magis perpendiculari, anfractibus striis vel lineis spiralibus 

Longit. 19 millim., diam. maj. 11, min. 10\; apertura S longa, 
5 lata. 

Hah. Hkata, Kidete, Htoni Hiranza {Emin). 

Although very like B. Lasti in form, 1 think there is little 
doubt that this species is distinct. On comparison the spire 
is seen to be more pointed, the aperture less lateral, and the 
whorls exhibit numerous fine, transverse, white lines, which 
seem to be in the texture of tlie shell and are more plentiful 
in some specimens than in others. They are scarcely visible 
to the naked eye. 

Freshwater-Shells from Central Africa. 155 

BuUmus {Cerasttts) hidetensis. (PI. V. fig. 9.) 

Testa angustc umbilioata, elongato-ovata, superne prolongata, nitida, 
subpellucido-albida, oblique regularitcrconfertim striata et tenuiter 
lirata ; apex mediocriter acutus ; anfract. 8, convexi, lente cres- 
ceutes, sutura profunda vix obliqua discreti ; apertura ovata, 
pyriformis, longit. totius | paulo sui)erans ; perist. tenue, mar- 
gine coluraellari modice dilatato et retlexo. 

Longit. loj millira., diam. maj, 8, min. 74 : apertura G longa, 3| 

Hob. Kidete {Emin) ; on the plains within 50 miles of 
Mamboia {Last). 

Althougli similarly sculptured this is a smaller form than 
B. Lasti, the spire is longer, and the proportions altogether 
different. A small variety, consisting of seven whorls and 
only 12 millim. long, was collected by Bishop Hannington in 

BuUmus [Cerastus?) uniplicatus. (PI. V. fig. 10.) 

Testa anguste umbilioata, ovata, superne producta, parum nitida, 
albida, epidermide tenui fiavescente induta, oblique tenuiter 
liratula ; anfractus 7, perconvexi, regulariter sublente accres- 
centes, sutura leviter obli(iua, profunda, sejur.cti ; apex obtusus ; 
apertura parva, ovata, longit. totius ^ paulo superans ; perist. 
tenue, margiue columellari dilatato, modo leviter reflexo, intus 
plica obli([ua intraute basim versus instructo. 

Longit. 14 millim., diam. maj. 7^, min. 6| ; apertura 5^ longa, 3^ 

Hab. Mamboia, at an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet. 

This species has a fold towards the base of the columella 
similar to that in B. pti/chaxis, Smith, a much larger shell 
from Ujiji. The peristome on the columellar side is not 
much re flexed over the umbilicus, but forms a continuous 
curve with the basal margin. 

BuUmus {Cerastus?) intrnversus. (PI. V. fig. 11.) 

Testa elongata, superne acuminata, anguste rimata, baud nitida, 
tenuis, viridi-cornea ; apex introversus ; anfract. 7, duo vel tres 
primi subfortiter costulati, ca^teri convexiusculi, oblique striati, 
ultimus circa medium carina obsoleta cinctus; apertura ovata, 
longit. totius \ paulo superans ; perist. tenue, margine colu- 
mellari sublate dilatato, supra rim am aliquanto reflexo, intus, 
basim versus, oblique subtruncato vel plicato. 

Longit. 16 millim., diam. 7; apertura 6 longa, 4 lata. 

Hab. Mamboia, at an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet. 

156 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

The resemblance in form and the faint raised line around 
the body-whorl recall to mind the typical form of Subulina 
subcarinifera. That species is imperforate, much more 
coarsely sculptured, and has a more distinctly truncate colu- 
mella. The apex in both forms is similarly introverted. 

Bidimus [Buliminus) suholivaceus. 

BuKminus olivaceus (Gibbons, MSS.), Taylor, Quail. Joum. Conch. 
vol. i. p. 253, pi. ii. fig. o. 

Hah. Bauri Island, Zanzibar {Taylor). 

Five specimens of tliis species were presented to the 
British Museum by J. S. Gibbons, Esq., in 1876. The name 
olivaceus being preoccupied by Pfeiffer for a species from 
Candia, I propose to designate the present species B. sub- 
olivaceuSj the colour being decidedly pale olive. 

Bulimus [Hapalus) subvirescens. (PI. V. fig. 12.) 

Testa imperforata, elongata, tenuis, nitida, subpellucida, dilute 
virescens ; anfract. 7, leviter convexi, striis incrementi curvatis 
sculpti ; spira ad apicem obtusa : sutura leviter obliqua, dis- 
tincta; apertura inverse subauriformis, longit. totius y^^ ad- 
ajquans ; labrum tenuissimum, in medio prominens, curvatum ; 
columella subtortuosa, albida, leviter et tenuiter rellexa, callo 
tenui labro juncta. 

Longit. 14 miUim., diam, 5^ ; apertura 5 longa, 2| lata. 

Hob. Maraboia, at an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet. 

This is a more slender species than Hapalus Grateloupi, 
Pfr., the type of the group, has a somewhat shorter body- 
whorl, and a less distinct spiral curve on the columella. In 
one of the specimens there are about half a dozen roundish 
eggs, which are seen through the transparency of the shell, as 
in many species of Stenogyra. 

Bulimus [Hapalus) disparilis. (PI. V. fig. 13.) 

Testa perforata, ovata, superuo paido acuminata, albida, vol cerea, 
nitida ; anfract. 6, couvexiusculi, sutura leviter obliqua sejuucti, 
longitudinalitcr argute striati, striis curvatis, inferne plus minus 
desincntibus, ultimus magnus, subvcutricosus ; apex subobtusus ; 
apertura elongata, inverse auriformis, longit. totius h superans ; 
labrum tenue, in medio prominens, curvatum, propc suturam 
quasi iucisum vel sinuatum ; columella leviter obliqua, expansa 
et reflexa, vix contorta. 

Longit. 13 millim., diam. 6| ; apertura 6| longa, 3 lata. 

llab. Mamboia, at 4000 to 5000 feet elevation {Last) . 

Freshwater- Shells from Central Africa. 157 

In the single specimen from tlic above locality the striaj 
upon the upper whorls are strongly marked near the suture 
above, and become weaker towards the lower part. On the 
last volution, however, the strite are equally strongly incised 
all over the surface, being especially distinct near the outer 
lij). There is a slight depression below the suture in this 
whorl, but it may only be an individual peculiarity. 

In tliree specimens collected by iSir J. Kirk in Usagara, 
which are smaller than the type, the striae are still stronger 
and continue from suture to suture. They also differ in having 
the whorls slightly more convex and in being imperforate ; but 
this may be due to their immaturity. Notwithstanding these 
differences, on jdacing them side by side they all appear to 
belong to the same species. 

Bulimus [Ilapalus) associatus. (PL V. fig. 14.) 

Testa elongata, augusta, vix perforata, nitida, albida, vel cerea ; 
anfract. 6, couvexi, lente accrescentes, etriis fortibus, regularibus, 
confertis, subhorizontalibus, leviter curvatis, sculpti, sutura paulo 
obliqiia discreti, ultimus parvus ; apertura parva, longit. totius 
I ada^quans ; labrum tenuo, leviter arcuatum ; columella leviter 
contorta, expansa et reflexa, caUo tenui labro juncta. 

Longit. 74 millira., diam. 3.j ; apertura '6 louga, 1| lata. 

Hab. Maraboia, at an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet. 

This species has the sculpture very like that of Hapalus 
disparilis, but is quite distinct on account of its very diffe- 
rent form. 

Stenogyra [Siibulina) subcarinifera. (PI. V. fig. 15.) 

Testa elongata, supcrne acuminata, imperforata, nitida, olivaceo- 
fusca ; anfract. 7, primus intortus, sccjuentes duo convcxi, costia 
oblique curvatis subdistantibus ornati, carter! convcxi, costia 
tenuioribus, valde confertis, instructi, sutura leviter obliqua, pro- 
funda, discreti, ultimus oblotigus, circa medium linea elevata 
indistiucta cinctus ; spira producta, ad apicem obtusa ; apertura 
irregulariter pyriformis, longit. totius | subaequans ; labrum 
tenuc, antice angustissimo expansnm ; columella albida, in medio 
arcuata, inferne oblique truncata, infra truncaturam sinuata. 

Longit. 16 millira., diam. 7| ; apertura 6^ longa, 4 lata. 

Var. major. Testa pallidior, anfr. 8, secundo et tei'tio costis quam iu 
forma typica magis numerosis. 

Longit. 18 millim., diam. 8| ; apertura 7 louga, 4| lata. 

Hab. On the plains within 50 miles of Mamboia ; also at 
an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet [Last). 

The columella is not so suddenly truncate as in typical 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser, 6. Vol. vi. 12 

158 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

forms of Achati'na, but has rather the appearance of being 
obHquely plicate at the lower part. There is a slight film of 
callus connecting it with the upper end of the outer lip. The 
larger variety, like the type, has the faint raised line around 
the middle of the body-whorl, and agrees in all other respects 
except in the points above mentioned. 

Stenogyra {Subulina) mamhoiensis. (PI. V. fig. 16.) 

Testa elongata, subulata, subclavata, alba, epidermide flavescente et 
strigata induta ; anfract. 10, convexiusculi, lente crcscentes, lineis 
incrementi obliquis tenuibusstriati, sub lente striis spiralibus con- 
fertis microscopicis sculpti ; sutura obliqua, subprofunda ; apex 
mamtnillaris ; apertura albida, subovata, supra et infra paulo 
acuminata, longit. totius j aiquans ; columella bene arcuata, callo 
tenui albo induta, antice abrupte truncata ; labrum tenue, regu- 
lariter curvatum. 

Longit. 46 miUim., diara. 13i ; apertura 11 1 longa, 6| lata. 

Hah. On the plains within 50 miles of Maraboia (Last). 

This fine species bears a general resemblance to S. rangi- 
ana, Pfr. (R( eve's Conch. Icon., Achatina, fig. 65), but has 
longer whorls and is rather larger. An e^^ from one of the 
specimens is elongate-ovate and 5 niillim. in length. 

Stenogyra [SuhuUna) Ubagarica. (PI. V. fig. 17.) 

Testa gracilis, subulata, nitida, albido-subpeUucida, epidermide 
olivaceo-fusca plus minus induta ; spira sursum attenuata, ad 
apicem obtusa ; anfract. 15, apicales pauci convexi, caeteri plani- 
usculi, lente crescentcs, lineis incrementi obliquis, supcrue prope 
suturam arcuatim subplicatis, sutura leviter crenulata et obliqua 
sejuncti, ultimus subquadratus ; apertura acute ovabs, longit. 
totius ^ ada^quans ; columella arcuata, antice truncata, callo teuui 

Longit. 37 millim., diam. 7 ; apertura 7 longa, 3j lata. 

Hah. Usagara {Bishop Uanmngton) j Kidete {Emin 

This is a very elongate species with almost flat whorls. 
1'he subplicate lines of growth, especially on some of the 
upper volutions, give the sutural line a somewhat crenulated 
appeaj'ance. S. Foxcrofti^ Pfr., from Sierra Leoue, has longer 
and more convex whorls and they are fewer in number. 

Stenogyra {Snhulina) Lasti. (PI. V. fig. IS.) 

Testa gracilis, subulata, polita, olivaceo-fusca, colore saturatiore bic 
illic oblique strigata ; spira suporue angustata, ad apicem mam- 

Freshwater' Shells from Central Africa. 159 

millata ; anfract, 11, convexi, incroraeati liueis obliquis tenuibus 
striiiti ; apcrtura parva, acute ovalis, longit. totius ^ SBquana ; 
columella arcuata, antice truucata. 
Longit. 15 millim., diara. ;i| ; apertura 3 louga, 1| lata. 

Hah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet (Last). 

The two specimens of this species at liand are probably not 
fnll-groNvn, as a faint angulation at the periphery of the body- 
wliorl suggests this opinion. In that case the number of 
■whorls and the proportion of the aperture to the total length 
may hereafter require modification. S. involuta, Gould, is 
similarly coloured, but is a larger and thicker shell. 

Stenogyra {SuhuUna) Emini. (PI. V. fig. 19.) 

Testa elongata, gracilis, pyramidalis, subpellucida, pallide virescens 
vel flavo-viridis, polita ; anfract. 1>, convexiiisculi, lente crescentes, 
lineis incrementi obliquis levissime striati, sutura subprofunda, 
obliqua, discreti ; apex obtuse rotundatus ; apertura parva, ovalis, 
superne acuta, longit. totius I paido superaus ; columella bene 
arcuata, antice oblique truucata, callo tenui albo induta. 

Longit. 16 millim. , diam. 3| ; apertura d\ longa, 2 lata. 

Hah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet {Last). 

This species bears a general resemblance to S. stricta, Poey, 
from Cuba, but difi^ers in having much rounder whorls, a more 
arcuate columella, with a distinct basal truncation. S. Lasti 
is differently coloured and has shorter and more numerous 
whorls. S. mammillata^ Craven, is a larger species with a 
strongly puckered suture. 

Stenogyra [Suhulina) intermedia^ Taylor. 

Testa gracilis, superne parum angustata, subpellucida, stramineo- 
alba, nitons ; anfract. 8-9, convexiusculi, elongati, oblique tenu- 
issime striati, superne infra suturara obliquam minute corrugata ; 
apex rotundatus, obtusus ; apertura parva, ovata, superne acu- 
minata, longit. totius 4- subaequans ; columella valde curvata, 
antice abrupte truucata. 

Longit. 10 miUim., diam. 2^ ; apertura 2 longa, 1 lata. 

Hah. Mamboia {Last) ; Zanzibar {Oibhons). 

This is a pale straw-coloured glassy shell with rather long 
whorls, which are minutely (not very distinctly) puckered 
above at the suture. This feature is not mentioned by Mr. 
Taylor in the original description (Quart. Journ. Conch, 
vol. i. p. 282), nor is it depicted in the figure (pi. i. fig. 5), in 
which the aperture is drawn rather too narrow. 


160 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

Stenogyra [Opeas] stenostoma. (PL V. fig. 20.) 

Testa anguste rimata, clongata, gracilis, superne attenuata, ad 
apicem obtusa, rotundata, uitida, pellucid o-subvirescens ; anfract. 
8, leviter couvexi, striis incrementi arcuatis sculpti, sutura oblique 
sejuncti, ultimus elongatus, cylindraceus ; apertura elongata, 
angusta, longit, tolius 4 subaequans ; labrum tenue, prorsum 
curvatum ; columella fere perpendicularis, anguste expansa et 

Longit. 10|^ miUim., diam. 3 ; apertura 3 longa, \\ lata. 

Hah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet [Last). 
This species has a loiif^ Lodj-whorl and aperture, recalling 
to mind the little Cecilianella acicula. 

Streptaxis mamboiensis. (PI. VI. fig. 1.) 

Testa oblique ovata, umbilicata, parum distorta, alba, nitida ; an- 
fract. 6, convexiusculi, celeriter crescentes, peroblique arcuatim 
striati, superne ad suturam profundam crenulati, ultimus laevior, 
obliquus, antice leviter ascendens ; apertura flavescens, antice 
late curvata, longit. totius | a?quans ; labrum prope suturam 
einuatum, baud refloxum, inferne paulo expansum, obliquum ; 
columella flavescens, late dilatata et rellexa, callo flavescente lato 
sutura) juncta. 

Longit. 18 millim., diam. 14 ; apertura 9 longa, 7 lata. 

Hah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet [Last). 

The sutural line is very prettily denticulated by the ends of 
the oblique curved lira; ; these are almost obsolete on the 
body-whorl above the umbilicus and aperture. 

Streptaxis ordinarius. (PI. VI. figs. 2, 2 a.) 

Testa parva, clauso-rimata, valde distorta, polita, dilute viridi-alba ; 
anfract. G, ad suturam crenulati, superiores regulares, peroblique 
tenuitcr striati, hie illic lincis obliqiiissaturatioribuspicti, ultimus 
la^vis, obliquus, antice angustatus, supra aperturam subplanulatus, 
prope labrum breviter ascendeus ; apertura parva, alba, longit. 
totius 1 adtrsquaus ; perist. angustissimo rotlexum, marginibus 
callo tcnui junctis, columcUari paulo latioro. 

Longit. C| millim., diam. 4 ; apertura '2^ longa, 2 lata. 

llab. Mamboia, at 4000 to 5000 feet elevation [Last). 

In young sjiiccinicns the umbilicus is moderately broad and 
pervious to the apex, and the shell looks rather like a small 

Freshioater- Shells from Central Africa. 161 

Gibbits {Gonidomiis) hreviculus. (PI. VI. fig. 3.) 

Testa ovata, claiiso-rimata, solidiuscula, viridi-flavcscens ; anfract. 
6-7, convexiusculi, costulis gracilibus, confortis, obliqiiis, arcua- 
tis, instructi, siitura erenulata, fere horizontali sejuncti, ultiimis 
antice vix descendens ; spira brcvis, convexa, ad apicem la?vem 
obtusa ; apertura antico contracta, intus pallide lilacea, lougit. 
totius i vix aequans ; perist. album, leviter incrassatum, anguste 
reflcxum, marginibus callo tenui, tuberculo obsolete prope 
labrum munito, junctis. 

Longit. 14 millim., diam. 9| ; apertura 5 longa, 4^ lata. 

Ilah. Usagara {^Sir J. Kirk) . 

A short stumpy species, with the aperture considerably 
receding in front, so that, viewed laterally, the labrum is very 

Ennea Hanningtoni. (PI. VI. fig. 4.) 

Testa pupiformis, eylindracea, perforata, albo-straminea, polita, hio 
iLlic iinea obliqua olivacea picta ; spira ad apicem rotundata ; 
anfraf^t. S, lente crescentes, superiores couvexiiisculi, tros ultimi 
plaiiiusculi, sutura angustissima canaliculata discreti, ultimus 
baud ascendens, pone labrum scrobiculatus ; apertura parva, 
rotunde subtriangularis, longit. totius \ paulo superans ; perist. 
album, incrassatum et reflexum, dentibus sex, albis, inaequalibus 

Longit. 10 miUim.,diam. 5; apertura 3 longa et lata. 

Hah. Usagara {Hannington and Kirk) ; Mamboia, at an 
elevation of 4000 to 5000 'feet (Last). 

This is a smooth glossy species like E. Icevigata, Dohrn, 
but rather more slender and with different teeth in the mouth. 
There are three small ones on the outer lip, a fourth of the 
same size at the lower part of the columella, a large, very 
prominent one at the upj)er part, and a large lamellar one 
close to the termination of the labrum. The teeth on the 
outer lip and at the lower part of the columella are indicated 
externally by slight indentations. 

Ennea Newtoni. (PI. VI. fig. 5.) 

Testa ovata, pupiformis, haud rimata, polita, subpellucida, pallida 
cornea, hie illic linca olivacea picta ; anfract. 8, parum convexi, 
supra anguste margiiiati, oblique striatuli, striis pone labrum 
validis, ultimus antice subascendens ; apertura quinquedentata, 
mediocris, longit. totius i adoequans ; perist. album, leviter ex- 
pansum et reiiexura ; columella intus lata. 

Longit. 11 millim. , diam. 5| ; apertura 3.| longa, 3 lata. 

162 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

Hah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet [Last). 

This species differs from E. Hanmngtoni in being a little 
stouter, in having some strong striae behind the labrura, and 
in the armature of the mouth. Of the five teeth, one of the 
largest is on the middle of the outer lip, a small one is at the 
base of the aperture, a similar one on the middle of the colu- 
mella, a very minute one close to the upper extremity of the 
outer lip, and the fiftii, which is about the same size as that 
on the labi'um, is close to the very small one, thin and lamel- 
lar. E. quadridentataj Martens, is very like this species. 

Ennea fortidentata. (PL YI. fig. 6.) 

Testa pupiformis, pseudorimata, alba, nitida, ad suturam mimite 
denticulata ; anfract. 8, parum convesi, oblique striatuli, lente 
crescentes, iiltimus pone et infra labrum, etiam in regione umbili- 
cali valde scrobiculatus ; apertura ringens, dentibus sex inaequa- 
libus munita, longit. totius ^ paulo superans ; perist. late expan- 
sum, reflexum, album. 

Longit. 9 millim., diam. 4| ; apertura 2^ longa et lata. 

ndb. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet {Last) ; 
Hkata [Emin). 

The teeth in this species, with the exception of a very 
minute one on the body-wall just above the columella, are 
large and strong. Two are on the outer lip, a bifurcate one 
on the columella, one at the base of the aperture, and the 
fifth, which is lamelliform, near the junction of the outer lip 
with the whorl. The deep pit behind the columella produces 
a somewhat umbilicated appearance. Quite distinct from E. 
natalensisy to which it is allied. 

Ennea consanguinea. (PI. VI. fig. 7.) 

Testa E. fortidtntatce similis, sed paulo minor, fortius striata, aper- 
tura dentibus quiuque divcrsis munita. 
Longit. 7^ millim., diam. 4 ; apertura 2| longa, 2 lata. 

Ilah. Kidcte [Eviin] ; Mamboia, 4000 to 5000 feet (Last). 

This species is very like E.fortidcntaia in form, but differs 
in being rather more strongly striated and in the armature of 
the mouth. There are two teeth, of which the upper is the 
smaller, on the outer lip, a strong bifurcate tooth on the 
columella, a large lamellar tooth, also bifurcate at the end 
nearest the columella, joining the u}iper end of tlie labrum, 
and a fifth, somewhat tjcjuarisli donticio is situated at the lower 
part of the aperture, but further in than the other teeth. 

Freshwater- Shells from Central Africa. 163 

Ennca curvilamella. (PI. VI. fig. 8.) 

Testa tenuis, subpcllucida, pupiformis, superne conoidea, baud ri- 
mata, albida ; anfractua 8, convexiusculi, costulia teniiibus 
obliquis instruct!, in interstitiis microscopice spiraliter intcrrupto 
striati ; apex obtuse coiioidalis, hcvis ; anfr. ultimus antice leviter 
ascendciis, pone labrum profunde cftbssus ; apertura parva, longit. 
totius ^ adiequans, dcntibus duobus munita ; perist. album, 
paulo dilatatum et reHoxum ; cc^umolla iutus lata. 

Longit. 8i uiillim., diam. 4 ; apertura 24 longa, 2 lata. 

Hah. I!iIaniboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet [Last). 

Of tlie two teeth in the mouth of this sjoecies one corresponds 
to the indentation behind the outer lip, the other, which is 
lanielliform, prominent, and curved, is on the body-wall and 
almost joined to the extremity of the labrum. The ends of 
the fine riblets give a pretty denticulate appearance to the 
suture. The microscopic stride do not extend from riblet to 
riblet, but appear to be only on the left side of the riblets 
when the shell is examined with the spire upwards. 

Ennea consociata. (PL VI. fig. 9.) 

Testa pupiformis, superne obtuse conoidea, albida, iwrum nitida ; 
anfract. 8, convexiusculi, sutura profunda sejuncti, oblique for- 
titer striati, ultimus antice paulo ascendcus, pone et infra aper- 
turam scrobiculatus ; apertura sub(]uadrata, ringens, dentibus 4 -5 
albis, ina^qualibus, in^^tructa, longit. totius -^ paulo superans ; 
perist. album, 8ul)late dilatatum et reflcxum. 

Longit. 7 millim., diam. 3^ ; apertura 2jJ longa, 2^ lata. 

Hah. Kidete [Emin). 

This is a more slender shell than E. consanguinea, diffe- 
rently striated, and it has different teeth in the aperture. Of 
these one on the outer lip is almost double, a second strong 
tooth is situated on the columella, a third smaller one witliin 
the lower margin, a fourth much curved, hollowed out, lamel- 
lar one adjoining the outer lip above, and, finally, a sixth 
minute denticle occurs above the large central tooth on the 

Ennea cequidentata. (PI. VI. fig. 10.) 

Testa parva, cylindracea, superne paulo latior, ad apieem obtusa, 
albo-pellucida, nitida; an tract. 6, convexiusculi, laevigati, superne 
ad suturam subprofundam minute denticulati, ultimus penultimo 
angustior, prope aperturam longitudiualiter striatus, utrinque et 
infra scrobiculatus ; apertura subi^uadrata, quadrideutata, alba, 

164 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

longit. totius i adxquans : perist. eiiLlate expansum, album, 
marginibus callo tenui junetis. 
Longit. 6 millim., diam. 3 ; apertura 2 longa, 1| lata. 

Hah. Hkata [Emin). 

The teeth in the aperture are almost equidistant from one 
another. One is on the columella, one exactly opposite on 
the outer lip, one (the smallest) at the base of the aperture, 
and the fourth, which is lamellar, curved, and hollowed out 
on the right side, joins the termination of the labrum. 

Ennea cenigmatica. (PI. VI. fig. 11.) 

Testa parva, brevis, pupiformis, supra conoidalis, perforata, parum 
nitida, alba ; anfract. 8, lento crescentes, convexiusculi, angusti, 
costcllis numerosis leviter obliquis et arcuatis instructi, sutura 
profunda sejuncti, ultimus anticevix ascendens, utrinque et infra 
labrum valde scrobiculatus et distortus ; apertura parva, insigniter 
plicata, contorta ; perist. solutum, continuum, tonne, dilatatum, 
maxime irregulare, dextrorsum sinuatum, siphonatum, album. 

Longit. 4| millim., diam. 3 ; apertura Ig longa et lata. 

Huh. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet {Last). 

The aperture of this little shell exhibits such distortions, 
plications, and wrinklings that the orifice is almost closed ; 
indeed it seems impossible to convey in words any adequate 
idea of it. 

Ennea soror. (PI. YI. fig. 12.) 

Testa parva, angusto perforata, pupiformis, superno conoidea, sub- 
pellucido-albida, panim nitida ; anfract. 7, convexiusculi. apicales 
la^ves, ca^teri tenuiter oblique et confertim costulati, sutura sub- 
profunda, cronulata, baud obliqua, sejuncti, ultimus antice con- ■ 
strictus, utrinque et infra apcrturam valde scrobiculatus ; aper- 
tura parva, longit. totius ^ ada?quans, ringens, dentibus sex 
albis, valde inccqualibus, instructa ; perist. undique expansum et 
Toflexum, album. 

Longit. 5 millim., diam. 2§ ; apertura 1^ longa, 1^ lata. 

Hah. Same as that of E. a^nigmatica. 

The teeth in the aperture are disposed as follows : — A small 
denticle on the columella, a larger prominence behind it 
further witliin the aperture, a thin curved lanu-Uar tooth on 
the body-wall at the junction of the labrum with the whorl, 
a very large one on the middle of tiie outer lip with a very 
minute one above it or, it might be said, adjoining it, and the 
sixth, which is also a very small denticle, situated between 
the large one on the outer lip and the smaller one on the 
columella. The pit^ on the la^t whorl outside the aperture 

Freshcater- Shells from Central Ajrka. 165 

correspond witli the denticles witliin, that behind the hxbrum 
being remarkably deep. Pupa minuscula *, Morelet, closely 
resembles this sj)ecies. 

Ennea suhhyalina. (PI. VI. fig. 13.) 

Testa cylindracea, ad apicom obtusa, hyalina, nitida, angusto rimata; 
anfract. 7, leviter convexi, licves, ad suturam quasi anguste mar- 
pinati, ultimus antieo constrictus, pone et infra hxbrura scrobicu- 
latus ; apertura ringens, longit. totius -\ ajquans, dcntibus albis 
SOX miinita : peristoma album, expansum et retlexum, marginibus 
callo tenuissiruo junctis. 

Longit. 6 millim., diam. 2| ; apertura 2 longa et lata. 

JIah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet {Last). 

Five of the teeth within the aperture arc about equal in 
size. Two are on a columellar ))rominence, two opposite on 
the outer lip, and the fifth at tiie lower part of the aperture. 
The sixth parietal tooth is tiiin, lamellar, curved, and joins 
the extremity of the labrum. E. larva, Morelet, is a smaller 
species, with longer whorls and only a single tooth on the 

Ennea siibjlavescens. (PI. VI. fig. 14.) 

Testa cylindracea, supeme obtusa, imperforata, nitida, subpellucida, 
dilute flavescens ; anfract. 7, convexiusculi, Iffives, superne quasi 
anguste marginati, ultimus pono et infra labrum scrobiculatus ; 
apertura parva, longit. totius | adaeciuans, valde ringens, deutibus 
9-10 inaequalibus, albia munita ; labrum leviter expansum et 

Longit. 6 millim. , diam. 2 ; apertura 1| longa et lata. 

Hah. Same as E. suhhyalina. 

This species is remarkable for its cylindrical form and the 
armature of the mouth. The columella is prominent, with 
three teeth upon it ; two teeth are at the lower part of the 
aperture, three, of which the middle one is largest, within the 
right lip, and a very prominent, thin, squarish one on the 
whorl and joining the termination of the labrum. Three 
out of four specimens exhibit a tenth minute denticle at the 
lower part of the mouth. 

Ennea amicta. (PI. VI. fig. 15.) 

Testa anguste perforata, pupiformis, albida, epidermide tenui, pallido 
viridi-flavescento induta, subnitida; anfractus 7, convexiusculi, 

• This species is figured (Journ. de Conch, 1877, pi. xii. fig. 5) under 
the name 1\ Fischeriana. 

166 Mr. E. A. Smith on Land- and 

regulariter crescentes, sutura subprofunda juncti, lineis incrementi 
tenuibus aliisque spiralibus subobsoletis striati ; apex obtusus, 
rotundatus ; apertura parva, rotunde subquadrata, loagit. totius 
g adsequaus ; perist, vix incrassatum, margine extenio et interne 
brevissime expanse, columellari late dilatato, callo tenui labro 
Longit. 6| millim., diam. 3^ ; apertura 2 longa. 

Hah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet [Last). 

This little species exliibits a distinct epidermis and has no 
teeth in the aperture. A slight sinus is visible in the outer 
lip near the suture. 

Ennea lendix. (PI. YI. fig. 16.) 

Testa cylindracea, imperforata, alba, eubpellucida, nitida : spira ad 
apicem obtuse rotundata ; aufractus 8, vix convexiusculi, kcves, 
sutura simplice scjuncti, lineis incrementi vix striatuli ; apertura 
rotunde subquadrata, longit. totius \ paulo supcrans, denliculo 
minuto supra medium columella?, altero majore, lamelliformi, 
parietali, prope extremitatem labri, munita ; perist. leviter incras- 
satum, vix expaiisum, margine dextro superne sinuato, iu medio 
arcuato, prominente, columellari anguste dilatato. 

Longit. 8 millim., diam. 3; apertura 1\ longa, I5 lata. 

Hal. Mamboia, at 4000 to 5000 feet elevation {Last). 

Like £". suhfiavescens and E. suhhyalina this species is 
cjlindrical, smootli, and very glossy, but differs in having 
only two teeth in the aperture. 

Ennea microstoma. (PI. YI. fig. 17.) 

Testa breviter cylindracea, ad apicem obtusa, anguste rimata, albo- 
pellucida, nitida ; anfract. 7, convexiusculi, oblique leviter striati, 
ultimus inferno liris paucis longit udinalibus instructus, antice 
contractus, utrinquo labrum scrobiculatus ; apertura parva, 
ringens, dcntibus tribus validis, albis, munita, longit. totius \ 
adajquans : perist. album, tenue, expansum, sinuatum, margini- 
bus callo tenuissimo junctis. 

Longit. 3^ millim., diam. 1|; apertura fere 1 longa. 

Hah. Mamboia, at an altitude of 4000 to 5000 feet [Last). 

The mouth of this minute species is much closed up by the 
three denticles, which converge towards the centre. One on 
the outer lip and one on the columella are thick and rounded, 
whilst the tiiird is thin, lamellar, and joins the upper termina- 
tion of the labrum. Under a powerful lens the ileepish 
suture appears to be faintly denticulate. The .^short longitu- 
dinal lirae on the last whorl do not extend upward as tar as 

Freshicater- Shells from Central Africa. 167 

the suture, but arc most distinct around the umbilical depres- 


Ennea pecuUaris. (PI. VI. fig. 18.) 

Testa parva, pupiformis, vix rimata, albida vel pallide straminca, 
iiitida, striis coiifertis, oblique curvatis, conspicuis sculpta; anfract. 
7, apicalcs duo lavif^ati, superiie obtusi, cii'tcri couvexi, sutura 
leviter obliqua, profundiuscula juncti, ultimus antice coutractus, 
pone labrum baud profunde scrobiculatus ; apertura parva, 
longit. totius -J adivquans, supcrne pcculiariter sinuata, deutibus 
tribus munita ; perist. leviter incrassatum, subrclloxum, margini- 
bus callo tenui junctis, dextro superne circulariter sinuato. 

Longit. 4 millim., diam. 2 ; apertura 1 longa et lata. 

Hah. Mamboia, at an elevation of 4000 to 5000 feet {Last). 

Tiie peculiar, almost circular sinus at the upper part of the 
aperture is formed by the outer lip bending forward in the 
middle into a tooth-like projection, which is almost met by a 
prominent but not very thick tooth on tiie whorl and adjoining 
the termination of the labrnm. The third denticle is small 
and situated within the lower margin of the aperture. The 
columella at the upper part seems to exhibit far within a 
broad horizontal plate, but being so far within the aperture, it 
is not easily detined. 


Plate V. 

Figs. 1, 1 a. Ilyalinia Lasti. 
Fig. 2. ILiialinia Eyniniana. 
Fig. 3. Trochu7ianina mmnboieiisis. 
Fig. 4. Trochonanina episcopalis. 
Fig. 5. Bulimus [lihachis) usagaricus. 
Fig. 6. Bulimus {Rhachis) quadricingulattis. 
Fig. 7. Bulimus (Cerastus) mamboiensis. 
Fig. 8. Bulimus [Cerastus) Emini. 
Fig. 9, Bulimus (Cerastus) kidetensis. 
Fig, 10. Bulimus (Cerastus?) uniplicatus. 
Fig. 11. Bulimus (Cerastus?) introversus. 
Fig. 12. Bulimus {Hapalus) subvirescens. 
Fig. 13. Bulimus [Hapalus) disparilis. 
Fig. 14. Bulimus (^Hapalus) associatus. 
Fig. lo. Stenogyra (Stibulina) subcarinifera. 
Fig. 16. Stenogyra {SubuUna) mamboiensis. 
Fig. 17. Stenogyra (^SubuUna) usayarica. 
Fig. 18. Stenogyra (Subtdina) Lasti. 
Fig. 19. Stenogyra (Subulina) Emini. 
Fig. 20. Stenogyra (Opeas) stenostoma. 

168 Mr. E. Bartlett on a new Species o/'Guiraca. 

Plate "N'I. 

Fig. 1. Streptaxis mamhoiensis. 

Figs. 2, 2 a. StrepUixis ordinarhis. 

Fig. 3. Gibbus {Gonidonius) breviculus. 

Fig. 4. Ennea Hanningtoni. 

Fig. 5. Fnnea Neictoni. 

Fig. 6. Ennea fortidentata. 

Fig. 7. Ennea consanguinea. 

Fig. 8. Ennea cKrvilnmeUa. 

Fig. 9. Ennea consociata. 

Fig. 10. Ennea aquidentata. 

Fig. 11. Ennea anigmatica. 

Fig. 12. Ennea soror. 

Fig. 13. Ennea snbhgaUna. 

Fig. 14. Ennea suhflavescens. 

Fig. 15. Ennea andcfa. 

Fig. 16. Ennea lendix. 

Fig. 17. Ennea microstoma. 

Fig. 18. Ennea pecuHaria. 

XVIII. — On a new Species o/'Guiraca. By Edward 
Bartlett, Curator of the Maidstone Museum. 

While closely comparing my specimens of this genus I 
observed a great difference in the bills and in the general 
colour of the birds obtained by Mr. II. Whitely on the 
Carimang River, British Guiana, which I think are sufficient 
to separate them from the well-known Guiraca cyanea, auct. 
The bill of Guiraca cyanea is short, robust, and much 
curved on the culmcn ; the lower belly is greyish blue ; under 
tail- coverts blue, like the breast. 

Guiraca Bothscliildii, sp. n. 

Bill similar to Guiraca cyanoides^ straight, acute ; culmeu 
not curved as in Guiraca cyanea, length of culmen 0*75. 

Male. — General colour similar to Guiraca cyanea, the 
silvery blue of forehead and spot of same on check brighter 
and more extended; upper and lower parts darker blue than 
in the old form ; rump uniform with the mantle ; belly nearly 
black J under tail-coverts blackish, faintly tinged with dark 

Female. — Dark umber-brown, palest on the forehead and 
chin. Much darker than the female of Guiraca cyanea. 

This well-marked species by its size, colour, and straight 
culmen cannot be confused with either Guiraca cyanea or 

Mr. G. A. Boulenger on two neio Fishes. 1G9 

Ouiraca cyanoides, the two nearest allied forms, although it 
possesses cliaractcrs of both, being an intermediate phase 
wliich might readily be taken for a hybrid. 

I append dimensions of four species. 

It atfords me much pleasure in naming this new species 
after the Honourable Walter Rothschild. 

Guiruca argentinn, Sharpe. 
(Bill robust, culnieu slightly curved.) 

No. Length. "NVing. Tail. Tarsus. Culmeii. 

1. cJ, Coyquin, Cordova, 

Argeutiue Rep. {^E, JJ'. 

White) G7 3-6 3G 

2, $ , Cataraarca, Arg. 

Eep. {E. W. White) . . 6-6 34 3-3 

Guiraca cyanea (Linn.). 
(Culmeu much curved.) 

1. c?, Brazil 5-9o 2-9 27 

2. „ „ 5-85 2-9 2-8 

3. „ „ 5-4 2-9 2-65 

4. S ) Central America . . o-5 29 285 

5. $, Brazil 5-5 26 26 

Guiraca Rothschildii, sp. n. 
(Culmen straight.) 

1. cJ, River Carimang .. 6-0 305 2-85 

2. 5, „ „ .. 5-75 2-95 2-o5 

Guiraca cyanoides. 
(Culmen slightly curved.) 

1. cJ, Panama " 6-2 3-2 2-85 

2. $,Antioquia 6-3 3-0 27 

XIX. — Descriptions of two new Cyprinodontoid Fishes. 
• By G. A. Boulenger. 

Cyprinodon Danfordii. 

D. 12-13. A. 11-12. V. 5. L. lat. 27-28. L. tr. 11. 

Height of body 2| to 3 times in males, 3^ times in females, 
in the total length (without caudal) ; length of head 3^ to 3^ 
times in males, 3f in females. Diameter of eye equal to length 
of snout and contained 3^ to 31 times in length of head; 
interorbital space half length of head ; snout short and obtuse. 
Dorsal not extending when depressed to the caudal ; its origin 



















170 Mr. G. A. Boulenger on two new Fishes. 

above the eleventh or twelfth scale of the lateral line, 
midway between the occiput and the root of the caudal 
in males, between the gill-opening and the root of the caudal 
in females. Origin of anal below the thirteenth or fourteentli 
scale of the lateral line in males, below the fifteenth in 
females. Caudal truncated. Males with ten or eleven dark 
brown vertical bands, separated by yellowish-brown inter- 
spaces ; dorsal blackish, with transverse series of black dots ; 
anal yellowish, with transverse series of black dots ; caudal 
yellowish, with three or four blackish vertical lines. Females 
brown, with small blackish spots ; a black spot at the root of 
the caudal ; fins yellowish. 

Total length, male 45 millim., female 52. 

Several specimens were obtained in Asia Minor, at Albis- 
tan, by Mr. C. G. Danford. C. di'spar, Riipp., was likewise 
found in the same locality by Mr. Danford. 

Hajylochilus Hartii. 
D. 9-10. A. 15-16. V. 6. L. lat. 39-43. L. tr. 10-11. 

Height of body 5 to 5^ times in males, A\ times in females, 
in the total length (without caudal) ; length of head 3f to 4 
times in males, 3^ to 3| in females. Diameter of eye equal 
to length of snout and one fourth the length of the head ; 
interorbital space half length of head ; snout very short, 
lower jaw projecting beyond the upper ; a short tentacle on 
each side of the snout. Origin of the dorsal above the middle 
of the anal, twice as far from the occiput as from the root of 
the caudal, corresponding to the twenty-fifth to twenty-seventh 
scale of the lateral line. Pectorals not reaching ventrals, 
latter not reaching anal. Brown or bronzy above, yellowish 
inferiorly ; each scale with a darker spot, best defined in the 
males ; dorsal and anal fins whitish, with grey dots, anal with 
a fine blackish edge ; caudal grey or blackish. 

Total length 80 milllim. 

Trinidad. " Known as the Wabine ; has a great power of 
leaving the water and jumping by its tail." Several speci- 
mens were presented to the Britisli Museum by Mr. J. H. 
Hart, Superintendent of the lloyal Botanic Gardens, Trini- 
dad, to whom we already owe the discovery of an undescribed 
frog on that island *. 

* Eupemphij: trinitatis, Bouleng. Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) iii. 1889, 
p. 307. 

Mr. O. Thomas oti a new Squirrel from Borneo. 171 

XX. — Description of a new Squirrel from Borneo. 
By Oldfield Thomas. 

In the Oriental Region four of the many species of squirrel 
there found are characterized by having their muzzles 
markedly elongated, tlie proportions of their skulls being 
tliercfore quite different from those of ordinary squirrels. 
Those four are the following : — aS'. laticaudalus, Miill. & 
Schl., formed into a sejjarate genus, Rhinosciurus, by Gray, 
on account of the great length of its muzzle ; S. Pernyij 
M.-Edw. ; 6'. ruft(jenis^ Bhuif. ; and 8. Berdmorei^ Bly *. 

To this list I now have to add a fifth, discovered by that 
able naturalist and collector Mr. A. H. Everett on Mount 
Penrisen, West Sarawak, during the wet season of 1889-90. 
I propose to call it 

Sciurus Everetti, sp. n. 

Fur thick and soft, markedly more so than in the somewhat 
similar S. tenuis, Horsf., found in the same district. Colour 
uniform dark grizzled olive, rather darker than in 8. tenuis ; 
sides of cheeks, shoulders, and front of hips with a very faint 
fulvous suffusion. Under surface dirty greyish white, the 
hairs everywhere slaty grey for two thirds their length, then 
tipped on the throat and belly with dirty white and on the 
chin and breast with dull fulvous. Ears short, rounded, not 
tufted or emphasized in colour. Tail unusually short, com- 
paratively short-haired, almost cylindrical, the hairs ringed 
with dull fulvous and black. Skull small and lightly built, 
muzzle proportionally very long and narrow. Premolars f. 
Molars small and delicate, their series on the two sides 
parallel, little bowed. 

Measurements of the type (an adult skin) : — Head and 
body 175millim.; tail, without hairs 109, with hairs 144; 
hind foot, without claws, 40. Skull : tip of nasals to bregma 
(centre of fronto- parietal suture) 36 ; zygomatic breadth 24*5, 
interorbital breadth 14 ; length of nasals 15*7, breadth of 
nasals anteriorly 5*2, posteriorly 4 ; palate, length 24*2 ; 
diastema 12 ; length of tooth-series 8*7. 

A second specimen is rather larger, measuring : — Head 
and body 180 millim., tail without hairs 118, hind foot 40*5. 

This species is superficially by no means unlike S. chi- 
nensis, Gr., or S. lokriah, Hodgs., agreeing with both in its 
general size and its uniform dull grizzled olive-colour; but it 

* See Thomas, P. Z. S. 1886, p. 71. 

172 M. H. Fol on the 

may be readily distinguished from either by its elongated 
snout, which allies it to the four species first mentioned. Of 
these, >S'. laticaudatus is separated by its larger size, shorter 
hair, browner colour, nearly white belly, and still longer 
muzzle ; S. rujigenis by the brilliant rufous of its cheeks and 
the underside of its tail ; 8. Pernyi by its similarly rufous 
tail ; and S. Berdmoreihy the black and white longitudinal 
stripes with which its body is ornamented. No other species 
that I can find have any close relationship to the new form 
discovered by Mr. Everett, in whose honour I have very 
great pleasure in naming it. 

XXI. — On the Anatomy of Horny Sponges belonging to the 
Genus Hircinia, and on a new Genus. By H. FoL*. 

The genus Hircinia was created by Nardo in 1833 for 
certain horny sponges possessing two systems of fibres — some 
coarse and analogous to those of the bath-sponge {Euspongia), 
and others very fine and numerous, resembling the elastic 
fibrillse of the connective tissue of Vertebrates. The structure 
of these fibrillae was investigated by Lieberkiihn, O. Schmidt, 
and F. E. Schulze, who showed that they do not anastomose, 
but terminate in all directions in rounded swellings. The 
two latter authors, however, like KoUiker and Hyatt, con- 
sidered that these fibrils probably belonged to a parasite or to 
a commensal of these sponges. It was for this reason that 
the family Filiform was actually abandoned ; so that Vos- 
maer, in his monograph of the Spongiarite, does not recognize 
a single genus belonging to this family, and suppresses it. 

Sections which I have made of specimens of Hircinia 
variabilis and Hircinia sp. n., from the neighbourhood of 
Nice, have enabled me to solve the disputed question of the 
origin and nature of the fibrillffi, and this in a sense opposed 
to that of recent authors. 

On making a series of somewhat thick transverse sections 
of a specimen macerated for a few hours only, so as to sepa- 
rate the epithelia while leaving the connective tissue un- 
touched, we see at once in the clearest possible way that the 
fibrils are not disposed at random, as would be the case were 
we dealing with a parasite, but form a system of incomplete 
septa, which alternate with the fibres of the skeleton, with 

* Translated from tlio ' Coiuptos Roiidus des Si5auce3 do I'Acad^mie 
des Scieuces,' tome ex., June 9, 1690, p. 1:?09 et seij. 

Anafomf/ of Horny Spomjes. 178 

wliich thoy hut r;iiely come into contact. If wc choose, for 
the ]) of cuttiiiir sections, a portion in process of rapid 
growth, we shall Hud in the pLice of tlic tibrilloe hirgc tracts 
of fusiform cells which clearly belong to the connective tissue 
of the sponge. Lower down these tracts spread out, and 
nascent fibrils are observed on which the fusiform cells 
are disposed like a string of beads. Further on still the cells 
have atrophied, and there only remains their product, the 

The authors mentioned were therefore wrong in holding 
without a particle of proof that the fibrils were the work of 
an unknown parasite ; on the contrary, they form an integral 
part of the sponge. The family Filifcrai must be reinstated, 
as being the surest and best characterized division of all those 
which have been made in tlic order of Horny Sponges. 

There is met with in abundance in the waters round Nice a 
blackish sponge of large size, which I cannot discover has ever 
been described. This sponge adheres tenaciously to rocks ex- 
posed to the open sea, at depths of from 10 to 30 metres, and 
it can oidy be collected by aid of the diving-dress. It attains 
the size of a man's head. In colour it is of the neutral tint 
of water-colour painters ; it is shining, and is provided with 
numerous conuli, which are more widely separated than in 
Ilirchna, but less so than in Spongelia, and with a very small 
number of large oscula. If left to itself in an aquarium a 
larger number of oscula open after a few hours ; these are 
very minute and are situated between those already men- 

This sponge is friable, owing to the fact that the fibres of 
its skeleton are wide apart ; but its tissue is very dense and 
in section reminds one of calf's sweetbread. It consists for 
the most part of a compact and almost indestructible con- 
nective tissue, in which are lodged canals and flagellated 
chambers, disposed as in Euspongia. 

There is much diifieulty in eliminating this tissue by 
maceration ; but after doing so, there remains a skeleton of 
very coarse fibres, widely separated, but anastomosing and 
affecting a regular disposition. These fibres arc hollow, 
composed of several concentric sheaths, and enclose, in their 
axis only, numerous foreign bodies of large size, such as 
grains of sand, pieces of the skeleton of other animals, &c. 

This sponge, then, comes between Spongelia and Aplijsina 
by reason of its skeleton ; by its tissue, which offers a much 
greater resistance to the action of chemical agents than that 
of Aplysina^ it recalls the Cliondrosim\ while by its canal- 

Ann. iSc Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 13 

174 Prof. ]\rintosb'a Notes from the 

system it is allied to Ilircinia and Euspongia. It occupies 
an intermediate position between the knoAvn types. 

I bestow the name Sarcomus * on this new genus, which 
appears to me to deserve a new family. The species from 
the environs of Nice I designate Sarcomus Georgi'\. 

XXII. — Notes from the St. Andrews Marine Laboratory 
{xinder the Fishery Board for Scotland). — Xo. XII. By 
Prof. M'Intosh, M.D., LL.D., F.R.S., &c. 

1. Preliminary Note on tlie Occurrence of the Pelagic Annelids and 

Chsetognatlis in St. Andrews Bay throughout the Yeai\ 

2. On the British Species of Spinther. 

3. On the Young Stages of the Gunnel {Ccntronotus gunnelbis), 

1. Preliminary Note on the Occurrence of the Pelagic Annelids 
and Chcetognaths in St. Andreics Bay throughout the 

The following remarks on the pelagic Annelids of the Bay of 
St. Andrews are preliminary, and formed indeed part of 
a survey of the whole pelagic forms from fishes downwards 
during the year 1888 — especially in their relation to the 
fisheries X. 

So far as regards the marine Polychceta the contrast with 
southern waters is marked, since hitherto there has been an 
absence of such typical pelagic Annelids as the Alciopidte, so 
well described by Greet §, or the Sjllidians, which have lately 
received the careful attention of Viguier ||. The only adult 
pelagic forms, indeed, are Autohjtus and the sexual forms of 
the Kereidcs. All the others are larval, postlarval, and 
young stages of Annelids, and thus fall under the temporarily 
pelagic group. They often occur in large numbers and pro- 
bably exercise an important function in connexion witli the 
food of post-larval and young lishes, for it is well known tiiat 

* From crdpKuifxa, a fleshy excrescence. 

t Named after Georges Guessler, a very sliilful diver emploved by me, 
and wlio obtained ibr me tlie first specimen of this sponge, ^ince theu 
1 have often collected it myself. 

t I have the same acknowledgment to make as in the previous note 
(XI.) in regard to the assistance given me in the e.\auiinati(in of the various 
nets by I\lr. .T. Pentland Smitli, U.A., B.Sc. 

§ " Untersuchungeii iiber Aleiopiden," Nova Acta Tj. C. oO. 

II " Sur les Animaux inf)5rieurs. II. Amiolides I'elagiques," Archiv. 
Zool. Exp(5r. 2* sdr. iv. p. 347. 

St. Andrews Marine Laboratory. 175 

no grou|» is more eagerly tollowcd by the fishes than the 
marine Annelids. 

As in eertain groups the spawning-period of the Annelids 
is considerably prolonged (though not necessarily in indi- 
viduals), that is, larvaj of the same species are found during 
several months, a constant succession of young forms taking 
the place of those which have advanced to the later stages 
after undergoing changes more or less noteworthy, and many 
of which settle on new sites on the bottom or amidst the rocks 
to form i'resh colonies. A large number of these young- 
stages are caught near the bottom by the trawl-like tow-net*, 
and they are only occasionally to be found near the surface 
under favourable conditions of temperature and the sea itself. 

The great larval bristles so characteristic of the young of 
the Spionidaj do not seem to prevent in all cases their being 
eaten by young fishes, though the observations are as yet too 
few to enable definite conclusions to be made on this point. 
These long bristles, however, may constitute an effectual guard 
from the attacks of the smaller predatory Invertebrates, which 
otherwise would prey on them. They certainly form a 
striking fringe in the early stages, and the metallic lustre in 
some species gives them no little beauty. 

Tonwpteris, formerly considered somewhat rare, is a form 
which frequents the inshore waters from January to December. 
The enormous numbers of the Chsetognaths again almost 
throughout the entire year is a feature of moment in connexion 
with the food of fishes, which readily devour them. In some 
inshore areas the bag of the large midwater-net, after a brief 
haul in autumn, is distended with a semisolid mass of them. 

The activity of the post- larval Annelids is great. They 
glide rapidly through the water and often circle nimbly in a 
limited area and again shoot towards the side of the vessel 
next the light, where they collect like the Copepoda. They 
are also voracious ; for instance, a post-larval Nerine [cirra- 
tulus?) seized on the tail of a Scolecohpis a little less than 
itself, and it was only after a severe struggle, in which botii 
exerted themselves desperately, that the latter managed to 
withdraw its tail — now considerably injured — from the eager 
mouth of the Nerine. 

In the begitming of January various marine Annelids 
present symptoms of maturity, such as the Polynoidse and 

* As formerly mentioned this net is invaluable in such investigations, 
bringing to light, for instance, such forms as Ayahnopsis and Hybocodon, 
which otherwise would have escaped notice. 



Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

Arem'cola, and yet the latter lias been found equally mature 
in October. The Polynoidfe especially are early in this 
respect both in Europe and America. None of their pelagic 
larvae, however, have hitherto been found at St. Andrews in 
January. Ilensen*, a^ain, in the Baltic procured only a very 
few larvffi of Polydora during this month. 

Tomoijteris at St. Andrews occurred on many occasions ; 
indeed its absence from the tow-nets was rarer than its 

Sagittcn of various sizes were abundant and some were 
large, with advanced reproductive 
organs, as Lo Bianco and others 
found at Naples. Their occurrence 
in large numbers in winter has long 
been known fj ?-iid the multitudes of 
fine living examples stranded on the 
beach sparkle like needles of glass. 
The larger forms (about 1 inch) were 
captured in the midwater-nets and the 
smaller (about \ inch) in the surface- 
and bottom-nets. A considerable 
number of the larger specimens had a 
parasitic Nematoid in the alimen- 
tary canal, while some presented a 
Trcmatode in the same situation (see 
woodcut) . 

Next month (February) the pelagic 
Annelids were represented by females 
of Autolytus with the ventral ovige- 
rous sac and males. The midwater- 
net also captured an epitocous Nereis 
(olim IphiNereis fucicola), which in 
former years had been tossed on shore 
by storms. Young Polynoidie {Har- 
moihoe imhricata &c.) escaped from the ova in the tanks, but 
none were recognized in the contents of the nets. The larval 
Nerine with the reticulated investment, and which has also 
been found in the Forth in February by Messrs. Cunningham 
and Ramagc :f, and larval examjilos of Puli/ihra also occurred. 
In regard to the latter, Ilensen found this month and the 
next most prolific of tlieni in the Baltic, and he gives the 
spawning-period as from October to April. The bristles 

Trematode at anal septum 
of Soi/itta. 

* Fiinfte Bericiit der Komission itc. (Iterliu, 18S7). 

+ Vide Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 4th sor. xiv. p. loo (1S74). 

X Trans, 11. Soo. Edinb. vol. xxxiii. pt. ."5, p. CvjS, pi. xxxvii. tig. 

St. Andrews Mirine Labora'ori/. 177 

(palcolffi) of Sahellan'a spinulo.'ia ami Ilarniothoc imhricita 
were common in the bottom-net. Tomopteris about lialf- 
Cfrown occurred in midwater-, bottom-, and surface-nets. If 
there was any dift'erence in size it was in favour of those from 
the bottom-nets. 

Tlie Cha^tognatlis were extremely abundant, especially in 
the midwater-net, and many were almost mature. The larger 
forms in this net measured H ineli, and some of the same 
size were seen in the other nets. Besides tlie Trematode 
parasite several showed a larval Trematode in front of the 
caudal septum. 

The same forms were found in March so far as it was 
possible to examine during the intervals of storms. Many of 
tlie littoral Polynoidas continued fully ripe, such as Ilarmo- 
thoe, Evarne, and Lepidonotus. Though it is known that 
certain of the Nemcrteans spawn at this time, no larval forms 
occurred in the tow-nets, in which they seem to be rarely 

Amongst the Annelids in April were also Autolytus pro- 
lifer and the epitocous form of Nereis {Iphinereis). The 
former bred freely in the laboratory and their variations in 
colour were noteworthy. Viewed from the dorsum many 
females are pinkish with dark brown eyes. The ovigerous 
region is reddish and green, the former chiefly characterizing 
the segment-junctions. Tlie succeeding region is greenish in 
front, pale posteriorly. Ventrally the colours are similar but 
fainter. The alimentary canal has a dull yellowish coat. 
The coloration of the ova and embryos in the sac in some 
cases is pale, in others dull yellowish or greenish. The 
young after emergence agreed with the descriptions of pre- 
vious authors, and appeared to be more elongated than the 
larval examples of Autolytus cornutus of Alex. Agassiz * 
before the tentacles appeared. Agassiz found his forms in 
April. The reproductive period of A. prolifer in this country 
is prolonged. 

No example of Alitta virens was procured in any of tho 
nets ; yet the beach in former years in March and April 
lias often been strewn with splendid examples, some more 
than 3 feet in length. They would therefore not seem to be 
so characteristically pelagic at the reproductive season as 
Palolo, the SylHdians, or other Nereids. 

Tomopteris was frequent and of fair size (1 inch), while 
the Chietogiiaths were on the whole less conspicuous than in 
the previous month, though some reached f inch long. A 

* "On Alternate Generat. iu Aimel.," Journ. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. vii. 
p. 392. 

178 Prof. M'Intosh's Notes from the 

few were mature at the beginning of the month, but the 
majority were immature or had spawned. This corresponds 
with the condition in the Neapolitan forms. 

The Annelids mentioned as occurring in April likewise 
were present in IMay, while there was a decided increase in 
the larval forms pertaining to other genera. Thus trocho- 
spheres of Phyllodoce and Eulalia frequently appeared along 
with young ^lagelonce^ which agreed in most points with the 
description and figures of Claparede, thougli he does not make 
it clear that the young MageJona has at first only slender 
s])ine-]ike papillse on its elongated tentacles, as in Spio, and 
that the characteristic thick cylindrical ones are developed 
first at the base. Thus in some pelagic examples about 
4 niillim. in length (body) both kinds exist on the organs. 
The young forms referable to ClaparJide's fig. 12, Taf. x.*, 
seem to be Spio-\\]s.Q^ and show no circulation of corpuscles in 
the tentacles, while those resembling his fig. 10 have active 
corpuscular circulation in the tentacles, the distal parts of 
which are readily lost. Moreover, the former is occasionally 
considerably larger than the latter. When the circulation is 
established in the tentacles a small rounded black eye appears 
at the anterior and iimer border of each tentacle, while two 
small and indefinite pigment-specks occur on each side of the 
middle line in front of the mouth and nearly in a line with 
the outer eyes. Further investigation therefore is necessaiy 
to clear up the doubtful points. These young examples swim 
freely, with a wriggling motion, after coiling the long tentacles 
like a spring, and again settle on the bottom or at the surface 
and stretch out the two long tapering tentacles. Numerous 
young Terebellids in the transparent sheaths were common 
in the bottom-nets. 

The only form observed in the midwater-net during June 
was Tonwpter{sy\>-\\\Q\\ appeared once in considerable numbers 
and from 1 to 1^ inch in length. Numerous ova occurred in 
the perivisceral diverticula of the feet. Chgetognaths were 
obtained in the same net, but they were comparatively few 
and small, only the larger forms reaching 15 millim. This 
therefore diti'cred from the condition during the winter 
months, when the bay teemed with large and active Sajitta'. 
The bottom-net was extremely rich as the month advanced in 
larval forms of Xen'ne. (two species), Polydora, and other 
Spionidge, such as Magelona. Young Harmothoe imbricata 
with four scales and seven bristled feet, advanced young of 
Nephtlii/s with a pair of eye-spots opposite the third bristled 

* Beobach. uber Aual. u. Eutwicklungsgesch. ^^c. (Leipzig', iMWi). 

St. Andrews Marine Laboratory. 179 

foot, tlic tip of one tentacle being bitid, males of Auloli/tus 
jirolt'fer, advanced young of Phyllodoce macnlata ? about 4 
niillira., Kumida aanguinea of about sixteen bristled scg- 
mentSj Poli/dora of twenty segment-?, Eteone of twenty-rive 
segments, Eulalia of G millim., and young of Amphicora were 
other forms occasionally met with in the bottom-net. Though 
less abundant than the Copepods they formed a prominent 
feature in the pelagic life and made a notable addition to tiie 
food of the post-larval fishes, which as they get older seek the 
bottom, ^^'llen the nets were worked close to the rocky 
margins the larval forms of Spirorbfs were also common. 
Numerous PolydortB and Magelome were still in the mature 
condition, so that the spawning-period extends over a con- 
siderable area. 

A decided increase in the number of pelagic larval Annelids 
took place in July. In every instance they were present in 
greater or less numbers in the bottom-nets, while as the month 
advanced they likewise became frequent in the surface-nets. 
The most abundant were the larval and postlarval forms of 
Spio^ Foli/dora, and Nerine. Terehellce and Nicolece were also 
common, and a few of the older examples of these strength- 
ened the hyaline tube with particles of sand and mud, 
!Minute postlarval Polynoidte occurred frequently in the 
bottom-nets. It is rare, so far as present experience goes, to 
find many young Polynoidaj between tide-marks, where the 
adults are so common, and their abundance in the bottom- nets 
at a distance from the shore, in a truly pelagic condition, 
partly explains the reason. Besides the foregoing, minute 
postlarval forms of Eulalia, Castalia, Pholoe, Cajjitdla, and 
Aricia were also procured. On the whole the wealth of 
pelagic larval xVnnelids was noteworthy. 

The Chaitognatlis were less conspicuous close inshore and 
they chiefly appeared in the midwater-net. Yet perhaps 
they were not far removed, since in former years masses were 
obtained at the end of the month in the midwater-net on the 
wolf-fish-ground towards the mouth of the Forth. 

The larval Annelids attained their maximum in August, 
the same forms occurring in the bottom-net as during July. 
Some of the post-larval Polynoidfe reached ^ inch in length. 
The use of the net beyond the Bay, as off the Bell Rock and 
south-east of the Island of May, showed that the same types 
abounded in these regions. Tomopteris was comparatively 

The midwater-net captured Tomopteris somewhat more 
frequently along with an occasional Nereis, probably from 
pelagic seaweeds or debris, or perhaps from accidentally 

180 Prof. M'Intosh'a Notes from the 

touching the ground. The larval forms of Nerine, Polydora, 
Pohjnoe, and TereleUa were also obtained ; but this net was 
less productive oi Polychata than the bottom- net. 

In the surface-net, in addition to the forms already men- 
tioned, larvEe of Nereis and young forms of Magehna ijapilli- 
cornis appeared. Tomopteris was procured only once. In 
the open sea near the Bell Rock the chief novelty was a 
young example of Hermadion pellucidum. 

Throughout September the bottom-nets were especially rich 
in the larval, post-larval, and young Annelids, the most con- 
s})icuous being still those of the Spionidai, e. g, Nerine^ Spi'o, 
and Folydora^ from the minute larvae with the enormous 
bristles to the more elongated forms with a pair of tentacles. 
The fifth body-segment in the Polydorcn showed the charac- 
teristic bristles with the hook at the tip, and some reached 
2*5 millim. in length. The abundance of Polydora is not 
surprising, since it is one of the most common species in the 
sea, perforating the rocks along the beach and shells — both 
living and dead — from the tidal margin to deep water. The 
adult forms of Nerine^ Scolecolejyis, and Sj)w are also very 
frequent between tide-marks. 

Besides the foregoing was a young Aphrodita 5 millim. 
long, trochospheres of Polynoidte with post-larval and young 
forms, a young example of Lcenilla setosissima about 1 
millim. long with bristles and scales, a young specimen 
of Pholoe miniita with four pairs of parapodia, a young 
Nep)hthys with six pairs, a caudal style of two segments 
articulated like the glandular hair of a plant, and a young 
Cirratulus about 3 millim. long. Young Phyllodocidje, 
Terehella, and Ariciidfe, unknown trochospheres, and a 
young Turbellarian of a light greenish colour by transmitted 
light were also present. Autolyius prolifer, after an absence 
of some weeks, again made its appearance this month. 

The midwater-net presented a contrast to tlic foregoing, 
since larval forms of the Spionida3 only were observed occa- 
sionally, and once a young example of Nerine \ inch long. 
On the other hand, Tomopteris | inch in length was obtained 
several limes, though sparingly. Sayittce also occurred fre- 
quently in tliis net, but in small numbers, except on the oth. 
They ranged from 12 to 16 millim. 

Larval Annelids were much more frequent in the surface- 
nets than in the latter, though they fell far short of the 
bottom-net in this respect. The majority pertained to the 
iSi)ionida*, as already explained, and some were obtained in 
every haul of the net, though larval forms of the Polynoidte 
cecurrcd occasionally. Totuopteris appeared only once, but 

fSt. Andrews .\furine Lahoratori/. iSl 

the finest example in the museum was procured this month, 
A few Safjittdi 18 millim. hui^ were present once. 

ThrouL^hout October tlie hirval Annelids still abounded in 
the bottom-nets, demonstrating how ample the food-supplies 
of the smaller fishes are from this group during a consider- 
able period of the year. The forms consisted chietly of the 
larvae of Xerine, Poft/dora, and Pohpioii. Sagiltce were 
obtained sparingly in this net in the earlier part of the month, 
but at the end they were very numerous and ranged from 8 
to lo millim. 

In the midwater-net Tomopteris occurred occasionally in 
small numbers, ranging from 1^ inch in length downwards. 
Very few Sagittm appeared in this net, and only on one 

In the surface-net the larval stages of Nerine and Poly- 
dora were captured along with a few small examples of 
Tomopteris during the first half of the month. The paucity 
of their numbers formed a contrast with those immediately 

In November the surface-net gave only a very few small 
specimens of Tomopteris, while the bottom-net, besides a few 
similar specimens, added a few Nematodes. These free 
Nematodes are occasionally got at considerable depths. 
Sagittce^ again, of good size occurred in all the nets and often 
in great numbers. They took the place of the absent Hydro- 

The paucity of Annelidan life was equally marked in 
December. In the surface-net a single Tomopteris f inch 
long was obtained. The same form occurred in the mid- 
water-net occasionally from i to | inch. In the bottom-net 
only bristles of SabeUaria and Nereis with fragments of 
Polynoe were taken. The same bristles moreover occurred 
in the contents of a tow-net sent me by Mr. Shrubsole from 

The Sagittce, again, were remarkably numerous and large. 
In the surface-net and in the bottom-net they appeared in 
similar proportions, but not always in correspondence; thus 
the record of the surface-net on the 5th, 13th, 14th, and 18th 
Avas " numerous, few, many, few," while in the bottom-net it 
was " few, many, many, few " on the same dates. In the 
midwater-net tiiey were especially abundant and large, 
ranging from | to 1 inch, and the reproductive organs were 
well developed. They formed an important element in the 
food of the various fishes at this season. 

Only a portion of the life-history of the Annelids {Poly- 
choita) is thus brought before us in the pelagic fauna; but it 

182 Prof. M'Intosli's Notes from the 

is interesting to note how persistently the larval and post- 
larval forms of some species occur for months. Any danger 
wliich a limited spawning-period might engender is thus 
obviated. As soon as the later stages are reached, with the 
exception of Tomopterisj they cease to be pelagic, and have 
to be souglit at the bottom or between tide-marks. 

2. On the British Species of Spinther. 

In his recent elaborate account of the genus Spinther * 
Prof. L. von Graff has placed the form I had mentioned as 
Spintlier oniscoides, Johnst., under Spinther arcticus, Wiren. 
The British form referred to was procured in the beginning 
of August 1865 from the long lines of the fishermen in the 
Minch. It was small, dead or nearly so, and rapidly decom- 
posing, so that the dorsal lamella and other parts were 
injured. The original specimen of *S'. oniscoides is not in the 
British Museum, and is thought by Prof. Jeffrey Bell to have 
been lost, and some doubt then existed as to the minute 
characters. It differs from the other species which have been 
subsequently discovered, especially in regard to the cirrus on 
the parapodia and the presence of bristles with simple tips in 
the dorsal lamella?. 

A minute examination of the Hebridean specimen, however, 
shows that while the species is not Spinther oniscoides, 
Johnston, it is certainly not S. arcticus, Wiren- The contour 
and general structure approaches that of S. miniaceus, Grube, 
and in this Prof, von Graff now agrees with me. No cirrus 
is present, and the free lateral (circumferential) lamella diverge 
from the condition in tlie other two forms mentioned. The 
bristles of the dorsal lamelk\3 are bifid, any simple tips seen 
in the preparations being due to position (on edge). The 
ventral surface is marked by rows of minute warts, while the 
pharyngeal region in protrusion forms a smooth trumpet-like 
expansion, and thus differs from the organ in S. arcticus. 

Spinther is one of the rarest British Annelids, and seems 
to be confined to the western shores. The Irish coast should 
be specially searched, as it is very desirable to have an 
example of the original species described by Dr. Johnston, 
which was sent to him from Belfast Bay (6-10 fathoms). 

3. On the Young Stages of the Gunnel (Centronotus 

In the paper on the " Development and Life-histories of 
Teleostean Pishes " an account is given of the gunnel from 
* Arbeilou aiu> d. Zoolog. Institut zu Graz, ii, Bd. No. 3 (1887). 

S(. Andrews M<:n'nt Laboratory. 183 

the egg u|) to a stage wIkm a hypural thickening occurred in 
the tail, which also presentetl iiii-iays. At this stage * "a 
wt'll-inarked interrupted line of black pigment runs from the 
cardiac region to the anus, passes forward and upward behind 
it, and is then continued to the tail ; the marginal tin is con- 
tinuous from the anus to the tail; a narrower [preanal] fin 
occurs in front of this, and it diminishes about the region of 
the gall-bladder, whicli is large and distinct. The dorsal fin 
again is similar and deepens a little in front of the caudal, 
which in outline is somewhat lobate. The fin-rays are present 
in the tail and are at this time better marked in the ventral 
(anal) than in the dorsal fin. They are also distinct in the 
pectorals. The snout now extends forward about half the 
dianutor of the eye in front of it, and the mandible projects 
a little further, but is motionless, the animal aerating its gills 
in its progress through the water." The large size of the 
otocysts and their continuation upward so as nearly to meet 
in the median dorsal line is another interesting feature. At 
this stage they are fully 12 millim, in length. It may further 
be noted that the ventral median line of black pigment ceases 
before reaching a line from the pectorals, an oblique bar on 
each side, forming a A with the apex directed forward, 
occurring at this region, only a short streak of pigment 
existing in the middle line in front. No trace of ventral fins 
is apparent. 

Lately (23rd May) the trawl-like bottom tow-net brought 
uj) a remarkably transjjarent fish about 35*5 millim. in length 
which gives us an intermediate stage between the foregoing 
and those which resemble the adult, though perhaps they only 
exceed this specimen by a few millimetres. The gunnel at 
this stage appears to live on the bottom, and probably hides 
amongst the sand like the young Angui'Ila, to which at first 
sight it has a close resemblance. 

'J'he proportions of tliis translucent fish differ materially 
from the earlier torm. Thus the eye is much less in propor- 
tion to the size of the head and the latter occupies much less 
bulk in proportion to the body. Nevertheless the eyes seemed 
to be large and prominent in life when viewed from above. 
The eye has a silvery lustre laterally, emerald and dark olive- 
green when viewed from above. Ventrally a black pigment- 
line begins on tlie hyoid and continues along the median line 
to the anus, just as in the earlier form, except that in front 
it now passes between the separated limbs of the A -shaped 
arrangement. A line of the same pigment-dots behind the 

• MTntosh and Priuce, Traus. R. Soc. Edin. vol. xxxv. p. 869 (1890). 

184 Notes from the St. Andieios Marine Laboratory. 

vciit proceeded to the base of the tail. In addition to the 
foregoing- a band of small though distinct black pigment-spots 
commenced on the lateral region behind the pectoral on 
each side and extended to the anal region. Moreover a single 
spot occurred on each side beneath the pectoral, and thus below 
the line just mentioned. A touch of the same pigment 
existed in front of the shoulder-girdle. During life all these 
])ignient-specks were in a state of contraction ; but as death 
approached they gradually assumed a stellate form, and thus 
the siiirit-preparation shows the coloration much more dis- 
tinctly than the living animal. 

Tlie pectoral fins are proportionally large. All the dorsal 
inters])inous bones, as also the articulation of the fin-rays, 
are evident, whereas only the first three or four of the anal 
are seen, the first indeed alone presenting an articulation with 
the fin-ray. Thirty-seven haemal spines occurred in front of 
the anus. A few minute black pigment-specks were visible 
(under the microscope) along the spinal cord. The notochord 
remained simple from the anterior edge of the lower hypural 
to the termination, only a minute ventral knob occurring 
between the first and second hypural. Eight caudal rays 
abutted on the inferior or large hyjiural, three on the next 
above, then one more or less intermediate, three to the upper 
hypural, above which lay the tip of the notochord, while four 
rested on the epiurals. The total number was thus nineteen. 
Day givts fifteen as the number of the rays. The dorsal 
fin-rays were 79 or 80 ; Day gives 75 to 82. The anal fin 
had 44 rays ; Day mentions 39 to 4b. Only 11 pectoral rays 
were distinguishable; Day states the number to be 11 or 12. 
As the fish was quite translucent these numbers are of 
interest. Both dorsally and ventrally a portion of the larval 
fin existed in front of the caudal. The gall-bladda- forms a 
distinct pale area at the posterior border of the liver. The 
urinary bladder is large and its opening conspicuous. 

In the paper formerly referred to it was mentioned that 
young gunnels resembling the adults had been procured in 
Jul}'. They were captured off the Isle of IMay in the mid- 
water-net at 30 fathoms, but probably the net touched the 
bottom. They are only a few millim. longer than the fore- 
going translucent tbrni, but they arc thicker and more massive 
throughout, and the region from the base of the pectoral to 
the tip of the snout is longer. Moreover they have well-formed 
ventral fins. The pigment along the sides forms a series of 
reticulations with the long diameter of the ovoitl pale sjiacos 
vertical. Eleven black bars are continued from the body to 
the dorsal tin without trace of the cye-likc areas of the adult. 

On Sesia tipuliforniis aiitl Tiucliiliuiu apit'ornic, Linn. 185 

Similar though iniicli fainter touches inferiorly proceed on 
the anal fin. Traces of the line of pi,i>;nicnt seen at the 
younger statre a little above the ventral border of the abdo- 
men are still present; but all the i-eticulations just described 
have been developed subsequently and independently. The 
median ventral pi<i;ment-line is also quite distinct from tlie 
branch iostegal region to the vent. Tiie modification of the 
numerous and somewhat small lateral reticulations into the 
larger vertical bars of the adult is easily observed in a series, 
as also the gradual diminution of the pectorals. A charac- 
teristic feature of this young stage is the presence of a K- 
shaped arrangement of black pigment on each side of the 
head, the strong bar of the K uniting with its fellow over 
the brain and proceeding forward over the eye to the tip of 
the snout. One leg of the K goes from the eye straight 
downward to the edge of the mandible, while the other 
slopes backward to the opercular region. 

The earlier stage here described would appear to represent 
a season's growth, and, indeed, it is possible that the later 
stage referred to is a form about two mouths older. 

XXIII. — On the Anatomy of Sesia tipuliformis and Tro- 
chilium apiforme, Linn. By Prof. E. K. Brandt *. 

Two years ago, while studying the anatomy of Sesia scolice- 
forniis'f, I discovered that the structure of tlie moth differs much 
from the usual Lepidopterous type, and I thought it would be 
interesting to compare the connexion between the outward 
form and the internal structure of other moths belonging to 
the same group. In the summer of 1887 I had an oppor- 
tunity of dissecting several specimens of Sesia tipuliformis 
and Trochilium apiforme, and ascertained by repeated experi- 
ments that they agreed in most essential points. 

* Translated fi-om the Riasdan by W. F. Kirby, F.L.S., F.E.S., &c. 
[The accompanying paper was ^vritten in June 1888, and published. 
in ' Horte Societatis Eutomolog-icae Rossicie,' vol. xxxii. pp. 41-49, in 
1889. I have not seen any translation or abstract elsewhere ; and as the 
subject, relating to a very aberrant group of Lepidoptera, is of consider- 
able interest and importance, and the languages of Eastern Europe are at 
present unfamiliar to many entomologists, I thought it might be useful to 
give the article a somewhat wider cii'culation. — W. F. K.] 

t [This insect is very rare in England, and fresh specimens would be 
unattainable for dissection ; but the other two species discussed in this 
paper are sufHciently abundant. — W. F. K.] 

186 Prof. E. K. Brandt on the Anatomy of 

The anatomy of tlie Clear-wings is particularly interesting, 
because these moths exhibit obvious mimicry. The most 
remarkable point about the anatomy of S. scoliceformis is that 
this mimicry does not originate in the perfect state, but 
exliibits a partial arrest of development at the normal con- 
dition of the pupa-state. The imperfect scaling of the wings 
may be thus explained ; for the scales of Lepidoptera are 
developed gradually during the formation of the pupa. A 
similar arrest of development at some stage in the formation 
of the pupa is likewise visible in the internal structure. This 
shows that the Clear-wings are probably ancient forms which 
have latterly acquired a special adaptation to (or mimicry of) 
other flower-frequenting insects. 

The present paper includes my observations on the dissec- 
tion of three specimens (one male and two females) of Sesia 
iipuUformis and two specimens (male and female) of Trochilium 

Sesia tijmlifoi'mis. 

The sTcehton exhibits the same peculiarities which 1 had 
already noted in S. scoliceformis. It deserves sj)ecial atten- 
tion that there are three distinct thoracic segments in these 

As regards the mouth-organs, the proboscis is moderately 
developed but very weakly constructed. 

The nervous system is composed of nine ganglia, viz. two 
cephalic (supra- and infra-cesophageal), three thoracic, and 
four abdominal. The supra-a3Sophageal ganglion is well 
developed and exhibits considerable and well-marked sinuo- 
sities ; the visual parts are broad, thick, and short. The 
infra-cesophageal ganglion is small and placed very near to 
the supra- oesophageal. The first thoracic ganglion is placed 
nearer to the infra -oesophageal than to the second thoracic 
ganglion, but the second and third thoracic ganglia are very 
near together. The abdominal ganglia are rather small and 
placed at equal distances apart. The last thoracic ganglion 
is larger than the rest and distributes nerves to the various 
limbs and also to the reproductive organs and to the straight 
intestine. The nervous system is arranged on the same j»rin- 
ciple in both Sesia tipuUformis and scoUaformis, but is 
arrested in development, for we find here three thoracic 
ganglia, as is usually the case in the pupa, whereas only two 
separate thoracic ganglia are usually present in the imago in 
the typical nervous system of Lcpiiloptcra. 

The digestive organs exhibit the following parts : — (1) the 

Sesia tipulifornii.s and Trochilium apiformc, Linn. 187 

oesophagus, (2) the crop, (3) the stomach, (4) the intestine. 
The last is distinctly divided into the small and large intes- 
tine, and is furnished with a blind branch (the ctecum). The 
oesophagus is a very long and narrow tube, wliich is gradually 
dilated at the lower end, and thus forms a large sac-like crop, 
opening into the oesophagus at the wide part. The stomach 
is of an oval sha])e, very narrow at each end. The small 
intestine is much more slender ami does not form any expan- 
sions. At the commencement of the intestine appears a pear- 
shaped branch, which is the blind intestine (caicum). 

"With regard to the morphological importance of the diges- 
tive apparatus, I think it possible that it represents about 
lialf the usual development in typical Lepidoptera. But the 
peculiar structure of the croj) indicates an arrest of develop- 
ment in the pupa-stage. The crop does not communicate 
with the middle of the oesophagus, as is normally the case in 
Lepidoptera, but is placed near the lower end and communi- 
cates with the hinder part, not by means of a long slender 
canal, but, on the contrary, it opens into the oesophagus at 
the broad end, imperceptibly passing into the sac-like portion. 
The crop is formed thus in the last stage of the development 
of the digestive aj)paratus in the pupa, when it is not placed 
any more forward, and its commencement does not form a 

The salivary glands are feebly developed. They consist of 
two long slender tubes, one end of wliich opens into the lower 
part of the mouth ; the other end is usually rounded. 

The Malpighian vessels present no peculiarity, being 
arranged on the usual type found in Lepidoptera. On each 
side of the alimentary canal are two vessels, opening into the 
commencement of the small intestine. Each vessel consists 
of two tubes, one of which is simple, but the other forms a 
connexion between the two vessels. Near the openings of the 
two Malpighian vessels they form a very small oblong expan- 
sion, the rudiment of a urinary bladder. 

The heart or dorsal vessel is a long and rather narrow 
tube with several constrictions. There are eight chambers 
and attachments for the alee musculares on the dorsal surface. 
The respiratory system is arranged as follows : — There are 
two large respiratory tubes on the ventral surface, running 
along the whole trunk of the insect, and communicating with 
it by means of two transverse arching tracheaj. At the hinder 
end of the body they are connected by means of a transverse 
tube. Numerous fine branches are distributed to the various 
internal organs, and from these also run smaller transverse 
branches which communicate with the spiracles. The air- 

188 Prof. E. K. Brandt on the Anatomy of 

cavities or air-vessels are not yet trachea?. In this respect 
the Sesiida? differ much from the Sphingidaj, in which they 
are placed together in one cluster in front, and in which such 
vesicles or sacs are absent in the transverse branches of the 
tracliea? on tlie ventral surface. 

The male sexual apparatus of S. tipuUformis consists oi the 
following parts : — (1) the testes, (2) the deferent ducts, (3) 
the vesicuke semmales, (4) the ductus ejaculatorius, (5) the 
penis, (6) the accessory glands. 

The testes, as is invariably the case in Lepidoptera, are two 
in number, and are enclosed in a common sac or scrotum. 
The deferent ducts are short and broad, opening into the 
vesiculce semtnalesy which are small oblong sacs. The ductus 
ejaculatorius is a long sinuous tube. The penis is horny, 
with a guitar-shaped depression in the middle. The accessory 
glands are long and very sinuous. 

The female sexual apparatus of S. tipuliformis consists of 
the following parts : — (1) the two ovaries, (2) the oviduct, 
(3) the vagina, (4) two accessory gland-?, (o) receptacuJum 
seminis, (6) unpaired accessory gland, (7) copulatory pouch, 
and (8) ovipositor. 

"While investigating the anatomy of Sesia scoliceformis I 
noted a remarkable peculiarity in the structure of the ovaries. 
Each ovary contains fourteen tubes, each of which emits a 
small excretory canal. Every two canals unite, forming 
seven egg-tubes, which then combine to form one oviduct o\\ 
each side, and afterwards unite at the vagina. This pecu- 
liarity in the structure of the ovaries is very remarkable and 
constitutes an exception to their usual type in Lepidoptera. 
In all other Lepidoptera hitherto examined there are only 
four egg-tubes in each ovary. It would be very interesting 
to discover whether the same anonuxly in the structure of the 
ovaries is to be met with in other species of Sesia, or whether 
it is peculiar to S. scolia^Jbrniis. On dissecting S. tipuli- 
formis 1 found that it exhibited the normal structure of the 
ovaries. I only count four egg-tubes in each ovary. These 
ducts are long, rather narrow, and only slightly constricted, 
so that they form straight rather than undulating tubes. 
The short broad oviducts open into the long vagina, which is 
considerably dilated at the end. There are two accessory 
glands, each of which is constructed of a broad pear-shaped 
part, opening into the vagina, and a long narrow tube, coiled 
in the peritoneal cavity. The unpaired supplementary gland 
consists of a long, narrow, stalk-like tube, opening at the 
lower end of the vagina. The receptacahtin seniinis is a long 
narrow tube, with tlic rounded end coiled in the cavity of the 

Sesia tipuliformis and Trochilimn apiforme, Linn. 189 

body, but the narrow hinder end opening into the vagina. 
There is also a connecting canal extending from the middle 
of the receptaculuni semini.t, and opening into the efferent 
channel of the copulatory pouch — the small round sac which 
terminates in a separate external opening by means of a 
separate canal. 

The structure of the female reproductive organs exliibits 
considerable development. It hardly differs from the usual 
Lepidopterous type except in the absence of branching fatty 
glands. There is, however, a very slight trace of deviation 
from the normal type, seen in the imperfect development of 
certain parts. 

Trochilium apiforme, Linn. 

The skeleton exhibits the same peculiarities of structure 
which are characteristic of Sesia tipuliforviis and scoliceformis. 

The nervous system likewise exhibits the same arrange- 
ment, showing the remarkable arrest in the development of 
the insect in the })upa state. There are nine ganglia — two 
cephalic (supra- and intVa-oesophageal), three thoracic, and four 
abdominal, cf which the last is the largest. 

The digestive system exhibits the following parts : — (1) 
the oesophagus, (2) the crop, (3) the stomach, (4) tlie small 
intestine, (5) the large intestine, provided with a blind branch 
(the caecum). The oesophagus is very long and narrow and 
is enlarged at the lower end. The crop exhibits the dilata- 
tion of the lower and lateral end of the oesophagus at its side, 
as in the pupa. It remains in that condition when it changes 
from the lower to the lateral position. The crop is narrower 
and longer than in Sesia tipuliformis and scoliaformis, and 
opens into the stomach by a short broad stalk. The re- 
mainder is longer and narrower. The blind appendage is 
comparatively short, but tlie large intestine, behind the 
blind branch and the caicum, is broad and thick, as in Sesia 
tipuliformis and scoliaformis. 

The salivary glands are two long slender tubes, constructed 
throughout exactly as in the two Sesice, and opening into the 
mouth in just the same way. 

The ^Jalpighian vessels exhibit the typical structure. 
There are three on each side of the intestine. Two of these 
unite in a common canal, but the third joins them, and then 
they all terminate in a common canal, opening at the com- 
mencement of the small intestine. This common canal is 
shorter, wider, and thicker than in S. tipuliformis. The 
Malpighiau vessels themselves are very long and sinuous 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 14 

190 M. E. L Bouvier on the Circulatory System 

tubes. Tlie amalgamated Malpighian vessels exhibit no dila- 
tation near the opening of the intestine. 

The heart or dorsal vessel is constructed exactly as in S. 

The respiratory system consists of two large respiratory 
tubes, placed at the sides of the abdomen, and composed of 
the united respiratory tubes which run from the tracheae. 
These abdominal respiratory tubes are continued to the thorax, 
and subdivide. At the hinder end of the abdomen the two 
main respiratory tubes are united in a curve, but there is no 
connexion between them at any other part of their course, 
and thus they differ from tlie respiratory tubes of S. tipuli- 
formisj in which the conducting respn-atory canals are con- 
nected by wide respiratory tubes at each segment. 

The male reproductive system is of the same form and 
construction as in S. tijmliformis. It includes : — testes, con- 
tained in a common scrotum ; two deferent ducts, opening 
into the large round vesiculce seminales ; the ductus ejacula- 
tortus, shaped like a long sinuous tube ; a horny penis, pro- 
vided with a furrow ; and two long, sinuous, accessory 

Tlie female reproductive system consists of the following 
parts: — (1) two ovaries, (2) two oviducts, (3) vagina, (4) 
copulatory pouch, (5) receptacidum seminis, (6) one unpaired 
accessory gland, (7) two paired accessory glands, and (8) 
ovipositor. Each ovary consists of four very long sinuous 
egg-tubes. These four tubes unite into one common oviduct, 
and then both oviducts open into the vagina. The receptac- 
ulum seminis is a little round sac, which opens at one end 
into the copulatory pouch and at the other into the vagina. 
The unjmired accessory gland resembles a long, narrow, 
sinuous tube, provided with two short, rounded, bag-like pro- 
cesses at the upper end. The paired accessory glands 
resemble two short sinuous tubes. The copulatory pouch is 
an oval and rather large sac, which opens outwards by a 
separate outlet through the deferent canal, but which com- 
municates with the receptacidum seminis by a connecting 
tube, and appears to be indirectly connected with the vagina. 

XXIV. — On the Circulatory System of the Carapace in the 
Decapod Crustacea. By E. L. BouviEK *. 

The circulatory system of tlie Decapod Crustacea, as described 
in the classic memoirs, after the investigations of Lund, 
* Trnnsliited from the ' Comptos Roiulus ties Seauces do rAcadtJmie 
dos Sfienees," tome ex., June 9, 18110, p. ll*ll ct scq. 

of the Carapace in the Decapod Crustacea. 191 

Krohn, and, above all, of II. Milne-Edwards, eonsists (1) of 
an arterial system whieh conveys the blood directly from the 
heart ;ind ponrs it into the lacunar of the body-cavity, (2) of 
a branchial sy.stem in which tiie blood from tlie lacnnie, after 
bein<^ artcrializcd, circulates in the direction of the heart, 
and is eventually poured into the pericardial chamber by 
which tjie latter is siurouiuled. 

Huxley reproduces these ideas in his work on the Crayfish, 
and adds that the jx-ricardial sinus is perhaps partially occu- 
pied " by some blood which has not passed through the 
branchiae, though this is doubtful " *. Glaus, in a recent 
paper, is much more positive ; he states that the membrane 
of the carapace always contains venous blood, derived it 
may be from the lacuna3 of the body-cavity, it may be 
from the arterial extremities of the tegumentary branches 
of the lateral anterior arteries (antennary arteries), and he 
justly observes that (his blood " certainly does not flow into 
the branchial sinus for the purpose of passing through the 
branchiae, but passes directly from the body- walls into the 
pericardial sinus " f- The learned carcinologist appears to 
make use of this fact to combat the opinion of Milne-Edwards, 
who holds the heart of the Decapod Crustacea to be an 
arterial heart in the sense that the Molluscan heart is; how- 
ever, he merely formulates, without further details, the rule 
quoted above, contenting himself with describing very 
minutely the circulation in the carapace of the Phyllosoma- 
stage of the larva of the lobster. 

Now, if we consider that the larva? of Decapod Crustacea, 
before the branchia3 a})pcar, have no other respiratory appa- 
ratus than the membrane of the carapace, and must therefore 
respire in the same manner as J/y,sw + , we are forced to believe 
that, in the absence of demonstrative proof, we cannot draw 
conclusions from the larva as to the adult, and we ask our- 
selves whether Milne-Edwards may not be right after all in 
holding the Decapod heart to be exclusively arterial. 

Kumerous experiments and a large number of injections 
performed on crayfish {Astacus fluviatiUs) ^ on species of Pa- 
gurus {Eupagurus Bern/iardus, E. Prideauxii), on Dromia 
{Dromia vulgaris) ^ on aquatic crabs (Platycarcinus pagurus^ 

* Huxley, ' The Crayfish ; an lutroductiou to the Study of Zoology,' 
p. 56 (1880). 

t Clans, '• Zur Kenntniss der Kreislaufsorgaue der Schizopoden und 
Decapoden," Arbeiten aus dem Zool. lustit. d. Univ. Wien, Bd. v. p. 40 

X Delage, " Circulation et respiration chez les Crustacea Schizopodes 
{Mysis)," Ai-ch. Zool. Exp. 2« s^rie, t. i. (1883). 

192 On the Circulatory System in the Decapod Crustacea. 

Carcinus mcenas) , and on land-cvabs of the genus Cardi'soma, 
have enabled me to study in all its details the circulation in 
the membranous walls which clothe the carapace in the bran- 
chial region, and to substantiate by definite investigations on 
adults the rule enunciated by Glaus. 

The afferent system of the membrane which clothes the 
carapace in the branchial regions has its origin in the vast 
postcephalic lacuna which surrounds the liver and the entire 
stomach ; a quantity of blood, very variable in amount in 
the different types, also enters this membrane by the ultimate 
branches of the lateral anterior (antennary) and posterior 
arteries. In the land-crabs of the genus Cardisoma, as in 
Birgus latro, which was studied by Semper, the largest por- 
tion of the blood is drawn from the ventral region of this 
lacuna and forms a large trunk in front, whicli then divides 
into several branches, the secondary divisions of which are 
very numerous, very minute, and gather themselves into a 
plexus ; but in the more distinctly aquatic Decapod Crustacea 
the large afferent trunk usually does not exist, and we are 
confronted with an infinite number of little anastomosing 
lacunar canals, which detach themselves from the lacuna at 
its points of contact Avith the membrane. 

The efferent system is absolutely constant ; it consists of a 
well-defined trunk which follows the membrane close to the 
lower free border of the carapace ; very narrow anteriorly, 
this trunk receives on its way the efferent branches of a plexus 
which is continuous w^ith the afferent plexus ; it increases 
considerably in size the further back it gets, and opens 
directly into the ])ericardium either at its posterior angle 
{Astacus) or at the sides (edible crab, Canh'soma). The 
whole of the efferent system, the pericardium, and the entire 
arterial system can be easily injected by way of this large 
efferent trunk. 

In studying the disposition of the afferent and efferent 
canals in this region of the membrane we are soon convinced 
that we are dealing with a cutaneous respiratory apparatus 
analogous to that of Mysisj and that it is the exaji-geration of 
this arrangement which allows certain Crustaceans (land- 
crabs, Birgus latro) to live a very long time out of the water. 
In other words, the blood which returns directly to the peri- 
cardium by way of the large efferent trunk of the carapace is 
rot venous but arterial blood. It is ]iossible that a portion of 
the venous blood of the lacunai returns directly to the peri- 
cardium, and we even find two orifices at the bottom of the 
pericardial sinus of the edible crab, which seem to be intended 
to serve this purpose ; but in any case we are bound to con- 
cede to the system of the carapace an efficient respiratory role. 

Mr. G. A. Boulengcr on a new Species o/" Mormyrus. 103 

We may sum uj) our results as follows: — In the Scliizo- 
pods and in the abranchiate larva? of Decapod Crustacea 
respiration is purely cutaneous and is principally ctfected in 
the membrane which clothes the lateral walls of the carapace. 
In the adult Decapods this respiratory a|)paratus persijJts, and 

f)resent3 an absolute fixity, at any rate as far as regards its 
arge efferent canal ; but a secondary respiratory system is 
adiled to that of the larva, and it is this latter system, in 
which the branchi;\! are intercalated, which is really the only 
one described in the classic works. This branciiial system is 
undoubtedly the more important from a physiological point 
of view (except jierhaps in the terrestrial species) ; but it is 
a secondary apparatus which in no way lessens the import- 
ance of the cutaneous system. 

XXV. — Description of a new Species o/'Mormyrus. 

Mormyrus mento. 
D. 29. A. 36. V. 6. L. lat. 85. L. tr. H. 

Snout short, curved, once and a half the diameter of the 
eye, tV the length of the head. Mouth terminal, on a line 
with the lower border of the eye, its width one fifth 
the length of the head. Teeth moderately large, notched, 
five in the upper jaw, six in the lower. Diameter of the 
eye one fifth its lengtli, about two thirds the width of the inter- 
orbital space. Chin strongly swollen. Origin of the dorsal 
halfway between the gill-opening and the caudal, and above 
the ninth ray of the anal. Pectoral as long as its distance 
from the nostrils, extending a little beyond the base of the 
ventral, which measures nearly half the length of the head. 
Depth of body 3^ times in total length (without caudal), 
length of caudal peduncle 5^ times ; depth of caudal peduncle 
one fourth its length. 12 scales round the caudal peduncle. 
Silvery, with fine brown dots, which are very crowded on the 
head and the dorsal and ventral lines. 

Total length 190 millim. 

Closely allied to M. senegaJensis, Stdr., from Avhich it is 
distinguished by the smaller scales and the more slender 
caudal peduncle, and to M. ci/prinoides, L., which has smaller 
teeth and a deeper caudal peduncle surrounded by 16 scales. 

A single specimen, from the Gaboon. 

194 Miscellaneous. 


A Synonymic Catalogue of Recent Marine Bryozoa. 
By [Miss] E. C. Jelly. 
Students of the systematic arrangement of the Polyzoa will welcome 
the publication of this exceediuL^ly useful book. The author remarks 
in the preface that iu the compilation two chief ideas have been 
kept in view — firstly, to collect as far as possible all tlie names of 
recent Polyzoa that have been published, and, secondly, " to reduce 
the synonymy to something like fact." Even a cursory examina- 
tion of the contents of the Catalogue will give evidence of the, if 
possible, too conscientious care with which the first part of the pro- 
gramme has been carried out. For instance, no less than eighty- 
seven bibliographical references are given to Scrupocellaria scraposa 
and one hundred and forty to Memhranipora pilosa and its varieties. 
Many of the papers referred to may be of interest from an anti- 
quarian point of view ; but, so far as the systematic zoologist is 
concerned, are worthy only of a place in an index cxpurgatorius. 
We would not be understood to find fault with the compiler of a 
catalogue for aiming at completeness, which is one of the chief 
merits of a work of this description. 

The correct classifying of synonyms requires a practical knowledge 
of the group. This part of the work has been carried out with 
considerable judgment. The genera are arranged in alphabetical 
order, as also are the species included under each genus. The 
specific names are printed in the same t5-pe as the generic, to dis- 
tinguish them from the synonyms. A useful, and in this case 
indispensable, bibliographical index, followed by a general index, is 
inserted at the end of the book. 

We regret to have to point out a few faults in this valuable 
work. The synonymy is occasionally incorrect. Farcimia cereus, 
Pourtales (p. 1G6) is not synonymous with NelUa simple^v. Busk. 
The insertion of dates of publication in every case where it was 
possible would have increased the usefulness of the work. 

"With regard to the title of the Catalogue, it is not insular preju- 
dice but a careful weighing of the evidence which loads us to adopt 
the name Polyzoa, first applied by Vaughan Thomson, iu prefer- 
ence to " Bryozoa '' (Ehrenberg), chiefly used by continental 
zoologists. The arguments for retention of the former name put 
forward by Mr. Ilincks appear to be conclusive. 

But it would be ungracious to be severely critical concerning the 
errors, in view of the immense mass of information brought together 
and arranged with such painstaking labour and judgment. The 
author assuredly deserves the gratitude of all students of Polyzoa, 


On two nt'w Species of Ooccidea infesting the Stickleback- and 

the Sardine. By P. Tu^lohan. 

The Coccidea of fishes have not yet formed the subject of any 

descriptive treatise, and what we know about them is confined to 

the mere mention of their existence *. 

* Einicr, 'Uoberdio Ki — odor kugolfiirmigen Psorosp. dor NN'irboltliiore,' 
p. 55 (1870) ; Biitschli, Brouu's ' Thierroichs Klas*;. uud Urd.,' Bd. i., 
Pi'olozoa, p. 584. 

Miscellaneous. 1 95 

I have met with two spocies — one in the liver of the stickleback, 
the other in the testis of the sardine. Both belong to the genus 
Cocciilium, as characterized by the successive works of Leuckart, 
Schneider, and Ikilbiani ; tliat is to say that, on arriving at their 
full developiuont, they form four spores, each of which encloses 
two falciform bodies. 

(i.) Coccidl'l of the Stickhbacl- (Coccidium gasterostei, .s^). n.). — I 
discovered this species in April of the present year in sticklebacks 
(Gasterosteiis actilcattts) from the marshes of Yilaine, in the Morbi- 
han. This Coccidid is of small size and its cysts only measure 16 
to 18 f^i. It lives in the hepatic cells, undergoing the whole of its 
development in the same cell. I have several times observed cells 
containing three or four cysts. These facts are easily made out by 
teasing a portion of diseased liver. By making sections of the 
organ, after fixing, hardening, and embedding it iu paraffin, I have 
been enabled to discover the developmental phases and to study 
them much more easily than by teasing : but it was by means of 
the latter method alone that I succeeded in determining the exact 
relations of the parasite to the hepatic cell. I have not been able 
to observe the very young stages. On attaining its full develop- 
ment Coccidium (jnsterostei measures, as I have alread}' said, 16 to 
18 jx in diameter. It is a little spherical mass of plasma enclosing 
a very large number of coarse globules ; these are tolerably retrac- 
tile, but do not affect polari/ed light. 

At this point the Coccidium encysts, that is to say the plasma 
surrounds itself with a delicate transparent pellicle of a uniform 
spherical shape. The plasmic mass then contracts, leaving an 
empty space between it and the wall of the cyst. The nucleus lies 
in the centre of the plasma, though the granulations of the latter 
sometimes render it difficult to determine its presence. After a 
short time it migrates to the periphery and divides. The small 
size of the nucleus renders the task of observing it an extremely 
delicate one, and I have therefore not been able to follow all the 
stages of its division ; I have, however, found figures sufficiently 
distinct to enable me to recognize karyokinesis. 

The two nuclei resulting from this division divide in their turn, 
and we finally get four nuclei placed at the extremities of two 
perpendicular diameters of the plasmic sphere. The latter then 
splits up into four little spheres, each of which encloses a nucleus. 
This segmentation of the primitive njass appears to take place very 
rapidly, and most probably in the majority of cases it does so all at 
once. There is sometimes a second stage, which, by reason of its 
extreme rarity in my preparations, is probably a very short one, 
that is supposing it to be constant. The four little nucleated 
spheres are sporoblasts. Their nucleus divides (always indirectly) 
and the binuclear sporoblasts then lengthen out, surround themselves 
with an envelope, and reassume the characters of typical spores of 
Coccidium, that is to say, each of them encloses two falciform bodies 
provided with a nucleus. During the formation of these sporozoids 
there is to be seen a residual granular mass, which diminishes little 
by little during their increase in size (Schneider's residue). The 
mature spore is fusiform in shape and 10 n long by 4 to 6 /x wide. 

1 96 Miscellaneous. 

Each of these sporozooids occupies nearly the entire length of the 
spore, but they are intertwined in such a way that the broad 
extremity of the one corresponds to the tapering extremity of the 
other. The nucleus is situated towards the middle. At one of the 
extremities, and often at both, we find a little globule analogous, 
in position at least, to the vacuoles described by Schneider iu the 
spores of Coccidmm sphoericum and of Coccidium proprivm *. 

I have not been able to follow the history of this parasite further, 
and the ultimate destiny of the sjiores is unknown to me, as is also 
the manner in which the sticklebacks become infected. Probably the 
spores reach the intestine by way of the bile-ducts and are thence 
carried to the exterior ; but I have never met with them in the 
digestive tract. 

(ii.) Coccidid of the Sardine (Coccidium sardinae, sp. n.). — I met 
with this second species in the testis of sardines which M. Henneguy 
procured from Concarneau and which he was good enough to permit 
me to examine for parasites. Unfortunately I am compelled to 
restrict myself to giving the characters of the adult state, the only 
one which I was able to observe. 

The spherical cysts measure about 50 ^ in diameter. In sections 
of the testis they are to be found in the seminiferous tubules ; but 
I was not able to determine their presence in the cells. In the 
interior of the cyst one finds a granular mass applied against the 
membrane, and in this four fusiform spores are implanted. The 
latter, approximated at their fixed extremity, diverge at their free 
ends and affect a more or less regular radial arrangement. Each 
of these spores encloses two sporozooids with a nucleus ; the sporo- 
zooids do not occupy the whole length of the spore, and they are 
only very slightly intertwined. 

A remarkable and highly distinctive characterof Coccidhim sardines 
is the small amount of space in the cyst occupied by the granular 
mass and the spores. 

This is the sum of the facts which I have been able to make out 
concerning this new enemy of the sardine. I have been led to 
publish this incomplete description owing to the interest attaching 
to the affinity between and comparison of the two Coccidea whose 
characters I have just given. By the disposition of the spores, 
which are free in Coccidium rjasterostei and implanted in a residual 
mass in C. sardince, the latter species is allied to C. spJicericttm and 
C. proptrium (Sch.), and the former to C. oviforme. 

In conclusion, these two Coccidea present this interesting cha- 
racter, viz. that the whole of their development takes place in the 
organ which they have attacked, and that one does not notice two 
periods in their cycle of development, as is the case iu many of 
these parasites, and especially in Coccidium oviforme. — CoDiptet 
liendus des Seances dc VAcademie des Sciences, tome ex. June 9, 
1890, pp. Iin4 et seq. 

* " Coccidies nouvelles ou peu conuuos.'" Tablettes zooloariques, t. ii. 
(Poitiers, 1887). 

.1,,,, / M.,<i.\., s o.i'oi I'l.r/ r. 

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No. 33. SEPTEMBER 1890. 

XXVI. — Natural History Notes from H.iM. Indian Marine 
Survey Steamer ' Investigator ^^ Commander li. F. Hoshyn^ 
B.N., commanding. — No. 16. On the Bathylial'^ Fishes 
collected in the Bay of Bengal during the season 1889-90. 
By A. Alcock, M.B., Surgeon I. M. S., Surgeon-Natu- 
ralist to the Survey. 

[Plates VIII. & IX.] 

§ 1. iMinmeration and Topograpli}^ of the Dredgiu<? Stations. 
§ 2. Review of the Collection, with List of the Fishes and Descrip- 
tions of new Species. 

§ 1 . The Dredging Stations. 

Of nine hauls of the trawl in depths of a hundred fathoms 
and over within the limits of the Bay of Bengal during the 
surveying-season of 1889-90, only five added anything to the 
collection of fishes, and it will not be necessary to mention 
here any but these five. 

* Following the precedent of Dr. Gunther, I have here taken the 100- 
fathoni line as the near boundary of the bathybial fauna. In the Ray of 
Bengal, at any rate, where already at 70 fathoms we find among all the 
classes of marine animals numerous characteristic reactions to bathybial 
conditions, tlie 100-fathom line appears to be a sufficiently unequivocal 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Scr. 6. Vol, vi. 15 

198 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

1. Station 96.— 4tli March, 1890. 

OfF Madras coast, lat. 18° 30' N., long. 84° 46' E. Depth 
98 to 102 fathoms. Bottom hard sand. 

Temperature at surface 80° Fahr., at bottom about 64° 

This was a clean sandy bank in clear water standing out 
from the mud, which in that vicinity is almost universal. 
There was a strong surface-current running northerly. The 
old ' Challenger '-pattern trawl was used, and over a thousand 
fishes, of twelve species, and a very large number females 
with mature ovaries, were brought up, besides great numbers 
of crabs (chiefly Leucosina and Maiida?), Pen£fiids, and 
Mollusks. It seems probable that this bank was a spawning- 

2. Station 97.— 14th March, 1890. 

OfF Madras coast, lat. 18° 26' N., long. 85° 24' E. Depth 
1310 fathoms. Bottom olive mud. 

Temperature at surface 80° Fahr., at bottom 36°'2 Fahr. 
Blue water, with a strong surface-current running northerly. 

Twelve fishes, all quite dead, of six species of deep-sea 
genera were obtained, besides very numerous and varied 
Crustaceans and Annelids, Echinoderms, and Mollusks. 

3. Station 101.— 29th March, 1890. 

OfF Madras coast, lat. 16° 11' 15" N., long. 82° SO' 30^' E. 
Depth 922 fathoms. Bottom brown mud. 

Temperature at surface 87° Fahr., at bottom 39^ Fahr. 
Blue water and strong northerly current. 

The take included two fishes of different species, Penands, 
Schizopods, and Actinids — all quite dead on arrival at the 

4. Station 102.— 1st April, 1890. 

OfF ]\Iadras coast, lat. 15° 38' N., long. 82° 30' E. Depth 
920 to 690 fathoms. Bottom brown mud. 

Temperature at surface 85° Fahr., at bottom 39°*75 Fahr. 
Blue water and strong northerly current. 

Besult : two fishes of different species, deep-sea Medusie, 
Corals, Echinoderms, and Crustaceans, all dead on arrival at 
the surface. 

of the Bay of Bengal. 199 

5. Station 103.— 2nd April, 1890. 

Off ]\ra(lras coast, lat. 15° 14' N., long. 81° 9' E. Depth 
12G0 fathoms. Bottom blue miuL 

Temperature at surface 86° Fahr., at bottom 36° Fahr. 

In the trawl-bag were two fishes of different species, both 
quite dead. 

§2. Revieio of the Collection, loith List of the Fishes 
and Descriptions of the new Species. 

The number of specimens obtained in the above five hauls 
was considerably over a thousand, most of wdiich, however, 
were from the sandy bank at Station 96. They fall into 
twenty-four species, of wliicli nine (belonging to eight 
genera and six families) are already known, though rare; 
while fifteen (belonging to thirteen genera and nine families) 
do not appear to have been yet described. Of the thii'teen 
genera into which the undescribed species full, five have been 
founded upon sujiposed generic types in this collection. To 
glance at the subject of distinction : while the fishes from the 
less depths (98 to 102 fathoms) mostly belong to well-known 
East-Indian genera, yet as exceptions we must note with some 
interest Centropristis investigatorisj sp. n., and Trigla hemi- 
sticta, Schlegel ; those from all depths show, as would be 
expected, identities or marked alliances with the bathybial 
and hemibathybial forms of the seas of Aru, Banda, Celebes, 
&c. ; lastly, the discovery in the Bay of Bengal of a deep-sea 
Pediculate showing the closest affinities with Oneirodes from 
the Greenland Sea is another remarkable illustration of the 
wide range of distribution of the true deep-sea fishes. 


Family Percidae. 
Centropeistis, C. & V. 

1. Centropristis investigator is j sp. n. 

Closely allied to C. pleuros^ilus, Gthr., from the Arafui'a 

B. 7. D. 10/10. A. 3/6. L. lat. 42. L. tr. i. 

The dorsal and ventral profiles are quite symmetrical. 
Height of the body between 3i and 3|, length of the head 


200 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

about 2,1-, in tlie total, without caudal. Head inclined to 
depression in its anterior half, deep, broad, and inflated in 
its branchial region, Avilh the operculum prolonged ; scaly, 
except on the snout and upper jaw. Snout depressed, rounded ; 
its tip formed bj a prominent median knob on the projecting 
lower jaw ; its extreme length (including the mandibular 
element) is equal to the major diameter of the eye and is less 
than its breadth. Eyes in their long diameter 4§ in the head- 
length ; the upper border of the orbit enters the dorsal profile ; 
the breadth of the interorbital space is one third the length of 
the eye. Nostrils superior. Mouth wide, oblique ; jaws 
strong, the maxilla reaches the vertical through the posterior 
border of the orbit, the mandible closes outside the maxilla ; 
teeth in villiform bands in the premaxilla and palatines and 
in a small patch on the vomer ; small canines in the man- 
dible and at the maxillary symphysis ; tongue long and 

Gill-opening very wide ; operculum with two flat spines ; 
prcopercular border rounded and serrated throughout ; sub- 
and interoperculum large; pseudobranchiaj coarse ; gill-rakers 
tuberculate. Scales, except on the lateral line and in the row 
flanking the dorsal fin, large, finely ctenoid, except on the 
operculum ; eight series on the cheek. Lateral line salient, 
with very small scales. One dorsal, with its spinous and soft 
portions of equal extent, the fourth and fifth spines the 
greatest and one fourth longer than the eye ; the rays slightly 
increasing in length to the ninth, which is less than two thirds 
of the maximum body-height and shorter than the corre- 
sponding anal ray. Caudal emarginate, with the upper lobe the 
longer, its basal half scaly ; its length is about equal to that 
of the pectoral, which is rather longer than the postorbital 
portion of the head. Ventrals subjugular, the second ray 
almost as long as the pectoral fin. Pyloric caca few. Air- 
bladder small. 

Colours in life : — Head and body bright pink, belly and 
throat white ; a broad bright yellow band passes from the tip 
of the snout through the eye to the caudal fin ; indefinite 
bright yellow markings on the cheeks, opercles, and fins. 
In spirit, faded yellow, with four incomplete cross bands of 

Total length 5^ inches. 

JJah. Vide Station 96. Two specimens. 

of the Bay of Bengal. 201 

Brephostoma, Alcock. 

2. Brephostoma Carpenteri. (PI. IX. fig. 4.) 

Brephostoma Carpenteri, Alcock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Nov. IB 9, 
p. 383. 

More careful examination of this fish, now that it has been 
delineated, leads me to the conclusion that instead of being 
related to the Trachinidaj it has close aftinities with Poma- 
tomtis, Risso ; and I take this opportunity of placing it in 
what I believe to be its proper natural position in the group 

If this position be conceded, the following diagnosis of the 
genus should be sufficient : — 

Head-bones and opercles unarmed; preoperculum with a 
double edge. Mouth edentulous. Eyes large. Two separate 
dorsal fins, the first with five spines. Anal fin with one 
spine and similar to second dorsal. Scales large, adherent, 
ctenoid. Seven branchiostegals. Pyloric cteca in moderate 
number. No air-bladder. 

Parascombiiops, Alcock. 
3. Parascomhrops pelluciduSj Alcock. 

rarascomlrops ])ellucidus, Alcock, Joiu'q. As. Soc. Beng. vol. Iviii. pt. ii. 
pp. 296, 297, pl. xxii. tig. 1. 

About one hundred specimens were taken at Station 96 
(98-102 fathoms), none of them being more than 4 inches 
long; many were mature females. The fades o£ this tish (of 
which one specimen had previously been found in G8 and one 
in 65 fathoms) decidedly inclines to the bathybial. 

Family Berycidae. 
Melamphaes, Giinther. 

4. Melamphaes mizolepis^ Gthr. 

Melamphaes mizolepis, Giinther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1878, vol. ii. 
p. 185 ; and Zool. Cliall. Exp. vol. xxii. p. 28. 

A mutilated specimen, which corresponds in almost every 

verifiable particular with the diagnosis of this species, was 

dredg-ed at Station 97, in 1310 fathoms. The radial formula 

. . 1 

of onr specimen is D. rr, A. ^, V. -jj_y7. 

A single scale was found still adherent to the thorax j it 

202 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bnthyhial Fishes 

was poft and air 
inch in its niajo 
eiglitli anal ray 

was soft and almost coriaceous, and measured a quarter of an 
inch in its major diameter. The pectoral fins reach to the 

Family CarangidaB. 
Bathyseriola, gen. nov. 

Body oblong and compressed, covered with small deciduous 
cycloid scales. Lateral line apparently unarmed. First 
dorsal fin continuous, with rather feeble spines ; the second 
and the anal much more developed and without finlets. Anal 
spines approximated to and continuous with the rest of the 
fin. Ventral with a continuous membranous attachment to 
the abdomen. Cleft of mouth narrow ; villiform teeth in tlie 
jaws only. Preopercular border entire. Seven branchio- 
stegals. Pseudobranchiffi. Pyloric appendages numerous. 
No air-bladder. Vertebrse 10/14. 

5. Bathyseriola cyanea^ sp. n. 
All the tissues fragile. 

B. 7. D. 8-9/24-25. A. 3/22. P. 22. V. 1/5. 

Body oblong and compressed ; its height about 3^ in the 
total and one ninth less than the length of the head. 

Head compressed and thin in its lower, broad and heavy in 
its u]')])er half ; its muciferous cavities well developed. Snout 
rounded, a little inflated at the tip, the jaws equal in front ; 
its length, which is hardly equal to its greatest breadth, is 
equal to the diameter of the eye. Eyes circular, their dia- 
meter not quite one fourth of the length of the head ; they are 
encircled by a sharp-edged adipose fold, widest fore and aft ; 
intcrorbital space wider than the eye, convex from side to side. 
Nostrils large, situated almost superiorly at the tip of the 
snout. Cleft of mouth narrow, the maxillary hardly reaching 
the vertical through the middle of the eye ; jaw-bones weak, 
with a trenchant edge, which bears a narrow band of villiform 
teeth ; tongue large and fleshy ; buccal folds very broad. 
Gill-cleft wide ; gill-nienibranes united anteriorly ; gill-covers 
with thin, almost membranous, bones, the operculum with 
two diverging weak stays above, the preoperculura bulging 
backwards as a large, striated, entire lobe ; gill-laraince 
broad, gill-rakers on the first arch long, close-set, acute ; 
]iscudobranchia^ fleshy. The mucosa of the whole oro-branchial 
cavity black. 

of Oie Bay of Bengal. 203 

Scales extremely deciduous ; the few that still adhere arc 
small and membranous, ami those of the lateral line, which 
are ^ inch in their major diameter, have each a salient 
membranous tube. 

The dorsal and anal tins have thick gelatinous bases ; the 
dorsal spines are short and rather weak, and their intercon- 
necting membrane is delicate ; the anal spines are in close 
contact with each other and with the rest of the fin. Caudal 
symmetrically forked. Pectorals pointed, their length rather 
more than four fifths the height of the body. Ventrals much 
shorter than the pectorals ; they arc adherent to the abdo- 
men throughout their inner border, and can be retracted 
within a shallow furrow in the middle abdominal line. 

Peritoneal cavity large, the membrane black ; numerous 
pyloric cffica in an arborescent mass ; no air-bladder. Ver- 
tebra 10/14. 

Colours in life, uniform bluish black, with an uneven silvery 

Total length 6j inches. 

Ilah. Vide Station 96. Four specimens, all mature ovigc- 
rous females. 

This fish appears to have many Nomeid aflinities. 

Family TrachinidaB. 
PONERODON, gen. nov. 

Body elongate, naked. Eyes lateral. Two separate dorsal 
fins, of which the second is much the longer, and equal, oppo- 
site, and similar to the anal ; ventrals thoracic ; pectoral rays 
branched. Cleft of mouth extremely wide ; jaws distensible 
and armed with canine teeth, as are also the palatines. Gill- 
openings very wide, the gill-membranes united anteriorly ; 
preoperculum with a (small) spine at its angle ; seven bran- 
chiostegals ; pseudobranchias. Lateral line single, uninter- 
rupted. Abdominal cavity enormous. No air-bladder. No 
pyloric ca^ca. No anal papilla. Vertebrge 14/24. 

6. Ponerodon vastator, sp. n. (PI. IX. fig. 5.) 

Tissues fragile ; gape and abdomen enormously distensible. 

B. 7. D. 10/29. A. 29. P. 12. V. 1/5. 

Body somewhat elongate and compressed, its height being 
4^ in the total without the caudal. 

Head low, long, and compressed, its Icngtli being 3;^ in tlic 

204 Mr. A. Alcock on fJie Bathyhial Fishes 

same standard; its surface is studded witli pores, those on tlie 
crown being elliptical and arranged in numerous longitudinal 
rows. Snout depressed, tapering, and rounded, its length 
being twice the diameter of the eye and one fourth the length 
of the head ; the lower jaw projects slightly. Eyes lateral, 
small, circular, deep-set; interorbital space twice the diameter 
of the eye and nearly flat from side to side ; it is traversed 
by two anteriorly-converging ridges which enclose a V-sliaped 
groove, in the centre and also at the apex of Avhich is a lumi- 
nous (?) gland. Nostrils large, superior, situated near the tip 
of the snout. Cleft of mouth oblique, extremely wide, its 
angle nearly reaching the preopercular angle ; the maxilla, 
which is much more slender than the premaxilla, is almost 
three fourths the length of the head ; the symphyseal con- 
nexions are loose ; the labial folds are thin and almost obso- 
lete. Depressible hinged fangs in two rows, those of the inner 
row being much the laiger, in both jaws, and a row of distant, 
fixed, recurved teeth in each palatine ; the most anterior and 
external premaxillary tooth is very stout, curved, and fixed. 
Tongue free, thin, foliate. Gill-openings wide ; gill-covers 
thin and flexible, the preoperculum with a very oblique edge, 
a small, stout, obliquely decurrent spine at its angle, and a 
thick muscular covering" : ffill-membranes attached to the 
isthmus in its anterior half; four gills, the last gill-cleft a 
small foramen, branchial arches extremely weak and flexible; 
no gill-rakers ; pseudobranchife well developed. 

Shin entirely scaleless, thin, covered with a uniformly thick 
adherent layer of mucus; a single lateral line, which follows 
the dorsal profile from occiput to base of caudal. 

Two dorsal fins, separated by an interval equal to two 
thirds the length of the snout: the first, which begins slightly 
in advance of the vertical through the base of the pectoral, 
consists of ten slender but well-ossified spines, of which the 
longest (third) is barely as long as the rostro-orbital portion 
of the head ; the second contains twenty-nine slender articu- 
lated rays, branched at the tip and decreasing regularly in 
length from before backwards, the longest (second) being 
about half the length of the head. Anal equal, opposite and 
similar to the second dorsal. Caudal symmetrically forked. 
Pectorals slender, as long as the postorbital portion of the 
head, all the rays branched. Ventrals thoracic, equal in length 
to the rostro-orbital portion oi the head. 

The abdomen is a great elastic sac, which extends behind 
the normally situated vent into the tail; it contains a vast 
collapsed stomach, which extends from its anterior to its 

of the Bay of Bengal. 205 

extreme posterior limit, but no air-bladder and no pyloric 

There arc fourteen abdominal and twenty-four caudal 

Colours in life : — Blotchy violet-black to black ; gill-nicni- 
branes and opercles black ; oral cavity, but not the peri- 
toneum, darkly pigmented. 

The enormous gape, the loosely articulated jaw-bones, and 
the structure of the abdomen and stomach would ])crmit the 
deglutition of a relatively immense object. 

When brought on board the fish was a good deal ruptured, 
its belly was distended and pendent, and several ounces of 
grumous chyme escaped from a tear in the tail. 

JIah. Vide Station 102. 

Total length G^ inches. One specimen. 

Uranoscopus, C. & V. 

7. Uranoscopus crassiceps, sp. n. 

Diagnosed at once by the extraordinary size of the head. 

T3. 6. D. 4/i-^. A. 13. C. 15. P. 18. V. 1/5. 

Length of the head 2j in the total including the caudal, 
its maximum breadth in repose (that is, when the opercles 
are not extended and expanded for defence) is § the length, 
its maximum height (and that of the body) is about f the 
length ; bones of the head massive and rugose ; the jn'corbital 
much sculptured, with a coarse procurreut spine at its antero- 
inferior angle; the anterior border of the preoperculum raised 
and inflated, especially in its middle, with numerous strong 
ridges radiating from it across the bone upwards, backwards, 
and downwards, the last ending in four or five procurved 
s))ines, and a similar spine on the suboperculum ; clavicular 
sj^ine small, grooved, its length equals the diameter of the 
orbit ; points of pubic bones projecting forwards as acute 
spines on each side of the clavicular symphysis. Diameter of 
the eye not quite one seventh the length of the head ; supra- 
orbital margin broad, massive, longitudinally grooved. Lips 
fringed with papillae ; no prelingual filament ; curved, acute 
(caniniform) teeth, in two rows in the upper, one in the lower 
jaw and palatines, a second incomplete row at the mandibular 
symphysis, a patch of small teeth on the vomer. No scales 
on the throat or anterior part of belly. 

Stomach an enormous sac, which in the specimen dissected 

206 My. a. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

(a mature female with .i^ravid ovaries) contained seven 
entire individuals of Scopelus pterotm besides much d(5bris ; 
intestine longer than the entire body, coiled, with nine pyloric 
appendages ; no air-bladder. 

Colours in life : — Dorsum dirty greenish yellow, marbled 
with lighter shades, venter silvery white, first dorsal black. 

Total length of mature specimens 5| inches. About 
twenty-five specimens. 

Hah. Vide Station 96. 

Family Pediculati. 

Halieut^a, C. & V. 

8. Halieutcea stellata (Wahl). 
{Vide Gunther, Catalogue, iii. pp. 203, 204.) 

One small specimen from Station 96 (98-102 fathoms). 

The skin is smoother and the dermal spines less robust 
than in shallow-water specimens, while the mouth is slightly 
smaller and the eye rather larger ; the last character may 
either be due to immaturity or may be a reaction to depth. 

A second small Pediculate from 1260 fathoms remains 
outside the area of incidence of any hithei'to defined genus. 
It is closest to Oneirodes, Liitkcn, and Melanocetus, Giinther. 
It is with some diffidence that I propose to establish a new 
genus for the reception of a single small specimen ; but tliere 
seems to be no other course. 

Paeoneirodes, gen. nov. ? 

Differs from Oneirodes, Liitken, in possessing a second 
ce])lialic instead of a true dorsal spine. 

9. Paroneirodes gJomerosuSj sp. n. (PI. IX. fig. 6.) 

D. 1/1/6. A. 4. C. 8. 

"When captured the form of the body was ovoid, though 
unstable ; hardened in spirit it becomes compressed and oval. 
The length of the head is five eighths, its greatest height 
nine sixteenths ot the total, witliout the caudal. The eye is 
rudimentary, being deeply buried beneath a circular patch of 
tiiin.^junent (unpigmentcd) skin; above the eye is a promi- 
lu nt, coarse, procumbent spine. Mouth moderately large, its 

of the Bay of Bengal 207 

cleft obliquely ascending ; the length of the maxilla is one 
third tliat of the head ; a narrow band (?) of ^^niall teeth in 
each ja\v and on the vomer; tongue large; only the floor of 
the mouth pigmented. 

Gills 2^ ; gill-opening a small circular aperture just beneath 
the root of the pectoral fin. 

Skin thin and perfectly smooth and scaleless ; it is pro- 
tected by a thick coat of mucus. 

Two clavatc cc])ha!ic tentacles, the first being rather more 
than twice the length of the second, situated close together 
immediately behind the interorbital space, with luminous 
organs imbedded in their enlarged tips. Second dorsal and 
anal placed far back on the tail, almost in contact with the 
caudal, which is pointed and in length a little more than one 
fourth of the total ; all tlie rays of the vertical fins simple ; 
pectorals very short, pointed ; ventrals absent. 

Colours : — Body and fins jet-black ; in spirit the tip of the 
cephalic tentacles become white. Pharyngo-branchial and 
peritoneal membranes unpigmented. 

One specimen, 1^ inch long. 

Hah. Vide Station 103. 

Family Cottidse. 
Trigla, Artedi. 

10. Trigla liemisticta^ Schlegel. 

Trujla hemisticta, Temm. & Sclileg. Faun. Japon., Poiss. p. 3G, tab. xiv. 
fi'gs. 3, 4, tab. xiv. b ; Gunther, Cat. ii. pp. 201, 202. 

About forty specimens from Station 96 (98-102 fathoms), 
many of them being females with mature ovaries. It is 
remarkable that the largest specimen barely reaches a length 
of 7 inches. 

The original description of the vomerine teeth is '' il n'en 
existe qu'un petit tas," and in these Indian specimens the 
vomerine teeth are inconspicuous, obsolescent, or even in some 
cases absent. The intestine is long and convoluted, and there 
are five large pyloric cceca. The stomachs of the dissected 
specimens contained Scopeli. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Head pink, dorsal half o£ body 
pink, with large scattered black spots, ventral half silvery 
white ; pectoral interradial membrane dark olive-green, pec- 
toral appendages and ventrals pink ; first dorsal fin with a 
large black patch from second to sixth spines ; second dorsal 
with a longitudinal row of black spots. 

208 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

Family Gobiidge. 
GOBIUS, Artedi. 
11. Gobius conietes, sp. n. (PI. YIII. fig. 2.) 
Tissues fragile ; all the fius elongate. 

B. 5. D. 6/10 (11). A. 10 (11). L. lat. 23-24. 
L. tr. 5-6. C. 18-20. P. 23. V. 1/5. 

Head with thin bones and inflated branchial region ; its 
length about one fourth of the total, caudal included, three 
eighths greater than its height and almost twice its breadtii. 
Maximum body-height about one sixth of the total length, 
caudal included. 

Snout truncated, its breadth much greater than its length, 
which is two thirds the major diameter of the eye. Eyes 
large, their major diameter being contained 3§ times in the 
head-length ; they are situated far forwards, on the top of the 
head, but with lateral visual axis, and are separated by a 
narrow shallow groove. Mouth with very oblique cleft ; the 
maxilla reaches the vertical through the middle of the eye, 
and the mandible is hardly prominent ; in each jaw an inner 
band of villiform teeth, and an outer regular row of uniformly 
enlarged, acute, slightly curved teeth ; tongue large and 
fleshy. Gill-covers large, the suboperculum much larger 
than the operculum ; gill-laniinaj broad ; gill-rakers small 
and weak. Scales large (0*23 inch in tlie vertical, 0*18 inch 
in the antero-posterior diameter) , very finely ctenoid ; they 
cover the crown of the head as far as the eyes, leaving only 
the cheeks and opercles scaleless ; there are five or six rows 
of scales between the second dorsal and the anal fins. 

All the fins are elongated ; the second and third dorsal spines 
are about half as long as the head ; the rays of the feathery 
second dorsal and anal increase in length from before back- 
wards as far as the antepenultimate ray, which is a good deal 
longer than the head. The caudal is long and pointed, its 
longest rays, which are on the dorsal aspect, are one third 
the total length. The ventrals are united, but are not adherent 
to the abdomen ; their length is a little greater than the 
height of the body. Pectorals with a long fleshy base, their 
longest (middle) rays arc nearly equal to the length of the 

Intestine short ; anal papilla long and slender. A large 
thin-walled air-bladder is present. Vertebri\j 11/13. 

Colours in life: — Transparent grey, with seven broad bright- 
yellow cross bauds not quite reaching the abdominal raplie, 

of the Bay of Bengal. 209 

and the ;;ills showing through the opcrcle as a bright pink 
l)l<)tch ; the secoiul dorsal and caudal lins beautifully [)eii- 
cillcd in alternate, narrow, obliquely transverse stripes of 
black and white ; anal with a broad dark border ; ventrals 
blue-black. In spirit, the yellow cross bands almost entirely 

Total length 4 to 5 inches. 

Hub. Vide Station 96. About 350 specimens of all sizes. 

Callionymus, L. 
12. CaUionymus carehares^ sp. n. (PI. VIII. fig. 8.) 

Allied to C. A-aianus, Gthr., from the Arafura Sea. 
ilead large ; tissues delicate. 

B. 7. D. 4/9. A. 9. C. 12. P. 21. V. 1,5. 

The upcurved branehiostegal rays are prolonged con- 
siderably beyond the subopereulura, so that the extreme length 
of the head is three sevenths of the total without, and about 
one third with, the caudah The height of the low cylin- 
drical body is one eighth of the first standard and much less 
than the height of the head. Eyes large, their major dia- 
meter being rather over one fourth of the extreme head- 
length and one fourtii longer than the snout ; they are sepa- 
rated by a narrow shallow groove. 

Floor of the mouth darkly pigmented. 

Preopercular spine upcurved, very fine and acute ; its length 
is two thirds the long diameter of the eye ; its base is ad- 
vanced to form a forward-projecting sharp spine of consider- 
able length ; and on its upper border, close behind the angle 
of the preoperculum, are one or two rather procumbent 

The gill-opening is not much smaller than the orbit and 
rather more on the flank than on the top of the head ; the 
branchial arches are slender and flexible, the gill-rakers 
almost rudimentary. 

The skin is loose and very thin. Lateral line single. The 
first dorsal fin is lower than the second, its flexible spines 
decreasing in length from before backwards ; the height of 
the second dorsal and of the anal is not quite twice the 
greatest body-height ; the length of the caudal is rather more 
than one fourth of the total ; the pectorals are rather shorter 
than the ventrals, which are as long as the postorbital portion 
of the head and reach just beyond the origin of the anal when 
laid back. 

210 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

The intestine is convoluted ; the anal papilla is very 
slender, and in the male it is very much longer than it is i u 
the female. Vertebra3 8/13. 

Colours in life : — The upper half of the headjand body and 
all the fins range from sepia-grey to blotchy black, and the 
ventral surface of the body is transparent and colourless ; the 
tirst dorsal fin has in the male a central black patch, and in 
the female a central, black, white-edged ocellus. 

1'otal length 5 inches. 

Hob. Vide Station 96. About seventy specimens. 

A N A c A N T II I N I. 

Family Ophidiidse. 
Neobythites, Goode & Bean. 
13. Neobythites pterotus, sp. n. 

With long feathery pectoral fins which reach to the origin 
of the anal fin. 

B. 7-8. D. circa 120. A. circa 95. V. 2. P. 18. C. 10. 

Snout pointed ; head and body compressed ; tail long and 
tapering, ending in a long narrow caudal fin, which is free 
except at its extreme base. 

Head with its mucous cavities well developed ; its length 
is about y that of the entire trunk, or about ^ of the total 
without the caudal ; its maximum height behind the occi])ut is 
more than I of its length, or |^ of the maximum body-height ; 
its breadth is nearly half its length ; there is a strong acute 
spine in the upper half of the operculum, but no other arma- 
ture. Snout pointed, overhanging the mouth ; its length, 
less than its breadth, is 3f in the length of the head, or twice 
the major diameter of the eye, which is deeply set beneath 
the skin without any orbital fold ; interoeular space convex, 
2^ times the diameter of the eye ; nostrils very large, one near 
the tip of the snout, the other at the angle of the eye. Cleft 
of mouth wide, oblique; maxilla more than half as long as 
the head, expanded and scaly at its posterior end ; in repose 
the lower jaw is completely included within the upper; villi- 
form teeth in narrow bands in jaws, in a V-shaped patch on 
the vomer, in broad elliptical bands on the palatines ; entire 
oro-branchial cavity intense black. 

Gill-cleft very wide, the membranes being united only quite 
anteriorly ; branchiostcgals (in the one specimen obtained) 
seven on the right side, eight on the left ; gill-laminie very 

of the Day of Bengal. 211 

narrow ; nine very long scabrous gill-rakcrs on the middle of 
tiie first branchial arch besides rudimentary ones al)ovc and 
below ; each pseudobranchia consists of two small pinnules. 

Head, body, base of pectoral fin, and basal two thirds of 
dorsal covered with small adherent scales ; between the base 
of the dorsal and the vent there are thirty rows. 

Dorsal fin much higher than the anal ; its rays, the longest 
of which are half the maximum body-height, are imbedded 
in a thick gelatinous tissue covered with scaly skin, in their 
basal two thirds. Caudal narrow, its length is a little more 
than that of the postrostral ])ortion of the head ; it projects 
freely beyond the other vertical fins, with which it is con- 
nected only at its base. Pectorals entire, their bases fleshy 
and free, their rays long and delicate, reaching the origin of 
the anal fin. The ventrals arise behind and above the pectoral 
symphysis, their bases separated by an interspace about equal 
to ^ the diameter of the eye ; each consists of two short fila- 
ments, of which the outer is a little the longer. 

Stomach siphonal ; intestine much coiled ; no pyloric 
ca2ca ; air-bladder developed ; peritoneum deeply pigmented 

Colours in the fresh state: — Body chocolate; head, abdo- 
men, and all the fins black. 

Total length 85 inches. 

Hab. Vide Station 97. Only one specimen. 

Batiiyonus, Gthr. 

14. Bathyonus gluttnosus, sp. n. 
Allied to Siremho oncer ocephahis, Vaillant. 
B.8. D. circ. 125. A. circ. 105. V. 1. P. 29-30. CIO. 

Head and body in spirit much compressed, but in the fresh 
state, owing to the presence of a uniform thick subcutaneous 
layer of mucus, rounded and subcylindrical ; tail long and 

Length of the head greater than tliat of the rest of the 
trunk, or about 5^ in the total without the caudal, the length 
of the entire trunk being about one third of the same standard 
and 2| times the maximum body-height or head-depth ; an- 
terior third of the head somewhat abruptly depressed, its 
vertical profile forming an arc of a much smaller ellipse than 
that of the posterior part of the head. Snout depressed, 
rounded, somewhat inflated at the tip ; its length, which is 
less than its breadth, is one fifth the length of the head. 

212 ]\rr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

Eyes situated in the uppermost part of tlie anterior third of 
the head, deep-set, without orbital folds, their major diameter 
being one tenth to one eleventh of the head-length and one 
third the width of the convex interocular space. Nostrils 
large, one at the antero-superior limit of the orbit, the other 
midway between the first and the tip of the snout. ^Moutli 
wide, oblique ; the maxilla, which is half as long as the 
head, completely encloses the mandible in repose ; villiform 
teeth in narrowish bands in the jaws, palatines, and vomer, 
the last arranged in a V with incurved limbs ; oro-branchial 
cavity jet-black throughout. 

Gill-covers large ; the preoperculum overlaps large portions 
of all the other opercular bones, extending almost to the 
hinder edge of the operculum ; the operculum with a feeble 
flat spur at the postero-superior angle, and another below 
concealed by the overlying preoperculum ; gill-openings very 
wide, the membranes separate throughout ; gill-laminaj 
narrow ; seventeen long scabrous gill-rakers on the first 
branchial arch, besides some rudimentary ones above; no 

Small, thin, deciduous scales cover the entire head and 
body behind the snout ; there are twenty-five rows between 
the dorsal fin and the vent. Lateral line indistinguishable. 

All the fin-rays delicate. The dorsal and anal fins are 
thick and fleshy; the highest rays of the dorsal — near the 
middle of the fin — are higher than the corresponding anal 
rays, and measure nearly half the maximum body-height ; 
the dorsal begins well in advance of the gill-opening. Caudal 
very narrow, its length nearly one twelfth of the total ; it is 
confluent Avith the other vertical fins only at its base. Pec- 
torals entire, pointed, half as long as the head. Vcntrals 
arising at the pectoral sym})hysis, close together ; their single 
ray is as long as the postorbital ])ortion of the head. 

Stomach siphonal ; intestine wide, much coiled ; no pyloric 
ca3ca ; liver large ; an air-bladder. 

The stomach of the dissected specimen contained a Pena^d. 

Colours in the fresh state : transparent grey ; head, belly, 
and ])ectorals black. 

Length 7 to 8 inches. 

Hah. Vide Station 97. P^ive specimens. 

Tauredophidium, gen. nov. 

Allied to Acanthonus, Gthr. 

Head large and thick, armed on the opercles with strong 
spines ; body compressed. Snout broad, not overhanging 

of the Bay of Bengal 2 1 3 

the large mouth. Eyes none. No barbel. Villiforin teeth 
ill tlie juws, vomer, and palate. Gill-membranes rather 
broadly united; four gills; eight branchiostegals ; no pseudo- 
branchia\ Small deciduous scales on body and head; lateral 
line indistinguishable. Vertical fins confluent; pectorals 
entire ; ventrals widely separated, each consisting of two 

15. Tauredophidium Hextiij sp. n. (PI. VIII. fig. 1.) 

The soft tissues comparatively firm, and the bones, except 
those of the opercles, strong and compact ; no eyes ; immense 
spines on the opercles. 

B. 8. D. 64. A. 5^. V. 2. P. 18. C. 10. 

The trunk much deeper and broader than the tail, its 
length being 2\ in the total without the caudal and its hciglit 
about 4.^ in the same ; the tail low, compressed and acumi- 

Head broad, pyramidal, its dorsal outline rising straiglit 
from the tip of the snout to the occiput at an angle of nearly 
45° ; its length is about one fourth of the total without tlie 
caudal, its height about |, its breadth about |, of its length; 
the cranial bones are compact and resistant, forming a sort of 
buckler in the broad frontal region ; the preoperculum and 
operculum have each an independent lateral ginglymoid 
motion, allowing the erection of the enormous grooved spines 
with which these bones are armed; the operculum, which is 
a short narrow bone, carries at its postcro-superior angle a 
single straight retrorse spine, measuring half the length of the 
head ; the preoperculum bears three spines, which radiate 
from its angle, the middle one being the longest and nearly 
three fourths the length of the opercular spine ; the occipital 
crest projects subcutaneously as a coarsely pointed eminence, 
and behind it the stout, elongate, first (?) neural spine pro- 
jects similarly but even more conspicuously. The snout is 
broad and rounded, and does not overhang the mouth. The 
eyes are completely atrophied ; the small orbital cavities are 
hidden beneath thick scaly skin, and are filled with connective 
tissue, deeply imbedded in which is a small pigmented ocular 
bulb about the size of an ordinary pin-head. Nostrils large, 
liluciferous cavities of snout and mandible well developed and 
opening to the exterior by pores. Mouth large, its cleft 
nearly horizontal ; maxilla more than half the length of the 
head, much expanded behind, protractile, completely including 
the lower jaw in repose; labial fold absent on the upper, 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 16 

214 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

rudimentary on the lower jaw. Teeth in narrowish villiform 
bands in jaws, vomer, and pahitincs. Tongue large. Oro- 
branchial cavity intense black tiiroughout. Gill-opening 
moderately wide, the membranes rather broadly united below 
the isthmus anteriorly; gill-laminse very narrow; ten long 
pointed scabrous gill-rakers on the first branchial arch, 
besides some rudimentary ones above and below. 

Head and body covered with small deciduous scales; 
apparently 22 rows between the dorsal tin and the vent. 
Lateral line indistinguishable. 

Vertical fins united ; the dorsal begins just behind the 
vertical through the base of the pectoral, its longest rays — 
about the middle of the fin — are rather over one third the 
maximum body-height and exceed the corresponding anal 
rays in length. Caudal long and pointed. Pectorals entire, 
pointed, as long as the head witliout the operculum. Ven- 
trals jugular, arising from bony bases which are distant by 
a wide interspace equal in width to one third the length of 
the head ; each consists of two filaments, of which the inner 
is much the longer, reaching beyond the origin of the anal 

A bunch of about six slender cajca situated above the 
pylorus. Air-bladder present. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Uniform chocolate ; fins 
blackish ; throat and belly black, owing to the pigmentation 
of the peritoneum. 

Total length 4yij inches. 

Ilah. Vide Station 97, Three specimens. 

When brought on board the skin of the head was injected 
and spotted with small capillary hgemorrhages. 

Family Macruridae. 

Mackurus, Bloch. 

Subgenus Mackurus, Bloch. 

16. Macrurus Jloskijniij sp. n. 

B. 6. D. 11. A. circ. 90. V. 0. P. 19-20. 

Length of the head about one fifth of the total, its hci^rht 
about two thirds, its breadth not quite half, its len'nh. 
Snout subtrihcdral, its length almost equal to the diameter 
of the large circular eye, Avhicli is about one fourth the leno-th 
of the head ; interorbital space slightly convex, its width 
one fourth greater than that of the eye. Kostrils close 
together in front of the angle of the eye, the posterior very 

of the Bay of Bengal 2 1 5 

large. ]\routh small, completely inferior, the infraorbital 
ridire being most distinct ; the maxilla readies a short way 
behind the vertical through the anterior border of the orbit. 
Teeth in broad bands in both jaws, villiforni in the lower, 
cardiform in the u})per. Barbel barely one fourth the length 
of the eye. 

Gill-opening narrow, the gill-mcnibrancs being broadly 
united ; synarthrosis of first branchial arch and gill-cover 
very broad; gill-laniinw narrow; oro-pharyngobrauchial 
cavity uniformly deeply pigmented. 

Body and head, except the jaws and the glosso-Iiyal region, 
covered with spinigerous, imbricating, rather deciduous scales. 
Those on the body are of uniform large size {4\ o^ ^w inch in 
either diameter), imbricate in the anterior two thirds and 
upper and lower fifth, and longitudinally fluted throughout 
their free portion, the ridges between the grooves bearing 
spinelets along the greater part of their Icngtli. On a scale 
from the flank there are usually thirteen such ridges, of wliich 
all but the outermost are spiny, the spinelets of the central 
ridge being superior in size to all the others, and they 
alone project beyond the edge of the scale. The lateral line 
runs five rows of scales below the origin of the first dorsal 

First dorsal spine rudimentary ; the second prolonged into 
a filament and almost as long as the head, its front edge 
armed with about thirty decumbent spinelets ; the second 
dorsal fin begins about a snout-length behind the first, its 
rays being very inconspicuous. Pectoral short, its length 
being less than half that of the head ; somewhat rounded. 
Ventrals with the first ray prolonged into a filament, the 
entire ray being nearly as long as the second dorsal ray. 

Stomach siphonal. Intestine long and much coiled ; nine 
pyloric appendages. A large air-bladder. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Chocolate j the jaws, gill- 
covers, belly, and fins black. 

Total length 14^ inches. 

Hah. Vide Station 97. One specimen. 

Macrurus Hoshynii — named after the accomplished Super- 
intendent of the Indian Marine Survey — appears to be allied to 
Macrurus asper and to be one of the known bathybial Macruri. 
It is the deepest-water species yet obtained in the Bay of 
Bengal, and it seems significant that it is the largest. The 
specimen described emitted a powerful and disagreeable musky 
odour when in the fresh state. 


216 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

Family Pleuronectidae. 

Scianectes, Alcock, Journ. As. Soc. Bengal, vol. Iviii. pt. ii. p. 2S4. 

This genus was established to include two Indian species 
{Sc. lophoptera and Sc. macrophthalmus)^ taken in 68 to 100 
fathoms by the ' Investigator,' and represented at the time by 
only tliree small specimens. The 'Investigator' has since 
collected several fine specimens of Sc. macrophthalmus^ from 
the examination of which several errors in the original diag- 
nosis have been detected. 

I beg now to amend that diagnosis and to place Scianectes 
in what now appears to me to be its proper position, near 
Lceops^ Gthr. 

Cleft of the month narrow, the maxillary being less than a 
third the length of tlie head, with the dentition much more 
developed on the blind side. Vomerine teeth present. The 
dorsal fin commences before the eye on the snout. Eyes on 
the left side, close together. The rays of the vertical fins 
simple, elongated, weak, and filamentous. Scales minute, 
very deciduous. Lateral line with a curve above the pectoral. 
Gill-membranes united at the throat. 

17. Scianectes macrophthalmus^ Alcock. 

Scianectes mac7-02)Mhahnus, Alcock, J. A. S. B. vol. Iviii. pt. ii. p. 292, 
pi. xvi. tig. 4 ; and Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. November 1889, p. 398. 

B. 6. D. 85-88. A. 68. L. lat. circ. 95. 

Body pyriform, very delicate, its height about 2i in the 
total without caudal. The length of the head is one third 
of the same standard and rather less than its height. Snout 
obtuse, about half as long as the eye. Eyes on the left side, 
close together, separated by a salient decliving ridge, the 
lower slightly in advance ; their major diameter about one 
fourth the length of the head. Cleft of the mouth nearly 
vertical ; length of the maxilla a little more than cue fourth 
that of the head ; the lower jaw projecting in repose. Villi- 
form teeth in a band on the blind side of each jaw and in a 
patch on the vomer. 

Gill-cleft very high ; the opercles thin and the branchio- 
stegal rays prolonged : gill-membranes broadly united j gill- 
rakers distant, small, lanceolate. 

(Scales miiuitc, thin, smooth, deciduous. Lateral line 
salient, curved above the pectoral, continued right along the 
caudal fin. 

of the Day of Bengal . 217 

The dorsal fiu commences on the blind side of the snout in 
front of the level of the eye, its longest rays (just behind the 
middle of the fin) are not quite half the length of the head 
and are slightly shorter than the corresponding anal rays. 
The pectoral tin is more developed on the coloured side, 
where, if laid forward, it reaches to the posterior border of 
the lower (anterior) orbit. Ventrals six-rayed, the left wider 
than the right. Caudal pointed, with 17 rays, its length 
nearly one fifth of the total. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Left side dark sepia ; vertical 
fins and left ventral black; left pectoral grey in its basal 
third, black in its distal two thirds ; branchiostegal fringe on 
the left side black, right side unpigmented. 

Originally obtained in 100 fathoms, 40 miles S.W. of 
Akj'-ab ; now from Station 96, where eleven specimens (the 
longest 4| inches) were taken. 

Cyxoglossus [Hamilton-Buchanan]. 

18. Cynoglossus Carpenteri, Alcock. 

Cynoglossus Carpenteri, Alcock, Journ. As. Soc. Eeiig. vol. Iviii. pt. ii. 
p. 287, pi. xviii. fijj. 1. 

Several hundred specimens were taken at Station 96 (98- 
102 fathoms), many of them being mature females. The 
general /a cz'es of this fish is certainly bathybial. 

P H Y S S T M I. 


19. Scopelus [Myctoplmm] pterotus^ sp. n. 

D. 11-12. A. 17. L. lat. circ. 30. P. 15. V. 8. 

Body compressed, with the posterior half much lower than 
the anterior; its greatest height just over one fourth of the 
total without the caudal, its least height, midway between the 
adipose dorsal and the base of the caudal, one third its greatest 
height at the shoulder. 

Head large, its length a little more than one third the total 
without the caudal, its height two thirds its length. Snout 
obtuse, symmetrically rounded, its depth more than tliree 
times its length, which is less than half the diameter of the 
eye. Eye circular, moderately large, its diameter being one 
third the length of the head ; the posterior border of the orbit 
is half an eye-diameter distant from the vertical border of the 
preoperculum ; no spine above the orbit j interorbital space 

218 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

less than a diameter of the eye in width anteriorly, more pos- 
teriorly. Mouth Lirge, moderately oblique ; the jaws perfectly 
equal in repose ; the maxilla reaches the preopercular angle 
and is dilated at its hinder end ; no vomerine teeth. Opercles 
large ; the operculum produced into a membranous spur 
behind ; the vertical border of the preoperculum very obliquely 

Scales extremely deciduous, smooth, cycloid, their average 
diameter one twelfth of an inch. 

The dorsal fin begins nearer to the tip of the snout than to 
the base of the caudal, but behind the bases of the ventrals, 
which are much advanced, its last ray falls in the vertical 
through the first or second anal ray ; adipose dorsal entire. 
Pectorals long, extending to the first or second anal ray. 

Luminous organs : — A lateral series extending close to the 
mid-ventral line from the isthmus to the base of the caudal, 
and numbering four to base of ventral, three more to origin 
of anal, ten more to hinder end of anal, and one more at base 
of caudal; above this rectilinear series are the following, 
rather more difi'used — one at the angle of the preoperculum, 
two along the edge of the gill-opening, one on the base of the 
pectoral, two on the base of the ventral, three in a straight 
line along the middle of the flank, and three along the middle 
of the tail ; no luminous organ on the back of the tail. 

Nine pyloric C£eca. A well-developed air-bladder. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Uniform silvery, with thickly 
scattered black specks ; opercles, iris, and first branchial arch 
burnished silver. 

Total length 1| inch. 

Hah. Vide Station 96. About sixty specimens, many of 
them being mature females. 

20. Scopelus pyrsoholus, sp. n. (PI. VIII. fig. 3.) 
D. 12. A. 13. P. 12. V. 8. 

Head large ; body compressed. 

Lcugth of the head, not including a membranous expansion 
of the suboperculum which reaches considerably beyond the 
root of the pectoral fin, 2^ in the total without the caudal. 
Greatest height of the body or of the head not quite one 
fourth of the same standard, its least height behind the adipose 
dorsal 2^ in the greatest. 

Snout almost obliterated by the encroachment of the largo 
eye; it is rounded, with the jaws exactly equal and opposed 
throughout ; its length is one fourth the diameter of the eye. 

of the Bay of Bengal 2 1 9 

Eye large, circular, bulging beyond tlie dorsal |)rolile of the 
liead ; its diameter is one third the ]iead-len.i;th as above 
limited ; its least distance from the vertical border of the pre- 
operculum is equal to half its diameter ; supraorbital margin 
smooth ; intcrorbital sjiace anteriorly ^, posteriorly f, the 
diameter of the eye. Mouth wide, oblique, the jaw-bones 
thin and weak, the maxillary slightly expanded behind and 
not reaching as far as the prcopercular angle ; villiform teeth 
developed on the vomer. Opercles large but extremely thin ; 
the operculum and suboperculum both with membranous ])ro- 
longations backwards ; the vertical border of the preoperculum 
obliquely recurrent. 

Owing to the almost complete denudation of the integu- 
ments the nature of the scales cannot be determined. 

The dorsal fin begins to arise nearer to the tip of the snout 
than to the base of the caudal by a distance about equal to 
half the lengtli of its own base, and its first ray is almost in 
the vertical through the origin of the ventrals ; the entire fin 
is nearly one third the length of its base in advance of the 
anal fin ; adipose dorsal well developed. The ])ectorals reach 
at least behind the sixth anal ray. The ventrals are broad. 

The luminous or^-ans have been too much damao-ed for 
description ; two series, traversing the ventral half of the 
body on each side, still remain ; two long luminous organs 
occupy respectively the raid-dorsal and mid-ventral line close 
to the base of the caudal. 

About five large pyloric CEeca ; a well-developed air-bladder. 

Colours in the fresli state: — Wliat was left of the integu- 
ment was jet-black, like the entire oro-pharyngeal cavity; 
iris and antero-inferior part of opercles burnished silver, the 
latter in the evening twilight emitting brilliant coruscations 
of greenish-blue light. 

Total lengtli without the caudal 3jv inches. 

Ilab. Vide Station 102. One mature female specimen. 

The shattered condition of this lish proved that it had been 
dragged up through a a great depth of water j and its fades 
is typically bathybial. 

21. A third species of Scopelus, taken from the stomach of 
a Trujla hemi'sti'cta, must be mentioned, as it cannot be in- 
cluded among any of the species to which I have had literary 

Its radio-squamal formula is: — D. 11. A. 14. P. 12? 
V. 8. L. lat. 32. 

Its eye is not quite one third the length of the head, the 
scales are smooth and of a uniform size, the pectorals are 

220 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

minute and the ventrals singularly large, and there is a con- 
spicuous luminous organ inimediatelj in front of the eye ; the 
dorsal tin is nearer to the snout than to the base of the caudal 
and entirely in front of the anal. But the single specimen 
has been too much damaged to become the type of a new species 
and the subject of a description. 

Family Stomiatidae. 
Thaumastomias, gen. nov. 

Allied to MalacosienSj Ayres. 

Body elongate, compressed, scaleless, with the vent not far 
distant from the caudal fin. Head compressed, with the 
cranium small, the snout short, and the cleft of the moulh 
exceedingly wide, A long elastic muscular band passing 
from the hyoid bone to the inner aspect of the mandibular 
sympliysis. Teeth acute, unequal, in single series in pre- 
maxillaj, maxillse, mandibles, and palatines ; none on the 
tongue. Eye moderate. Gill-covers rudimentary. One 
dorsal fin opposite to the anal, situated in the posterior fourth 
of the body, near the caudah No pectoral fins. Ventral 
fins situated in the anterior half of the body. Gill-openings 
very wide. No air-bladder. 

22. TJiaumastomias atrox, sp. n. (PI. YIII. fig. 7.) 

Head small, mouth extremely wide. Body elongate, low, 
compressed, not diminishing mucli to the origin of the vertical 
fins, but there rapidly and symmetrically narrowing to the 
caudal peduncle, which is not quite one fifth the body-height 
in depth. 

D. 23. A. 25. C. circ. 25. P. 0. V. 6. 

Length of the Jiead one fifth, height of the body one tenth, 
of the total Avithout the caudal. 

Snout truncated, broad, with a slightly concave vertical 
profile, its length one third the diameter of the eye. Eye 
large, circular, its diameter about one fourth the length of the 
head ; inlerorbital space wider than the eye, convex. On 
each side there is a small luminous organ, about the size and 
shape of a caraway-seed, below and partly in front of the 
eye, and another large salient slipper-shaped one, in length 
more than one third the length of the head, lying ]virallel 
with the ujipcr jaw beiiind ihe eye. Moutli enormous, its 
cleft as long as the head; its floor is completely wanting 

of the Bay of Bengal. 22 1 

except at tlie extreme antcrii^r limit, its place being taken by 
a long eluf^tic muscular band which extends from the tip of 
the hvi'id to the inner surface of the mandibular symphysis ; 
the n\outh-cleft and the gill-cleft being thus continuous 
beneath almost divide the head from the rest of the body; 
the lower jaw ])rojects beyond the upper. Teeth, everywhere 
except in the maxilla, in the form of slender acute rigid 
fangs; in each preniaxilla laterally eight or nine, with three 
remote stouter ones at the symphysis; in each half of the 
mandible laterally an uneven row of over twenty, ^vith five 
(one median flanked on each side by a pair) of su])erior 
size at the symphysis ; in each palatine a row of seven or 
eight, increasing in size from before backwards, and a patch 
on the upper pharyngeal bones ; maxillary teeth in the form 
of even, close-set, recurved serrations, of which there are over 
thirty in each bone. 

Gill-cleft extremely wide and oblique, its antero-supcrior 
limit being above the middle of the eye ; gill-cover reduced 
ajiparently to a narrow straight preoperculum, very obliquely 
articulated, furnished with a narrow membranous fringe ; 
four branchial arches, extremely weak and flexible, bearing 
very narrow lamina ; gill-rakers rudimentary. 

Body scalelcss. Skin thick, soft, velvety, and uniformly 
covered with adherent tenacious mucus ; apparently no lateral 
line. Besides the large luminous glands already described, 
there are two regular rows of minute luminous organs along 
the ventral half of the body on each side ; the upper, num- 
bering about fifty, extending from the gill-opening to the base 
of the caudal ; the lower, numbering about forty, skirting the 
ventral profile from the isthmus to the fifth anal ray; a few 
similar luminous organs on the crown of the head. 

The dorsal fin begins slightly in advance of the posterior 
fifth of the body, and is equal and opposite to the anal. The 
longest (central) anal rays are a little longer than the corre- 
sponding dorsal rays, and are equal to the depth of the tail 
at their point of origin. The caudal is deeply forked, with 
the lower lobe the broader and longer and about -g'^j of the 
total length. 

Pectorals absent. The ventrals arise in the anterior half 
of the body, their point of origin being 1^ times as far from 
the vent as from the margin of the gill-cleft ; the two outer 
rays are thickened, coherent throughout, and prolonged_, their 
leno'th being two fifths of the total len2,-th includino: the 
caudal ; the inner rays are short and weak. 

Stomach siphonal, its cul-de-sac extending halfway along 
the abdominal cavity ; intestine straight, opening at the 

222 Mr. F. A. Bather on British Fossil Crinoids : 

origin of the anal fin j apparently no pyloric ca^ca. No air- 

Colours in the fresh state, as in spirit, intense black. 

The small luminous organs were not distinguishable through 
the enveloping mucus until after immersion in spirit ; but 
the large postocular organs were very conspicuous, that on 
the right side being brigiit rose-pink, while that on the left 
side was covered, except round its lower edge, which showeJ 
as a silvery streak, with deeply pigmented cuticle. 

Total length 4| inches. 

llah. Vide Station 97. One specimen, which was quite 
dead wlicn brought to the surface. 

The other Physostomes obtained were (23) Gonostoma 
microdon, Gthr., at Station 101, and (24) Chauliodus Sloanii, 
Bl. Schn., at Stations 101 and 103. 

The largest Chauliodus — a female with gravid ovaries — 
measured nearly 9 inches. 

In concluding this paper I should like to express once 
again my deep obligations to my friend Professor J. Wood- 
Mason, of the Indian Museum. 


Fig. 1. Tmiredophidium Hextii, $. 
Fi(/. 2. Gobi'us cometes. 
Fiy. 3. Scope/us pi/rsoboliis, $ . 
Fif/. 4. Brephostonta Carpenteri. 
Fiff. 5. Ponerodon vasfatur, 
Fi(j. 6. Paroneirvdes glomerosiis. 
Fig. 7. Thmimastomias atrox. 
Fig. 8. Callionymu3 carebares, 5 . 

XXVII. — British Fossil Crinoids. — III. Thenarocriims calli- 
pygus, gen. et sp. nov.j Wenlock Limestone. By F. A. 
Batiiek, M.A., F.G.S. 

[Plate X.] 

In pursuance of the intention expressed at the end of Paper I., 
I now enter on the description of the Fistulata from the 
Wenlock Limestone ; and the first to be dealt with is an inter- 
esting genus, which has not yet been described, but which 
has been alkuled to in Paper 11. under the name of Thcnaro- 

III. Thenarocrinxts callipygus. 223 

The specimens on which the following description is based 
are as follows : — 

In the British ^luseura : 

480-49, a perfect specimen from root to crown, seen from 

anterior ; bought of Mr. B. M. Wright. (PI. X. 

fig. 4.) 
57478 a, crown and 1 inch of stem, seen from R. side, anal 

plates just shown on L. of specimen j bought of Mr. 

S. Allport. (Pi. X. fig. 3.) 
57478 &, crown and \ inch of stem, seen apparently from L. 

side ; arms broken at postpalmars leave ventral sac 

exposed; bought of Mr. S. Allport. (PI. X. 

fig. 5.) 

In Dudley Museum : 

One specimen ; arms preserved up to postpalmars ; cup 
crushed ; about 2 inches of stem, somewhat broken j 
orientation uncertain. (PI. X. fig. 7.) 

In Mason College Museum, Birmingham : 

138, crown and J inch of stem, seen from posterior; arms 
broken off after postpalmars, showing ^ inch of 
ventral sac ; rest of sac broken away ; cup frac- 
tured. (PI. X. fig. 8.) 

144, crown and h inch of stem, free from matrix, flattened in 
antero-posterior plane ; arms preserved up to post- 
palmars 4*; on R. side ventral sac shows through 
arms. (PI. X. fig. 1.) 

153, crown and | inch of stem, free from matrix except at 
distal ends of arms ; much rolled but not flattened, 
cup fractured. (PI. X. fig. 2.) 

These three specimens were in Mr. Charles Ketley's 

In the collection of William Madeley, Esq., of Dudley : 

One specimen, seen from anterior ; arms preserved up to 
postpalmars 3 ; Ig inch of stem, slightly crushed. 
(PL X. fig. 9.) 

In the collection of Charles Holcroft, Esq., of Kingswin- 
ford, near Dudley : 

293, a young specimen ; crown and | inch of stem, seen from 

* I iise the expression " postpalmars 2, 3, 4 &c.'' for postpalmars of 
the second, third, fourth, and subsequent series. ''Postpalmars" alone 
signifies the first series. 

224 Mr. F. A. Bather on British Fossil Cricoids : 

L. posterior side ; distal ends of arms worn away. 
(PI. X. %. 6.) 
431 J a much weathered crown, greatly crushed in the trans- 
versal (or lateral) plane ; free from matrix. 

For the ready loan of the specimens in their possession my 
Lest thanks are due to Mr. Ilolcrof't and ilr. ^ladeley. I 
have also to thank Mr. ]\Iadeley, in his capacity as Secretary 
of the Dudley and Midland Geological Society, for lending 
the specimen belonging to the Dudley Museum. For fur- 
nishing the specimens from the Mason College Museum, Prof. 
Charles Lapworth is to be tlianked. Finally, for permission 
to figure the specimens in the National Collection, I am in- 
debted to Dr. Henry Woodward, F.R.S. 

These specimens all appear to come from the Upper or 
'' Thin " bed of the Wenlock Limestone of Dudley, concern- 
ing which I am favoured by Mr. Madeley with the following 
note : — " This bed is far more prolific of Crinoids, both as to 
number and variety, than the Lower or * Thick ' bed, and 
all those well-preserved specimens where the fossil lies on a 
thin bed of fine shale on the top of the limestone come from 
this Upper or Thin bed of the Limestone." 

Generic Diagnosis. 

IB. 5; B. 5; R. 5; Arms simple, dichotomous ; W in 
Basal circlet, resting on r. post. IB. ; x rests on post. B. and 
E,', and only just reaches top of Radial circlet. 

This arrangement of the anal plates, combined with the 
great proportional width of all the other plates of the dorsal 
cup and with the flat broad backs of the proximal arm-ossicles, 
])roduces a very flat appearance, and the fossil, as it lies 
stretched on the rock, resembles the outspread jialin of a 
hand ; hence the proposed generic name, from Oevap^ the 

Since all tlic above-mentioned specimens appear to belong 
to one species, the foregoing characters are the only ones that 
can be delinitoly taken as generic, and the following detailed 
description applies to both genus and species. 

Detailed DESCRirxiON. 

Dorsal cup^ broad and composed of thin plates. Specimens 
48049 B. iM., 57478a & b B. M., 138 Mason College, 
144 31a^on College, Dudley, and Maileley give the following 
average measurements: — Breadth at base 7' 14 miiliui. j 

III. Thenarocrinus callipygus. 225 

hrcadtli at suniniit IG'57 mlUim. ; height of cup 8'71 millim. 
Specimen 293 llolcroft lias — breadth at base 4'5 millim. ; 
breadth at summit 10 millim. ; heiglit of cup 6'5 millim. : 
tlicsc ]n-oporlions are practically the same as those of the 
mature individuals. But since all these specimens are more 
or less flattened the proportions are not those of the cup in 
life ; nevertheless they will be found characteristic of most of 
the fossils, and it must be remembered that this flatteninsj is 
itself largely due to the structure of the cup. The proportion 
of the cup in life may be gathered from the uncrushed speci- 
men 153 Mason (College, of which the mean measurements 
are : — Breadth at base 9 millim. ; breadth at summit 15 
millim.; height of cup 11 millim. This cup is larger than 
the others, but, taking its proportions as correct and re- 
ducing them, we find that the mean measurements and 
true proportions of the dorsal cup are:— Breadth at base 7'14 
millim. J breadth at summit ll'O millim. ; height of cup 8'73 
millim. Consequently the angle which the side of the cup 
makes with the long axis is about 9?°. 

Infrabasals, 5 ; pentagonal, except r. post. IB., which is 
hexagonal owing to truncation of distal angle ; mean measure- 
ments — greatest width 5 millim., height 3 millim. Measure- 
ments in 293 llolcroft — width 3'25 millim., height 1*8 

Basals, 5 ; hexagonal ; mean measurements, 6 millim. wide 
by 5 millim. high ; width of 1. post. B. about 1 millim. less, 
while r. post. B. is a little distorted. In 293 Holcroft the 
normal basals are about 4 millim. wide by 3 millim. high. 

Kadials, 5 ; in general outline pentagonal, or more accu- 
rately a hexagon of which the distal angle is truncated by a 
wide reentrant curve for the articulation of the first costal ; 
mean measurements — width 7"3 millim., height, from proximal 
angle to middle of articular curve, 3'5 millim. In 293 Hol- 
croft a fracture crosses the radial circlet, but the measure- 
ments appear to be about 4 millim. wide by 2"5 millim. high. 
The curve varies in width, sometimes occupying almost the 
whole width of the radial, but never quite so little as two 
thirds of its width. On either side of the facet the distal 
portions of the radial bend inwards to meet the tegraen. 

Arms, to judge from specimens 4809 and 57478 a, about 
seven times as long as height of cup : seen from outer or 
dorsal surface, appear broad and flat-backed in the proximal 
regions ; but undergo rapid dichotomy, and, as the ossicles of 
each series are about five-sevenths the width of those in the 
preceding series, in the distal regions are remarkably atten- 
uate, being '10 millim. wide. In 57478 a the free brachials 

226 Mr. F. A. Bather on British Fossil Crinoids : 

are postpalmars of at least the sixtli series; in other words 
the dichotomy is seen to take pLice at least 8 times, so that 
the final brandies of the arms can have numbered no less than 
1280, and were probably nearer 2000. The ossicles are of 
peculiar shape ; even in the more proximal series their sides 
are seen to curve round in a curious manner towards the 
ventral surface, as is well shown by specimen 57478 h ; and, 
as dichotomy progresses and the transverse axis of the ossicles 
shortens, the dorso-vcntral axis becomes much longer, so that 
in the first postpalmars the ratio of depth to width is as 5 to 
3, and in the third postpalmars as 7 to 3 ; this is clearly seen 
in specimen 144 Mason College (PI. X. fig. 1). In most 
specimens the backs or outer portions of the arms present a 
continuously smooth appearance, but in others the edges of 
the ossicles are more rounded, inducing a slightly moniliform 
aspect; the smoothness may therefore be due to attrition. Be 
this as it may, there can be little doubt but that the arm- 
ossicles are more ridged at the sides of the arms than on their 
backs, and this in such a manner that the greatest transverse 
diameter of each ossicle is towards its upper or distal end, and 
towards its ventral surface. The condition of the specimens 
does not permit the direct demonstration of a dorsal canal ; 
but that such existed seems certain not only from the shape of 
the ossicles, but also from the fact that in much weathered 
specimens a groove is formed in the median line on the dorsal 
surface ; this is best shown by specimens 138 Mason College 
and 431 Holcroft (Diagram 8). The ventral surface of the 
arms is partially exposed in specimen 57478 h : the covering- 
plates are no longer in situ, and the food-groove, which is 
rather shallow in proportion to the depth of the ossicles, is 
clearly seen ; on either side of it the ventral edges of the 
ossicles rise up like little rounded teeth (Diagram 9). 

Costals, 3 to each ray ; in two instances out of the twenty- 
seven counted there appear to be 4 ; all of the same widtli, 
which is always more than two thirds that of the radial ; height 
from 1 to 2 millim. according to size of specimen. The upper 
and lower edges of the second costal are straight and parallel ; 
the lower edge of the first costal is curved conformably with 
the articular facet of the radial ; the lines containing the 
axillary angle of the third costal are concave. The upper 
and lower edges of the costals are slightly bevelled on the 
outside, indicating that these ossicles were united by loose 

Distichals vary in number in the different specimens, and, 
to a loss extent, in different branches of the same specimen ; 
19 branches have been observed with 4 distichals apiece, 11 

TIT. Thenarocrinus calUpygus. 


witli 5, 2 with 6, 1 witli 7, aiul in the young specimen, 293 
Ilolcroft, one biancli has only ."3. 

Pahnars vary quite irreguhuly from 4 to 10. 

The various series of Postpahnars are likewise irreguhir in 
number, the observed extremes being 6 and 18, and the 
average about 14. 


% 9 


Diagr. 1 . The aual plates and lower part of the ventral sac, composed 
from the evidence of six specimens. R' = Radianal, X =Brachi- 
anal, c = Costals, r/=Distichals, /tJ = Palmars. (x 2.) 

Diagr. 2. Plates from halfway up ventral sac. ( X 4.) 

Diagr. .3. Plates from distal end of sac. ( X 4.) 

Diagr. 4. Edpes of plates in ventral sac, to show foldinp-. ( X 5.) 
Diagi'ams 2, .'», and 4 are all takpn from specimen 57478 h. 

Diagr. 5. Section of stem showing sutures, large pentagonal lumen and 
articular radiating strife. ( X 3.) 

Diagr. 6. Dissection of dorsal cup. (Nat. size.) 

Diagr, 7. Some proximal stem-ossicles of 293 Holcroft, showing alter- 
nation of size, and ii'regularity of gi'owth indicating a radial 
suture, (x 4.) 

Diagr. 8. '\^'eathered arm-ossicles of 138 Mason College, with indications 
of an axial canal, seen from dorsal surface. ( X 6.) 

Diagr. 9. Ventral surface of arm, showing rounded elevations, fi-om 
57478 b. ( X 12.) 

A rough calcuhition from these data makes the total num- 
ber of avm-ossicles 48,290. Parkinson * calculated the 
ossicles of the arms and pinnules in Encrimis fossilis, Blum- 
enbach { = E. Uliifurmis, Lamarck), as 26,660, but half that 

* ' Organic Remains &c.,' ii. 181 (London, 1808). 

228 Mr. F. A. Bather on British Fossil Crinoids : 

number would be more correct. Tliis comparison sliows 
tlie greater extent of food-collecting surface possessed by the 
older and non-pinnulate form : the advantage of Encrinus lies 
of course in its greater compactness. Neither of these calcu- 
lations takes into account the covering-plates, the addition of 
which would treble or quadruple the numbers. 

Ayicd structures : — Radianal (R') , an irregular pentagon, the 
greatest width of which is equal to its greatest height ; rests 
on r, post. IB., between post. B. and r. post. B. ; supports 
on its right upper side pai-t of r. post. R., and on its left 
upper side the Brachianal. 

Brachianal (x) rather wider than high, in outline like a 
radial, the distal edge forms the longest side ; rests on post. 
B and R' ; is bounded on left by 1. post. R., and on right by 
r. post. R. ; supports in the middle a wide low plate, which 
we may regard as a second bracliianal ; and on either side is 
touched by smaller plates which are probably derived from 
the tegmen. 

This disposition of the anal plates is best shown by the 
Mason College specimens 1»38, 144, and 153, and by 431 
Holcroft ; it is seen, but owing to fracture not so clearly, in 
293 Holcroft. The diagram of Thenarocrinus that forms 
fig. 14 of plate xiv. in the first half of Paper II. (' Annals,' 
ser. 6, vol. v. April 1890) was constructed from the evidence 
of the British Museum specimen 57478 a ; since this fossil is 
much flattened the anal plates, which occur at its extreme 
edge, are displaced and fractured, so that the diagram, though 
correct in the more important points, is not absolutely accur- 
ate as to details [cf. Diagram 6). 

The connexion of the ventral sac with the anal plates is 
seen in specimens 57478 a B. M., 138, 144, and 153 Mason 
College, and in 293 and 431 Holcroft. No one of these 
specimens shows all the details, besides which they vary 
slightly, but all conform in essential structure with Dia- 
gram 1. The Second Brachianal rests on the first brachianal 
just as the costals rest on the radials ; it is pentagonal and 
axillary *. The plates of the ensuing distichous series alter- 
nate slightly, the suture separating them being a zigzag and 
the plates consequently hexagonal. The second plate of the 
right-hand series is axillary, and it is probable that the same 
is the case with the similar plate on the left. Tiie totra- 

• Dr. P. II. Ciu-penter (Ann. & Mng. Nat. Hist. [G] vi. pp. 19, 20, July 
1890) will not pevniil tho epithet "axillaiv" to be applied to anything 
but an rt^Hi-o.^siclo fiiving to <///)<-brani'hes. Such restriction of a 
word so citniuion in scienlilie description would be ve.vatious were it not 
needless. An axil lies where an orjjan is given off from an axis, and 
" axillary '' should have no deeper morphological signiticance. 

III. Thenarocrinus caUipygus. 229 

sticbous series foUowinp^ would tlius correspond to the palmar.s 
of an arm. Hitherto the phitcs have been smootli externally ; 
they now develop ornament : at the same time, by lessening 
in height and by gradually coming into a line with one 
another, they exchange their hexagonal shape for a trans- 
versely elongate quadrangle. The ornament is ])roduccd by 
tlie folding cf the side-edges of each plate, while the middle 
remains unaltered, or is raised into a slight hump : the folds 
of one plate meet those of the plates on its right and left so 
exactly tliat in undisturbed parts it is very hard to see the 

The uj)per part of the sac, in which the foregoing structure 
is more developed, may be best studied in specimens 57478 h 
and 138 Mason College. The ventral sac is nearly as long 
as the arms, very wide in its lower part, but contracting above. 
It belongs to the type described by Prof. H. Trautschold * 
under the head Angulosi, which is the common type in the 
Fistulata. The raised mi:ldles of the broad plates, lying one 
above the other, form longitudinal ridges, which, as in Scaph- 
iocrinus multiplex^ Trd., sp., appear to be eight in number. 
Tliat three of these ridges arise by dichotomy from the brachi- 
anal series is certain ; that another does is probable ; that the 
others do is possible but uncertain. The depressed tracts be- 
tween the ridges are occupied by tiie transversely folded portions 
of the ])lates. The anticlinal folds resemble fingers stretching 
out from the middle of the plate to meet fingers from an adjoin- 
ing plate ; there may be one, two, or three of these fingers on 
either side of each plate, but the higher numbers are chiefly 
found in the proximal and distal regions of the sac (Diagrams 
2 & 3). The synclinal folds a])pear as grooves, which are filled 
with matrix : hence they look like transverse slits proceeding 
on either side from the suture-line ; but wherever the matrix 
can be cleared away — a task demanding time and trouble — 
the floor of the groove is seen to be formed by the solid plate. 
A natural section^ produced by fracture along the suture-line, 
in 57478 ^, likewise shows that all the appearances are pro- 
duced by simple folding of the plates (Diagram 4). Nor 
can pores of any other kind be detected. In general appear- 
ance the ventral sac remarkably resembles a wickerwork 
basket : the beauty of its structure, its large size, and the 
extreme development of the anal plates suggest '•'caUipygus^'' f 
as an appropriate specific name. 

* "Ueber den mutlimassliclieii Geschlechtsapparat vou Poteriocriitus 
multiplex, Trd.," Festschrift k. Gesell. Naturforscher, Moscow, 1882. 

t KaW'mvyos, an epithet of a statue of Venus, derived from KoXKoi, 
beautiful, and irvyx], the posteriors. 

Ann. & Mag, N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 17 

230 Mr. F. A. Bather on British Fossil Crinoids: 

The Tegvien is partially visible between the arms and on 
cither side the origin of the ventral sac, in 57478 a and h and 
lo3 Mason College. The portions observed are composed of 
small plates of various sizes in which no definite arrangement 
can be distinguished. The tegraen was evidently flexible, and 
stretched up the arms, in some cases, if not in all, to the end 
of the distichals (PL X. fig. 5 and Diagram 1). 

The Stevi is almost perfect in specimen 48049 B. M. 
Here its length is 19"5 centim., or about 7| inches. It has 
a breadth of 5 millim., which at the proximal end widens to 
7 millim. The distal end is imbedded in a congeries of frag- 
ments which seem to have belonged to radical cirri. It is 
round except at its extreme proximal end, where it tends to 
become pentagonal, with its angles, as in all Dicyclica^ inter- 
radial. The ossicles are only '25 millim. high at the distal 
end, /. e. 100 run to the inch ; they gradually increase in 
height, till, about halfway up the stem, they are two to the 
millimetre : here, however, an alternation of size sets in, 
which increases as the proximal end is approached, so that in 
that region the large ossicles are twice as high as the small 
ones. At the same time the ossicles become more ridged, 
and the alternation of size increases the effect of the ridging. 
The articular surfaces of the ossicles were, as indicated by 
specimen 144 Mason College, covered with fine radiating 
ridges. The lumen was circular or slightly pentagonal with 
radial angles. In specimen 57478 «, where, at 25 millim. 
from the calyx, the diameter of the stem is 5 millim., that of 
the lumen is 3 millim. ; in 57478 Z*, at 5 millim. from the 
calyx, where the diameter of the stem is 7 millim., that of 
the lumen is 4 millim. (Diagrams 5 & 7). 

Owing to the large size of the lumen, the stem is often 
flattened, and this in many cases has produced cracks in the 
stem. These cracks do not, however, appear to be merely 
accidental. They are invariably radial in position, and con- 
tinue for long distances; this is well shown in 48049 B. M. 
and in Mr. Madeley's specimen. lu 48049, although the 
stem is hardly if at all crushed, two such radial cracks may 
be traced from the distal end for 15 centim., or nearly b' inches, 
along the stem ; they are especially clear at the distal end. 
It seems therefore pretty certain that these cracks represent 
sutures : in all Dicyclica with a quinquepartite stem the 
sutures are radial. It is true that a tliiu section of the 
column of 57478 a does not show them ; but here they have 
probably been obscured by fossilization. On the other hand 
in uncrushed stems a certain want of eontiiuiity in the ridges 

ni. Thenarocrinus caUijyygus. 231 

of the ossicles along: radial lines is often observable, as in 293 
Holcroft and 138 Mason College (Diagram 7). 

The Dudley specimen shows slight longitudinal ridges on 
its stem, especially at the proximal end ; and these as they 
cross the transverse ridges of the ossicles produce a slight 
cancellated pattern (Plate X. fig. 7). For the present, at all 
events, it is best to I'cgard this as a mere individual variation. 

General Kemarks. 

The most interesting feature of this genus is that in which 
it differs from other Fistnlata, namely the low position of the 
Radianal. Indeed this one point alone separates it from 
nearly all other Crinoids, and appears of still further import- 
ance in connexion with various utterances of Messrs. Wachs- 
muth and Springer. Criticising tiie description of Carabo- 
crinus by E. Billings, they wrote : '' The anal area, .... 
according to Billings, is composed of three plates, the lower 
one resting upon the underbasals, which is in itself an anomaly 
such as is found in no other genus " *. For the same reason 
they denied the correctness of Angelin's description of Sageno- 
crinuSf saying, " Angelin gives the number of basals (para- 
basals) as six, which is evidently a mistake, nor do we believe 
that the sixth plate represents an anal plate, as no plate of 
that kind has ever been observed below the line of radials " f. 
Again in 1885 they wrote with even more decision, " There 
is not a single instance of Crinoids known to us where either 
a radial or an anal plate entered the basal ring " J. There 
does not, however, seem to be any morphological objection to 
the sinking of an anal plate into the basal circlet, and in fact 
Messrs. Wachsmuth and Springer have prudently refrained 
from h priori argument. There can at any rate be no manner 
of doubt that the thing has happened in Theyiarocrinus, and, 
rare though it be, there is nothing anomalous about it ; on the 
contrary, the sinking of the radianal, in common with the 
brachianal and anal series, is in perfect harmony with the 
views as to the origin of those plates put forward in Paper II. ; 
while the consequent widening of the anal area, enhanced as 
it is by the width of all the plates of the dorsal cup, is 
obviously correlated with the large size of the ventral sac, just 
as was explained on pp. 319 and 330 of the same paper. 

But if Thenarocrinus is not anomalous, neither is it unique. 

* Kev. I. (144), Proc. 1879, p. 367. 

t Rev. II. (202), Proc. 1881, p. 376, footnote. 

I Rev. ni. (o5), Proc. 1865, p. 277. 


232 Mr. F. A. Bather on British Fossil Crinoids : 

Messrs. Wachsmuth and Springer have apparently found out 
for themselves ^ by this time that Angelin's description of 
Sagenocriyius was, so far as the number and position of the 
plates were concerned, perfectly correct : this is not the place 
to discuss the matter, but the sixth plate in the basal circlet 
does after all appear to be an " anal." 

That the structure of Carahocrinus was in all essentials 
correctly described by Billings, Messrs. Wachsmuth and 
Springer subsequently admitted t ; but with their pronounced 
views as to the extreme improbability of an anal or a radial 
descending into the basal circlet, they naturally slurred over 
the importance of that structure. This was their explana- 
tion : — " The small jilate within the basal ring, which is only 
known in this genus, is, we think, a supplementary azygous 
plate of no fundamental importance, a plate bearing to the 
regular azygous plate similar relations as the small accessory 
interradials in some specimens of Archceocrinus sculptus to the 
regular interradials.'" Now, however, Thenarocrinus enables 
us to look at Carahocrinus from a different standpoint ; the 
supplementary plate may very naturally be regarded as a 
portion of the radianal, just as the radianal itself is a portion 
of the riglit posterior radial ; so that, were this supplementary 
plate again united to the radianal, we should have a dispo- 
sition of anal plates very similar to that which obtains in 

It was this similarity in a structure so dissimilar to that of 
all other Fistulata that led me, when discussing the classifi- 
cation of the group, to {)iace Thenarocrinus alongside of Cara- 
hocrinus. It is no doubt conceivable that this structure, 
peculiar though it is, may have been arrived at along two dif- 
ferent lines of descent. There are, however, yet other points of 
resemblance, in the dichotomous branching of the arms, the 
number of the costals, and the structure of the column. The 
only im))ortant difference between the two genera lies in the 
greater breadth and length of the arms in Thenarocrinus ; but 
this is no great difference for two forms so widely separated 
in time and space. The more globular shape and generally 
radiate ornamentation of the dorsal cup, exhibited by the 
described species of Carahocrinus, go for nothing, for they do 
not obtain in two specimens of that genus kindly lent me for 
examination by Dr. G. J. liiude. 

Whether these considerations warrant the establishment of 

* W. & S., " Discovery of the Ventral Structure of Taxocn'nus Sec.,'' 
Proc. Acad. Xat. Sci. Philadt'lphia. lf^88, p. 357. 
t Kev. III. (lM7), Proc. 18H5. p. 141. 

III. Thenarocn'nus calJipygus. 233 

a Family CARABOCRlN'lDiE, characterized by the presence in 
the basal circlet of a radiaiial or part of one, is a different 
matter. The Fistulata are now so well known that their 
classification must depend on the question of descent. In the 
present instance, however, this question is obscured, partly 
because so few species of the genera in question are known, 
but chiefly because those genera are early forms but a little way 
removed from the common ])arent stock. Carahocrinus, for 
instance, seems related to Eiisjn'rocriyms, of which genus a 
species, E. ohconicus^ has been found by Mr. W. R. Billings* 
in the Trenton Limestone. Thenarocrinus s\s,o presents some 
points of resemblance to EuspirocrinuSy especially in the arms, 
in the general shape of the dorsal cup, and in the column. 
But both Carahocrinus and Euspirocrinus are very closely 
connected with Ottaicacrinus and with early species of Den- 
drocrinus. In fact, were we to consider Ordovician forms 
alone, we should undoubtedly place all these genera in one 
Family. Clearly, however, this would not be satisfactory; 
the evolution of that assemblage did not cease, and the ques- 
tion is — Can we discern more than one line of evolution ? 
Certainly there seem to be three divergent lines ; and the 
fact that two of these (the Carabocrinida^and Euspirocrinidi\3) 
soon appear to reach their termini does not impugn their 

Undoubtedly the establishment of a Family Carabocrlnidoe 
would appear more reasonable if we could trace its descent 
rather further than is at present possible, but among forms 
reckoned as Fistulata the descendants of Thenar ocrinus are 
still to seek. There is, however, a likeness so remarkable 
that it cannot be overlooked. The resemblance of Thenaro- 
crhius to Enallocrinus may be suj)erficial, but, except for the 
anal structures, it is very complete. Tlie plates of the dorsal 
cup, other than anals, are tiie same in number and in shape, 
and the following sentences from the most recent description 
of Enallocrinus^ ^PP^J almost equally well to Thenaro- 
crinus : — " First radials wide, their distal faces usually occu- 
pied by a deep lunate excavation in which the second primary 
and one or two higher radials rest ; sometimes, however, 
truncate." " Rays completely disconnected from the first 
radials up, and the arms becoming free variously between the 
first to the fourth bifurcation. Second radials \i, e. first 
costals] perforated by a large axial canal which passes down- 
ward ; it ramifies within the higher radials, and passes into 

* Trans. Ottawa Field Naturalists' Club, ii. no. 2, 1S85. 
t Wachsmuth and Springer, "C/-ote/ocr<'MM5 : its Structure and Zoolo- 
gical Position," Proc. Acad. Nat. Sci. Philadelphia, 1888, pp. 387, 388. 

234 Mr. F. A. Bather on British Fossil Crinoids : 

the arms, but apparently does not extend to their full length. 
Arms uniserial, very long, tapering little, bifurcating at 
lengthening intervals toward the upper parts into very nume- 
rous equal branches, the ultimate divisions being extremely 
attenuate." " Arm-joints shorter than in Crotalocrinus, with 
parallel sutures ; those of adjacent branches opposite each 
other not alternating." " Ambulacral furrows shallow, with 
covering-plates arranged in the usual way." " Column 
round, very large, with short joints and thin walls ; canal 
round and of extremely large size." 

It is not, of course, any one of these points of resemblance 
that is remarkable ; it is the total effect : the evidence, so to 
speak, is cumulative. But there are two points in the struc- 
ture of the Crotalocrinidffi on which Wachsmuth and Springer 
have laid particular stress. 

The reticulate structure of the arms in Crotalocrinus 
depends on the combination of the following characters : — 
depth of ossicles dorso-ventrally, length of arms, extreme 
bifurcation at regular intervals, and lateral processes of ossicles. 
In all these points the arms of Enallocrimis resemble those of 
Crotalocrinus except that the bifurcation does not take place 
at such regular intervals, and the arms are not laterally con- 
nected. A development in the direction of such connexion 
has, however, been demonstrated by Wachsmuth and 
Springer. " Toward the upper ends of the arm-joints there 
are more or less conspicuous transverse projections — one from 
each side of the joint — which are more prominent and elon- 
gate at the ventral side. They border the arm-furrow, and 
give to the arm, when viewed from the side, a pectinate 
appearance, which is more strongly marked toward the distal 
ends of the arms." " AVe have observed these projections on 
the arms," add Messrs Wachsmuth and Springer, " only in 
the English specimens. We give it as a generic character, 
as we think it likely the Swedish ones will show it also when 
sufKciently well preserved ; and because we consider it of 
some im])ortance, as representing the projections on the arms 
of Crotalocrinus by which these were connected, and thus 
exhibiting a tendency toward the reticulate structure." Now 
the arms of Thenarocrinus not only resemble those of Enallo- 
criiius, and to a less extent of CrotalocrinuSy in depth, length, 
and bifurcation, but they show undoubted indications of 
nascent lateral processes. In their position on the arm, and 
on the ossicle, and indeed in everything but size, the antero- 
lateral ridges of Thenarocrinus resemble the processes of 

III. Thenarocrinus callipi/gus. 235 

The second point to be noticed is the extension of the 
tcgmen over the arms as far as the end of the distichals. 
There is really nothing very remarkaUe in this ; but it is 
obviously parallel with the extension of the tegnien in Crota- 
locrinidre, and leads up to the apparent inclusion of costals an 
distichals in the walls of the dorsal cup, on which Wachsmuth 
and Springer lay so much stress. 

All those resemblances point no doubt to certain conclu- 
sions. But it is not so long since Messrs. Wachsmuth and 
Springer published their elaborate pa})er on the Crotalo- 
"crinidce, in the prej)aration of which they had the advantage 
of studying a very large number of specimens including those 
figured by Angelin. To traverse their arguments and to 
contradict their conclusions would be presumptuous in one who 
has not examined their evidence. Till that is done let us be 
content with the knowledge of this new genus, which I feel 
it a privilege to introduce to naturalists. For, with its long 
and finely ringed column, its well-proportioned cup, the 
delicacy of its ventral sac, and its more than myriad arms, 
the living Thenarocrinus must have been one of the most 
beautiful and wonderful forms in that paradise of lovely 
marvels, the Wenlock Sea. 


Fi<j. 1. Postpalraars of the left-central brancli of the left posterior arm of 

144 Mason College : seen partly sideways. To show lateral 

ridpring. (X 2.) 
Fig. 2. lo3 Mason College, posterior view. The oldest specimen. (Nat. 

Fir/. 3. o7478 a, B.M. Chiefly to show the fine branches of the arms. 

(Nat. size.) 
Fi(/. 4. 48U49, B.M. To show general form and stem-characters. 

(Reduced from 91 to 7j inches long.) 
Ft'ff. 5. 57478 h. To show ventral sac and tegminal plates. (Nat. size.) 
Fiff. 6. 293 Ilolcroft. The yoimgest specimen. (Nat. size.) 
Fig. 7. Part of the stem of the Dudley specimen. Showing ornament ; 

see p. 231. (Nat. size.) 
Fig. 8. 138 Mason College. To show weathered arms and ventral sac, 

(Nat. size.) 
Fig. 9. Part of the Madeley specimen. To show stem crushed along 

suture-lines, (Nat. size.) 

N.B. — To ensure accuracy all the drawings except Figs. 1 and 7 have 
been traced from photographs. 

236 Piof. W. Salensky on the 

XXVIII. — On the Development o/Pyrosoma. 
By Prof. W. Salensky*. 

Since Huxley's celebrated investigations we have learnt to 
distinguish two periods in tlie development of Pijrosomaj 
viz. : — (i.) The evolution from the fertilized ovum of a nurse- 
like form, which Huxley termed the '' Cyathozooid ; " (ii.) The 
formation by a species of budding of a group of four Ascidian- 
shaped individuals, the Ascidiozooids of Huxley, which must 
be regarded as the parents of the entire Pi/rosoma- co\ony. 
The discovery of this peculiar method of development has 
led to the view that in Fyrosoma we have a ease of meta- 
genesis occurring in the ovum. A few years after the appear- 
ance of Huxley's monograph on Fyrosoma^ the investigation 
of the development of these interesting forms was undertaken 
by Kowalewsky, who increased our knowledge in several 
respects, and especially as regards the finer histological rela- 
tions of the embryonic processes. The segmentation, forma- 
tion of the germinal layers, and organogeny of the cyatho- 
zooid, as also of the ascidiozooids themselves, were very 
minutely described by Kowalewsky ; and it seemed at the 
time as if the new observer in the same field would have but 
few fresh discoveries to make. Nevertheless subsequent 
progress in the science of comparative embryology has brought 
certain questions to the front which in Kowalewsky's work 
are scarcely touched upon. Two such questions, which are 
of general interest, 1 shall attempt to answer in this short 
paper, so far as my own investigations permit me to do so. 
The first of these concerns the " inner follicle-cells " described 
by Kowalewsky, for which I now ])ropose the more general 
name " kalymocytes " \. The part which these cells play in 
the development of the cyathozooid of Pyrosoma has hitherto 
been a puzzle ; the remarkable behaviour of similar cells in 
the development of the ISalps may suffice as a reason for 
undertaking a fresh examination of Pyrosoma and of the 
metamorphoses of the kalymocytes of the ovum of Pyrosoma 
in ])articular. The second question which I intend to discuss 
in these ])ages refers to the origin and metamorpiiosis of the 
mesoderm ; and I have selected it because, in the first place, 
Kowalewsky did not altogether pay sufficient attention to it 
in his investigations, and, secondly, because the mesoderm- 

* Translated from the ' Biologisclies CeutnUblatt,' Baud x. Heft 8, 
June 1, 1890, pp. 225 et teq. 
t From KtiXi/ifjo, a veil. 

Development of Pyvoiomn. 237 

question for the Tuiiicates in general cannot be regarded as 
having been exhaustively worked out. 

1. The KaJymocytes of the Ovum of Pyrosoma and their 
Function in the Development of the Cyathozooid. 

So far as I am aware, Kowalewsky was the first to observe 
the occurrence of kalymocytes in the ovum of Pyrosoma. 
Kowalewsky terms them " inner follicle-cells," but recog- 
nizes their homology with the so-called test-cells of the 
Ascidians. He also described the mode of origin of these 
cells with perfect accuracy, and shows that they are nothing 
else than follicle-cells which have separated from the follicle- 
wall and wandered into the space between the latter and the 
surface of the yolk. From Kowalewsky's figures we can at 
once see that the kalymocytes (" inner follicle-cells," Kow.) 
difi'er in form and structure from the true follicle-cells. As a 
matter of fact these cells differ so much from the blastomeres, 
not in form and structure only, but also in the way in which 
they are affected by staining-reagents, that, even with a low 
power, they can be very easily recognized in stained prepa- 

The kalymocytes appear in the ovum of Pyrosoma at a 
very early stage, and are to be observed in tolerably large 
numbers even before the commencement of segmentation. 
With reference to their origin, I can completely confirm 
Kowalewsky's statements ; different stages in the separation 
of these cells are very easily made out in sections. As regards 
the structure of these cells, however, Kowalewsky is not 
altogether accurate. This is explained by the fact that 
Kowalewsky underestimated the role of the kalymocytes, 
and therefore pays them less attention than they actually 
deserve. The structure of the kalymocytes is very charac- 
teristic, although their form varies according to the place in 
which they are found. They are to be met with in different 
parts of the ovum — immediately beneath the wall of the 
follicle, in the interior of the yolk, or between the blasto- 
meres, and they are everywhere distinguished by a diff'erent 
shape, corresponding with their situation. The cells found 
at their place of origin have a primitive shape, which we may 
regard as typical. They are pyriform, tapering at one pole 
and widened at the other. Each cell contains within its 
tapering portion a nucleus, which, owing to the readiness with 
which the protoplasm takes a deep stain, is not very con- 
spicuous in coloured preparations. The nucleus is vesicular, 

238 Prof. W. Salensky on the 

and contains a somewliat sparsely developed network of 
chromatin- fibres. The expanded half of the kalymocyte con- 
sists of coarsely granular protoplasm, in which, even in 
freshly separated cells, one or two vacuoles are discernible. 
In the kalymocytes which have migrated into the segmen- 
tation-nucleus, the vacuoles increase in number as time 
goes on. 

Most of the kalymocytes immediately after their formation 
wander from their place of origin to different parts of the 
oosperm. Some enter the yolk, move about there, and reach 
the lower surface of the segmenting-nucleus ; the others 
wander into the space between the yolk and the follicle-wall, 
and finally arrive at the outer surface of the nucleus. Since 
the two kinds of cells differ materially from one another in 
form, I will deal with them separately. 

The migration of the kalymocytes into the yolk first begins 
at the time of the segmentation of the nucleus, and reaches 
its height at the period of the formation of the lower wall of 
the mesenteron. We can convince ourselves, by examination 
of successful sections, that immediately after the entrance of 
the kalymocytes into the yolk they undergo important changes 
in form, as well as in the constitution of their protoplasm. 
They assume an Amoeba-like shape and are much less readily 
stainable with carmine than the cells which lie on the wall of 
the follicle. The alteration in the extent to which they are 
affected by staining-reagents is probably due to the yolk 
which they absorb by the way. In consequence of the 
blanching of the protoplasm, the nuclei of the yolk-kalymo- 
cytcs appear much more distinct than do those of the kalymo- 
cytes of the follicle-wall. The number of the kalymocytes 
found in the yolk is very variable in the different ova. Some- 
times we meet with a mass of star-shaped yolk-kalymocytes, 
which are united together in groups by their pseudopodia. 
The majority of the yolk-kalymocytes in their movements 
tend towards the upper pole of the oosperm, that is to say in 
the direction of the nucleus. We always find the largest 
numbers in the neighbourhood of the surface of the yolk on 
which the nucleus lies ; and since they invariably apjiear 
most numerous at the time of the development of the lower 
wall of the mesenteron, it is highly probable that they take 
part in the formation of the latter. This conclusion is sup- 
ported by the fact that, just at the point where the mesenteric 
wall is in process of formation, the kalymocytes can very fre- 
quently be observed emerging from tiie yolk. The liberated 
kalymocytes undergo a change in form, tlatton themselves 
out, lose their pseudopodia, and range themselves alongside 

Development o/Pyrosoma. 239 

the other cells which form the wall of the enteron. The 
movement of the yulk-kalymocytes towards the germinal 
disk, liowever, does not cease with the closure of the mesen- 
teric wall ; at any rate, some are always to be found beneath 
the latter after it is quite complete. 

The most important of all the varieties of kalymocytes are 
those of the nucleus — that is to say, those which come in con- 
tact with the nucleus from above. Since these cells stand 
later on in the most intimate relation to the blastomeres, we 
cannot describe them otherwise than in connexion with the 
segmentation. Since the investigations of Kowalewsky, it is 
well known that the ova of Fyrosoma are meroblastic. Before 
the first constriction appears the kalymocytes have already 
reached the nucleus. They range themselves on the upper 
surface of the latter and assume a variety of shapes. In 
stained sections, owing to the intensity of their colouring, 
they are very conspicuous. Some of tiiem penetrate into the 
groove between the two blastomeres ; others lie on their 
upper surface ; while yet others actually bore their way into 
the interior of the blastomeres. The latter variety exhibit 
the most remarkable phenomena, which have so far hardly 
been observed in the case of the ovum of any other animal. 
The penetration of the kalymocytes into the interior of the 
formative portion of the oosperm can be very readily followed 
in the iirst stages of segmentation, even step by step. The 
significance of this peculiar phenomenon is, however, not so 
easy to see. The examination of several ova in the first 
stages of segmentation has led me to the conclusion that the 
occurrence of kalymocytes in the nucleus is confined to the 
very earliest stages of segmentation only ; after the nucleus 
has divided into four, the phenomenon entirely ceases. As 
regards the fate of tlie immigrant cells, my investigations 
enable me to state that these cells undergo no material 
changes within the nucleus. I therefore incline to the opinion 
that the kalymocytes remain in the nucleus for a short time 
only, and leave it again without suffering any structural 
change, and that we must not ascribe to the penetration of 
these cells into the nucleus any important influence on the 
development of the eyathozooid. 

During the subsequent stages of segmentation the kalymo- 
cytes congregate exclusively in the fissures between the 
blastomeres ; they preserve their primitive pear-shaped form 
for some time, and remain sharply distinct from the blasto- 
meres owing to their size. In proportion as the blastomeres, 
however, become continually smaller as segmentation proceeds, 
the difference in size between them and the kalymocytes dis- 

240 Prof. W. Salensky on the 

appears ; at tlie same time the latter assume a polygonal form, 
in consequence of the reciprocal pressure of adjoining cells, 
and grow more and more lii<^e the blastomeres. Theconstitution 
of the protoplasm of tlie kaljmocytes presents a more lasting 
characteristic, which distinguishes these cells from the blasto- 
meres. This is, however, not constant, and in time this character 
too disappears. AYe have remarked above that vacuoles appear 
at a tolerably early ])eriod in the protoplasm of the kalymocytes; 
their number continually increases with the progress of 
development, so that in the stages at which the embryo con- 
sists of several hundred cells the protoplasm of the kalymo- 
cytes appears as a perfectly transparent viscid mass, traversed 
in different directions by a finely granular network of threads 
of the original substance. In consequence of this the kaly- 
mocytes of these stages appear paler in stained preparations 
than was formerly the case. Simultaneously with this the 
constitution of the protoplasm of the blastomeres also under- 
goes a change, in that it loses its previous finely granular 
structure, and appears more and more homogeneous and 

From this we see that the changes of the blastomeres go 
hand in hand with tiiose of the kalymocytes. In both cases 
the result is a clarification and liquefaction of the protoplasm. 
If we consider at the same time that the differences in size 
between the blastomeres and kalymocytes gradually fade 
away, it follows that in the final stages of segmentation the 
two kinds of cells, kalymocytes and blastomeres, of which the 
segmented nucleus consists, must look precisely alike. As a 
matter of fact, if we examine a section from the later segmen- 
tation-stages of the oosperm of Pyrosoma, we find that the 
embryo consists of a large number of cells of precisely similar 
structure. Kalymocytes are no longer to be distinguished 
from blastomeres. Since in the subsequent stages of develop- 
ment all the cells of the embryo take an equal part in the 
formation of the cyathozooid, we arrive at the conclusion tiiat 
the cyathozooid is formed from two different elements : — 
(i.) from the derivatives of the fertilized egg-cell — the blasto- 
meres, which throughout the whole of the animal kingdom 
alone play the part of formative elements ; and (ii.) from the 
non-fertilized elements — the kalymocytes, which unite with 
the former and assume the role of the formative elements. 

The processes of development in the ovum of Pyrosoma 
which I have just described, in spite of their peculiarity, are 
not entirely unique in the series of developmental phenomena 
which have been discovered in the animal kingdom in recent 
times. The nearest ai)proacli is made by those desciibod by 

Development o/Tyrosoma, 241 

myself in tlic case of the Salps, which, however, present by 
no means unimportant differences. Cliief among these is the 
fact that, wliereas in the case of Pi/roaoma both kalymocytes 
and blastomores take an equal share in tlie formation of the 
embryo, in the case of the Salps the kalymocytes play the 
most important part in the development, in opposition to the 
blastomeres, which are of secondary importance. In the 
development of Fi/rosoma and the Salps, however, we have 
to deal with a phenomenon which has already attained a 
tolerably high degree of perfection ; since in both cases the 
kalymocytes, which in the case of all other animals have no 
function at all, become all at once of great importance in the 
formation of the embryo. Somewhere or other the primitive 
stages of this singular ])henomenon must exist, in which the 
adaptation of the kalymocytes to their new role of formative 
elements may be supposed to have begun. My own investi- 
gations, as yet unfinished, into the development of certain 
compound Ascidians {Circimdium, Didemuium^Leptoclinium, 
Amauracium) , as well as the already known, though but 
scanty, statements of other authors about the development of 
this interesting group, lead me to the conclusion that it is in 
them that we must look for the origin of this remarkable 
phenomenon, which reaches its culminating point in Pi/ro- 
soma and the Salps. The kalymocytes of the compound 
Ascidians take, it is true, as yet no part in the development 
of the embryo ; but they behave towards the blastomeres in 
precisely the same way as do the kalymocytes of Pyrosoma in 
the first stages of segmentation — that is to say, they penetrate 
between the blastomeres and remain in that position for some 
time, without mingling with the blastomeres and taking part 
in the development of the embryo. 

2. The Development of the Germinal Layers and 
Differentiation of the Mesoderm. 

The stages of segmentation and germinal-layer formation, 
the most important in development, are very sharply marked 
off from one another in the case of Pyrosoma. The seg- 
mented nucleus consists, as we have already seen, of a mass 
of similar cells, and appears as a solid cupola-shaped eleva- 
tion, resting on one pole of the oosperm. The earliest 
changes of all in the segmented nuclear cap are exhibited in 
the differentiation of a superficial layer of cells, which are 
distinguished by their cylindrical shape from the polygonal 
cells of which the remainder of the mass consists. This 
superficial layer represents the ectoderm, and in the later 

242 Prof. W. Salensky on the 

stages of development gives rise to the atrial tubes and the 
nerve-ganglion. The bulk of the embryonic mass consists 
of the undifferentiated elements of the two other germinal 
layers, and may therefore be termed the meso-endoderm ; 
before this gives rise to the rudiments of various organs it 
undergoes a differentiation, resulting in its splitting into two 
germinal layers, the mesoderm and endoderm. The differen- 
tiation of the endoderm occurs tolerably late — not until after 
the formation of the coelomic cavities in the mesoderm. The 
formation of the coelomic spaces and their metaraorplioses are 
what we now have to consider. 

If we examine sections from the nuclear mass, in 
which mesoderm and endoderm are represented by a still 
undifferentiated mass of cells, we at once notice in the interior 
of these sections several lacuna-like cavities which as yet 
have no connexion with one another. Tliese cavities are the 
earliest rudiments of the subsequent coelomic spaces, which 
convert the solid mesoderm into two coelomic sacs. Whether 
or not these cavities are symmetrically arranged from the 
first I cannot decide with certainty, as I had at my disposal 
but few embryos in these stages. At any rate they appear 
to be symmetrically arranged in the following stage, in which 
the nuclear mass flattens out and assumes the form of a 
germinal disk. It is very probable that all the isolated 
cavities coalesce at this period, since the coelom is now no 
longer represented by several separate spaces, but by two 
large cavities lying one on each side of the longitudinal axis 
of the germinal disk. At much the same time as this 
important changes also take place in the germinal disk itself; 
the lower surface of the latter recedes from the upper surface 
of the yolk, in consequence of which a space is left between 
the yolk and the germinal disk, which is subsequently trans- 
formed into the enteric cavity. The mutual relations of the 
two spaces, the enteric cavity and the coelom, can be deter- 
mined by means of sections ; and in successful ones we can 
clearly see that the two coelomic sacs open into the cavity of 
the intestine. In the median line between the two openings 
of the coelom, in the axial portion of the germinal disk, there 
projects into the enteric cavity a longitudinal ridge, which is 
likewise traversed by a canal. The opening of this canal I 
"was not able to make out ; but with regard to the interpreta- 
tion of the two lateral openings of the ci.xilomic sacs, their 
relation to the intestinal cavity points to the conclusion that 
we have in these openings the homologues of those described 
by van Beneden and Julin, through which the primitive 
enteric cavity communicates with the cadomic sacs. Although 

Development of 'PyrosomsL. 243 

I was not able to discover any connexion between the axial 
canal of the mesoderm and the enteric cavity, nevertheless 
the position of this canal renders it extremely probable that 
we have in it the nearest representative of the chorda dorsalis 
of the Ascidian embryos. Tiie beautiful investigations of 
E. van l^eneden and Julin have taught us tliat the notochord 
of the embryos of ChivcUina is, iu the earlier stages of deve- 
lopment, represented by a tube which is situated between the 
two mesodcrmic diverticula, and therefore exhibits the same 
relations as we find in the axial tube of the embryos of 
Pijrosoma. In the case of Pijrosoma the tube in question is 
a transitory structure and lasts but a very short time. 

In spite of the simihirity between the ccelomic sacs of 
Pyrosovia and those of the Ascidian embryos, to which I liave 
just alluded, the two structures nevertheless exhibit au 
important difference in their histology. This consists in the 
fact that, while the ccelomic sacs of the Pyrosoma-Q.n\h\-yoa, 
are bounded by a multilaminar tissue, those of the Ascidian 
embryos have unih^minar epithelium-like walls. Iu the later 
stages of the Pyrosoma-Qmhvyos,^ however, this difference is 
removed ; for, in the course of growtii, the ccelomic sacs 
likewise become bounded by a single layer of cells. The two 
sacs, right and left, are at first precisely similar, and are 
symmetrically placed with regard to the longitudinal axis of 
the germinal disk. This condition, however, is of but short 
duration. As early as the stage of the first appearance of the 
peribranchial tubes, the two sacs exhibit important difi'erences 
from one another ; with this a second period in the develop- 
ment of the ccelomic sacs is inaugurated, which may be termed 
the metamorpliosis of the ccelomic sacs. While the left ccelomic 
sac has greatly increased in size and forms a spacious cavity, 
the cavity of the rigiit sac has almost entirely disappeared 
and appears as a tiny lacuna which adjoins tlie septum 
between the two primitive ccelomic spaces. The entire distal 
portion of the right ccelomic sac is now represented by a 
solid mass of cells, from the periphery of which some cells 
are in the act of being liberated. In the stage at which the 
peribranchial canals deepen and form little blind tubes, the 
whole of the right ccelomic sac has completely disappeared 
and has broken up into little cells. The development of the 
left ccelomic sac, on the contrary, rapidly proceeds. The 
circumference of the sac increases, and it subsequently divides 
into two portions : its proximal portion becomes incrassated, 
and forms a swelling situated beneath the endostyle which is 
in process of formation ; iu its further development it plays 
a very important part in the formation of various mesodermal 

244 Lieut. -Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen on new 

structures, such as muscles, elseoblast, and probably also the 
genital organs. The distal portion of tlie left coelomic sac, 
which preserves the form of a tube, becomes the pericardium. 
This grows forwards, soon reaches the anterior portion of the 
germinal disk, and, becoming expanded like a club at its 
anterior end, assumes the shape which is already sufficiently 
well known from Kowalewsky's description. The lower wall 
of the expansion of the pericardial sac, wliicli adjoins the 
endoderm, is differentiated tolerably early as a tliickened 
plate, which represents the rudiment of the heart. The 
heart itself, which is formed by the invagination of this 
plate, is not completely developed until the period of the 
formation of the cyathozooid. 

With this I conclude these brief notes on the earliest stages 
in the development of Pyrosoma^ and may summarize the 
chief results of my investigations as follows : — ■ 

(i.) The embryo of P^/rosoma is formed from both fertilized 
and unfertilized elements, since not only the blastomeres, but 
also the kalymocytes, take part in the formation of the 

(ii.) In the differentiation of the germinal layers the nuclear 
mass first divides into two portions — an ectoderm and a meso- 
endoderm ; of these the latter further differentiates into a 
multilaminar mesoderm and a unilaminar endoderm. 

(iii.) The mesoderm first appears in the form of two typical 
coelomic sacs. 

(iv.) Of the two coelomic sacs the left alone undergoes 
further development, and is subsequently differentiated into 
an axial mesoderm and a pericardial tube ; whereas the right 
sac breaks up into separate cells, which are afterwards dis- 
persed through the body of the cyathozooid. 

Odessa, March 1890. 

XXIX. — On supposed new Species of Land-MoUiisca from 
Borneo helonging to the Genera Opisthostoma and Diplom- 
matina. By Lieut.-Col. H. H. Godwin-Austen,, 
F.Z.S., &c. 

[Plate VII.] 

In the ])aper on Borncan Cyclostomacca? published in the 
* Proceedings of the Zoological Society,' lbS9, p. 332, 
I recorded and described all the species that were then 
known to me. ISincc that time I have received another small 

Species of Land- ^foUusca from Borneo. 2-45 

collection tliroii;2:h ^Ir. A. Everett, made in the hills of 
Borneo by Mr. C. Hose, and I have to thank them both for 
the further assistance they have thus given to me. We are 
apparently only beginning to know the richness of the land- 
molluscan fauna of this great island, so that as it becomes 
explored in all parts what a wealth of new species we may 
exj)cct it will produce ! Two shells I now describe present 
a remarkable ditference from the hitherto known s[)ecics of 
Opisthostoma from India and the Malay peninsula in being 
more or less spined, the first and iinest example yet dis- 
covered being 0. grandespinosa^ in which the spines are 
developed in a peculiarly beautiful way. The same variation 
in Borneo extends to the genus Diplommatina, as exemplified 
in D. spifiosa. Further exploration by naturalists who know 
how and where to find these minute shells will no doubt 
bring to light others equally interesting. 

The species of Diplommatina now described was sent to me 
to examine with other species by Mr. Aldrich, of Cincinnati, 
U.8.A., to whom a collection of Bornean shells had been sent, 
and a list of which he gave in a paper published in the 
Journ. Cincinnati See. Nat. Hist. April 1889, p. 23. This 
shell he thought might be D. concinna, Adams; but it is not 
that species, and I have much pleasure in naming it after 
Mr. Aldrich. 

I take this opportunity of giving drawings (PI. VII. 

figs. 4, 5) of two species described in my paper quoted, 

pp. 342, 343, but which were received too late to include in 

the plates which illustrated it ; they are Rhiostoma Ilanjer- 

fordi and iris. 

Opisthostoma pulchellay sp. n. (PI. VII. fig. 1.) 

Shell pyramidal, thin, narrowly perforate ; sculpture, wavy 
costulation on a smooth surface ; upon the lower whorls this 
forms the base of sharp, thin, white cirque-like bands standing 
at right angles to the whorl ; on the penultimate and antepe- 
nultimate these in the centre are produced into short spines ; 
they are generally found worn off at an early stage of growth ; 
colour ochraceous with a golden tinge, nearly white on the free 
portion of the whorl; spire conical; apex papillate; suture 
much impressed ; whorls 7 up to the constricted portion, 
whence the latter part is free and curved outwards from the 
axis and upwards ; aperture circular ; peristome double, very 
thin, much expanded, particularly the outer margin. 

Size : major diam. 2'2 ; alt. axis 2"3 millim. 

Locality. Baram district, Borneo [C. Hose). 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. IS 

246 On new Sj^ecies of Land- Mollusca from Borneo. 

This very beautiful shell is another spined form, a com- 
petitor for tlie admiration of the conchologist with Opistho- 
stoma graiuJespinosa, lately described by me; in this species 
the spines are not so large and have more the character of 
raised rings. 

Opisthostoma Hosei, sp. n. (PI. VII. fig. 2.) 

Shell pyramidal, very narrowly perforate; sculpture of the 
upper whorls quite smooth, the free portion of the last being 
strongly costulate, the ribs near the aperture being in high 
relief; colour shining ochre; spire conic, flat-sided, apex 
blunt ; suture shallow ; whorls 5, flat, the last free, with con- 
siderable twist, compressed, producing a keel ; aperture 
circular; peristome widely expanded. 

Size: major diam. 1'8 ; alt. axis 1"6 millim. 

Locality. Baram district, Borneo [C. IJose). 

This is another very distinct form from the same part of 
Borneo. In the very smooth surface of the first five whorls 
it is unlike any species Avith which I am acquainted. 

Diplommatina Aldriclii^ sp. n. (PI. VII. fig. 3.) 

Shell elongately turreted, rather solid ; sculpture strong dis- 
tant costulation ; colour dull ochre j spire becoming rapidly 
pointed, apex sharp ; suture well impressed; Avhorls 8, convex, 
the constriction in centre above the aperture, penultimate the 
largest and rapidly decreasing in size above ; aperture ovate- 
vertical ; peristome double, expanded ; columcllar margin 
vertical and angulate below. 

Size: maj. diam. 1*75 ; alt. axis 3'75 millim. 

Locality. From either the Kusan or Penggiron districts, 
S.E. Borneo {William Doherty). 

This shell is identified as D. concinna, H. Adams, in " List 
of Shells from Borneo," published in the 'Journal of the 
Cincinnati Society of Natural History,^ April 1889, p. 25, by 
Mr. T. H. Aldrich. This gentleman has very kindly sent 
his specimen to me to examine, and this I find docs not agree 
with Adamses species. 


Fi'ff. 1. Ophfhostoma jmMiella, SY>- ^^- X 1-. 

I'u/. 2. Opift/iosfoDia Jlosei, sp. n., X 1-. 

7'Vy. 3. Diphmimatiiia Aldiichi, sp. n.. X 7. 

Fitj. 4. lihiostoma iris, Godw.-An:?t., X 2 5. 

Fiy. 5. Ii/iivffu}na JIuuijcrfordi, CKuiw.-Aust., X 2'0. 

Mr. C. J. Gah:m on Longicorn Coleoptera. 247 

XXX. — Notes on Lnn'jlrorn Coleoptera of the Group Ceram- 
byciiuB, ivith Descriptions of new Genera and Species. By 
Chaulks J. Gauan, M.A., Assistant in the Zoological 
Departnieut, British ^Iiiseuin. 

The extreme difficulty which the systematic treatment of the 
group Cerambycina3 (Cerambycides vrais, Lacord.) presents 
has been recognized by every entomologist who has attempted 
it. Our collections are, I think, still in too incomplete a state 
to enable this difficulty to be overcome. Without attempting 
to give a complete revision of the group, I have in the fol- 
lowing paper made such notes upon genera and species as will, 
I hope, help the student in his determinations. I have 
corrected the synonymy of a good many species, having for 
this jjurpose consulted most of the types. To M. liend 
Oberthur, of Kennes, I must in particular acknowledge my 
tiianks, for having so kindly forwarded to me the types of 
those of Thomson's species which, from their descriptions, I 
was unable satisfactorily to make out. One of these — Gleonice 
vestita — is quite foreign to the group. It has been redescribed 
and figured by Mr. Pascoe under the name Seuthes sericatusj 
and undoubtedly belongs to the group Glaucytina3, in which 
Mr. Pascoe placed it. 

TaueotaguS, Lacord. 
Taurotagus subauratuSj sp. n. 

Antennis {S) corpore plus sesqui-longioribus ; capite supra sulco 
medio elongato impresso ; prothoracc apice valde constricto, 
lateraliter et supra obtuse tuberculato et valde rugoso ; elytris 
pube brunneo-aurata holoscricea dense obtectis, apicibus angustim 
truncatis vel subrotundatis, et ad suturam breviter mucronatis. 

Long. 44, lat. 12h mm. 

Hah. Abyssinia (J. C. Bo7cring, Esq.). 

The unique specimen of this species was in a rather greasy 
condition ; but after soaking in benzole it is seen to have, at 
least on the elytra, a beautiful golden-brown and rather dense 
pubescence, giving slight moire reflexions. The head carries 
above a median longitudinal groove, commencing between 
the eyes and extending back to the occiput. The antennge 
are more than half as long again as the body, with the scape 
strongly rugose-punctate, and at the same time very minutely 
and closely punctulate ; the third joint is much longer than 

248 Mr. C. J. Galian on Lonrjicorn Coleoptera 

the scape and only sliglitly nodulose at the apex ; the fifth 
joint is a little shorter than the third and longer than the 
fourth. The prothorax is strongly constricted and transversely 
grooved anteriorly, obtusely tubercled both at the sides and 
on the disk, and rather strongly and irregularly transversely 
■wrinkled above. Prostcrnal process strongly arched, sub- 
vertical behind. Underside of the head crossed by two trans- 
verse grooves separated by a ratlier narrow ridge. 

With antennae rather long for the genus, the remaining 
characters of this species seem to point conclusively to its 
place in Taurotagus. 

Taurotagiis griseus, G U(5r. 

The type of this species (a female specimen) was one of 
those so kindly sent to me by M. Rend Oberthiir, but was 
too old and faded to admit of close comparison with other 
species. I believe, however, that I am light in referring to 
the species two male specimens — one, from Senegal, in the 
British Museum collection, the other, from Abyssinia, in Mr. 
Fry's collection. In these the antennee are not more than 
three fourths of the length of the body, with the third joint 
only about equal in length to the scape. The prothorax is 
slightly uneven and without any distinct rugosity above. 
The elytra are about three and a half times as long as the 
prothorax and are rounded at the apex. The prostcrnal 
process, gradually rounded and declivous posteriorly, is feebly 
tubercled in the middle near its extremitv. 

The British Museum specimen is the Hammaticherus cine- 
rarius, Buq., of Dejean's collection. 

CcELODON, Serv. 

The PrionKS cinereus of Olivier has been incorrectly quoted 
by Scrville, Laeordairc, and others as the type of this genus. 
The cinereus of Olivier, as a reference to his description and 
figure will easily prove, is a species of Criodion^ and the 
habitat he ascribed to it is without doubt correct. The type 
oi,Calodon — an African species described by Serville — must 
therefore be written C. cinoeinn, Serv. As a synon} m of 
this species we may add C. servunij AVhite {JJumnuitic/ierui>). 
"White described his species Irom a female example of 
unknown locality. This specimen agrees with a female, of 
much smaller size, I'rom Masai-land, and with a male from 
Abyssinia, both of which I have referred to C. cinereum^ 

of the Group Ccrambycina3. 249 

The genus may be distinguished from Taurotaqus by the 
length and obliquity of the mandibles in the male and tiie 
tubercle with which they are each furnished externally near 
the base. The legs, too, are more elongate and not so robust 
as in Taxirotagus. Laeordaire gives as a further difference 
that the prosternal process in Taurotagus is truncate and 
vertical behind, in Coelodon strongly arched. But in no 
species of Taurotagus that I have seen can the prosternal 
process be strictly said to be truncate behind. In some of 
the specimens of Taurotagus hrevipennis (recently described 
by me in the ' Transactions of the Entomological Society ') 
the prosternal process approaches this condition ; but in others 
it is merely very strongly arched, and appears somewhat 
vertical behind. The same is probably the case with Tauro- 
tagus Klugii of Laeordaire. Specimens of Hammaticherus 
Klugiij Dup., MS., from Natal, while answering in every 
other respect to Lacordaire's description, disagree with it in 
having the prosternal process strongly arched and not trun- 
cate behind ; and in some specimens the prosternal process 
bears a feeble median tubercle behind. The distinction there- 
fore drawn from the form of the prosternum is of little or no 

Neocerambyx, Thoms. 

Authors have not been in agreement as to the limits of this 
genus, some restricting it to one or two species, others including 
in it species that had been previously rejected and placed in 
Fachi/dissus, the result being that in our present catalogues 
we have closely allied species placed some in one genus and 
some in the other, and even the same species occurring in both 
genera under different names. To avoid this confusion, 
which makes the determination of species more difficult, I 
have brought together, under the generic name of yEoIesf/ieSj 
most of .those species of Neocerambyx about the position of 
which there was a doubt. 

The Cantori of Hope will be better placed in Ceramhyx^ 
Serv., than in Neoceramhgx^ where Laeordaire thought it 
should go. It has as a synonym C. scabricollis, Chcvr. 

Pachydissus gi'gas, Thoms., — the largest and one of the most 
beautiful species of the whole group — seems to me to be best 
placed in Neocerambyx. Unfortunately the male is still 
unknown. From three female specimens (including the type) 
1 am able to supplement the characters given by Thomson. 

Eyes rather wide apart above, with the vertex between 

250 Mr. C. J. Galian on Longicorn Coleoptera 

them marked by three deep longitudinal grooves — one 
median, not surpassing the eyes in front ; the remaining two 
oblique, scarcely surpassing the eyes behind, and gradually 
ap])roaching in front so as almost to meet below between the 
antcnnary tubers. The longitudinal smooth space on the 
middle of tlie pronotum extends between the anterior and 
posterior transverse grooves ; in its anterior lialf It is not half 
as broad as in its posterior, and at its anterior extremity ends in 
two small diverging tubercules. The elytra are each rounded 
externally at the apex, cut in somewhat obliquely towards 
the suture, and there furnished with a very short spine. The 
anterior cotyloid cavities are slightly open on the outside. 

Thomson's specimen is from Borneo ; the two in the British 
Museum are one from Malacca, the other from Java. 

-(EoLESTHES, gen. nov. 

Head with a central plaque in front, with a median, more 
or less distinct carina occupying the interantennary sulcus in 
front, and extending behind almost to a level with the poste- 
rior border of the upper lobes of the eyes. At the termination 
of this carina the vertex bears a shallow foveolate impression. 
Antennas in the male much longer than the body, with the 
third to fifth joints thickened at tlie apex, with the joints from 
about the fifth to the eighth usually furnished with a minute 
spine at their outer apical termination. The same joints in 
the female more distinctly spined externally, and each also 
spinosely or denticulately produced at its inner apical termina- 
tion. Prothorax strongly rugose above, rounded or subangu- 
late and unarmed at the sides in the middle. Elytra clothed 
with a rich silky pubescence giving moire reflexions ; apices 
truncate, with the angles spinose or dentate. Anterior 
cotyloid cavities very feebly or not at all angulate on the 
outside. Prosternal process usually subtruncate behind. 

In addition to these characters may be nieritioned a groove 
which crosses the underside of the head from the base of one 
cheek to that of the other. This groove (in the synopsis 
given below styled the intercjenal groove) is usually very 
distinct, and its direction, whether straight or buwcd back- 
wards, is useful in separating some of the species. 

The species — some of them common enough in collections 
— which I have comprised in this genus form a fairly com- 
pact group. They arc to be recognized by the richness and 
lustre of their pubescence (with a sheen like that of shot silk) 
taken in connexion with tlicir rouahlv wrinkled and unarmed 

of the Oroup CerambjciiiEe. " 251 

protliorax and their truncated elytra. Trirachys, Hope, is 
the most nearly allied genus, but in this the prothorax is 
furnished on each side witli a conical spine ; the third to fifth 
joints of the antcunffi in the male are distinctly (the sixth 
minutely) spined at their outer apex, aud the renuiiuing 
joints are unarmed. 

The species of the present genus have up to now been 
placed in either Neocentmhyx or Facliydissus^ and a good deal 
of confusion exists in their nomenclature. The following 
synopsis of their characters may prove useful : — 

§ A. Prothorax strongly and more or less 
regularly transversely wrinkled. Disk 
usually without a central smooth space. 

Antennas distinctly spined in both sexes. 
Pronotum with two well-marked longitudinal 
slightly oblique impressions. Intermediate 
and posterior femora denticulately produced 
on each side at their apex ] . JS". aurifaher, White. 

Joints of the antennne in the male almost 
without spines at their outer apical termina- 
tion. Pronotum with two rather faint longi- 
tudinal impressions. Femora without teeth 
at their apex 2. yE. achilles, Thoms. 

Antennas in the male without spines at the 
outer termination of the joints, with the scape 
very feebly rugose. Pronotum without lon- 
gitudinal impressions on the disk or with but 
the faintest trace of them. Femora without 
teeth at the apex 3. JE. Marice, Thoms. 

§B. Prothorax more or less irregularly 
wrinkled above. Usually with a central 
smooth space. 

Form broad aud robust. Intergeual groove 
directly transvei-se or very feebly bisinuate. 
Pronotum with two obliquely longitudinal 
impressions, limiting a central smooth space. 
Apices of elytra quadrispinose 4. JS. ampliata, sp. n. 

Intergenal groove strongly bowed back- 
wards. Pronotum with two obliquely longi- 
tudinal impressions, limiting a central smooth 
space. Apices of the elytra spinose at the 
suture, dentate externally 5. /E. induta, Newm. 

As in the preceding, but with the apices of 
the elytra briefly quadrispinose 6. AC, te-itor, Paso. 

Intergenal groove strongly bowed back- 
wards. Pronotum without longitudinal im- 
pressions, but with a small transverse smooth 
space behind the middle. Antennae (S) less 
than twice the length of the body 7. AL. perphxa, sp. n. 

252 Mr. C. J. Gahan on Longicom Coleopfera 

Intorpenal groove directly transverse. Pro- 
notum with two obliquely longitudinal im- 
pressions, limiting a central smooth space. 
Sides of prothorax in the male rounded .... 8. ^. velutina, Thorns. 

Intergenal groove directly transverse. Pro- 
notum with two obliquely longitudinal im- 
pressions, the space between which is rugose 
and almost completely divided by a median 
longitudinal groove. Sides of the protliorax 
in both sexes subangulate in the middle .... 0. yE". sinensis, sp. n. 

Pronotum with two obliquely longitudinal 
impressions, inclosing a smooth space. Sides 
of prothorax subangulate in the middle. 
Elytra long compared with the anterior part 
of the body. Pubescence paler and less dense 
than usual 10. ^. sarta, Solsky. 

1. JEolesthes aurifaher. 

Sammatichei'us aurifaher, White. 
Jfeoceramhjx feneas, Thoms. 
Neoceramhyx Lambii, I'asc. 
Neocerambyx nlexis, Pasc. 

In the types of ceneas, Lamhii^ and alexia I could find no 
structural differences by which any one of them might be 
distinguislied from aurij'aber. M. Thomson evidently mistook, 
for aurifaher another and quite different species, and Mr. 
Pascoe has described under this name a specimen in which 
the ridges of the central space of the prothorax are less 
distinct than in typical examples. The species is from 
Borneo and Penang, and does not extend to the Duke of York 
Island, as stated by Mr. Bates, who seems to have shared in 
the general error concerning the species. 

2. ^olesthes achiUes. 

Pachydisstis achiUes, Thoms. 

Neoceramhyx ccneas, Pasc. (nee Thoms.), Longic. Malay, p. olO. 

Tliis is a larger species than aurifaher) the vertex oi the 
head is without a distinct median carina, the longitudinal 
impressions of the pronotum are less distinct, and the femora 
are not toothed at the apex ; but it is in other rcs]iects very 
like that species. In the specimen described by Mr. Pascoe 
under the name iY. ancas the ridges on the central space of 
the prothorax are indistinct. The species is from Borneo. 

of the Group Cerambycinoe. 253 

3. JEoJesthes Marice. 

Pachydisstts Maritp, Thorns. Kov. Zuol. 1878, p. 2. 

This is very like the jirccedinL:;, but may be disfinguislied 
by its greater size, the absence of longitudinal impressions 
from the pronotuni, and the nearly smooth sca])c of the 
antennae. In this, as in the last species, the median carina of 
the vertex loses its characteristic form, for, instead of being 
narrow, it is broad and flat and very little elevated ; this 
character by itself is almost sufficient to distinguish either 
from aurifaberj in which the carina is sharp and well defined. 

4. JEolesthes ampliata, sp. n. 

Robusta : prothorace supra irregulariter fortitcrque rugoso, spatio 
medio sulcis duobus obli<]uis limitato ; elytris apicc quadrispinosis ; 
capite subtus sulco inter geuas recto vel leviter bisiuuato. 

Long. J 36, lat. 11 mm. 

ITab. Duke of York Island. 

In colour and style of pubescence resembles most indutay 
Newm., and te.ctor, Pasc, but is broader, has the apices of 
the elytra distinctly spined at each of the angles, and has the 
intergenal groove of the underside of the head straight or at 
most very feebly bisinuate. This is the species recorded 
from the Duke of York Island by Mr. Bates under the name 
KeoceramJjyx aurifaher. White. 

A single female in the British Museum collection ; males 
and females in the collections of Messrs. Bates and Fry. 

5. ^olesthes indiita, Newm. 

Hammatichems indutus, Newm. 
? Ceravibyx holosericeiis, Fabr. 

This species occurs in Siam, Sumatra, Java, Borneo, tlic 
Philippine Islands, &c. I have found a small specimen in 
Dejean's collection ticketed Ilammaticherus holosericeus^ Oliv. 
But the Ceramhyx hohsericeus of Olivier is a very different 
species and belongs to another genus in this group. 

6. ^olesthes textor. 

Neoceramby.v textor, Pasc. 

Neoceramhyx extenius, Pasc. 

? Pachydissus tei-natensis, Fairm. Le Natm-aliste, 1879, p. 70. 

I am doubtful if this species can be regarded as distinct 
from induta. The differences between them are slight, and 
with a larger series might easily break down. M. Fair- 

254 My. C. J. Gahan on Longicorn Coleoptera 

maire's description of Pachydissus ternatensis fits exactly the 
present species, but, as the locality Duke of York Island is 
given in addition to that of Ternate, I am inclined to think 
he has mixed up two species — textor^ Pasc, and ampliata, 
described above. 

7. yEoIesthes perplexa, sp. n. 

Antennis ( c? ) corpore duplo nee aequalibus ; prothorace supra irrega- 

lariter rugoso, spatio parvo transverse levi pone medium. 
Long. 24, lat, 7 mm. 

Hah. Siam (/. C. Bovjri)ig, Esq.). 

Intergenal groove distinctly bowed backwards. Antennae 
not much more than half as long again as the body. Pro- 
thorax irregularly wrinkled above ; without longitudinal 
impressions and with a small transverse smooth space behind 
the middle of the disk ; sides of the prothorax slightly 
rounded, not at all angulate. Elytra with a rich silky 
pubescence having a coppery-brown lustre, with darker 
patches, which in their turn, when brought into certain lights, 
give bright reflexions ; apices with the sutural angles spinose, 
tlie outer angles dentate. So closely in colour does the 
unique specimen of this species resemble Siamese specimens 
of tJiduta, Newm., that at first sight it looks like a small 
example of the latter. The sculpture of the prothorax, 
however, on which there is not the slightest trace of longi- 
tudinal impressions, is sufficient to distinguish it. In all the 
specimens of induta that I have seen the longitudinal 
impressions are perfectly distinct, and the central smooth 
space is longer than broad. It is possible, however, that tiie 
unique type of the present species may be an incompletely 
developed or abnormal example of induta. 

8. yEolesthes velutina. 

Pachiidissiis velufinus, Thorns. 

l\icht/(Ussus similis, Gahan, Ann. & Mag. Xat. Hist. ser. G, vol. v. 
p. 52. 

In the typical example, sent me by M. Rend Oberthiir, the 
derm is of a reddish-brown colour, which gives to the insect 
a lighter appearance than that of the majority of the speci- 
mens whicli I had included under the specific name similis, 
and which have a dark brown derm. The prothorax in this 
species is slightly rounded, but not angulate at the sides ; it 
carries above two distinct longitudinal impressions, inclosing 
a central smooth space. This space is undivided, except by 
a very short median depression at its anterior termination. 

of the Grouj) Ccrambycinoi. 255 

I am at a loss therefore to ox])lnin tlie signification of the 
jihrase " |)rotliorax .... medio bii)higiatu.s " wliich occurs 
in Thomson's diagnosis. His expression " frons medio longi- 
tudinalitcr sulcata " is somewhat ambiguous ; it probably 
refers to the groove between the antcnnary tubers, but this 
groove is occupied posteriorly by a feeble median carina 
wliich extends back between the eyes. This is no doubt the 
species figured in the ' Imlian Museum Notes ' (vol. i. no. 2, 
pi. V. fig. 3) under the name Neocerumhijx holosericeus^ Fabr. 

9. u:Eohsthes sinensis, sp. n. 

Prothorace lateraliter iu medio subangulato ; dorso omniuo intri- 

cato-rugoso, sulcis duobus obliquis imprcsso. 
Long. 25-30 mm. 

Uab. China (/. C. Bowring^ Esq.). 

This species is allied to velutina and somewhat closely 
resembles it ; but the sides of the prothorax arc somewhat 
angulate in the middle in both sexes. The median space of 
the pronotum inclosed between the two oblique impressions 
is nearly as rugose as the rest of the surface and is almost 
completely divided by a median longitudinal groove. The 
elytra arc somewhat darker in colour and present a more 
rutHed appearance than in velutina. 

10. JEolestlies sarta. 

Pachydissus sartus, Solsky. 

The figure accompanying Solsky's description of this species 
is inaccurate in making the elylra appear conjointly rounded 
at the apex. They are described as truncate and somewliat 
bispinose. If I am right in referring to it a specimen Irom 
the Himalayas that I have seen, the species is quite distinct. 
In this specimen, however, there is no median longitudinal 
impressed line on the prothorax, and the third and fifth joints 
of the antenn£e are relatively a little longer than 8olsky 
represents them to be. In other respects it agrees exactly 
with the description. 

Plocederus, Thorns. 

Phcederus hasalis, sp. n. 

= Plocederus cJiloropterus, Murray, Ann, & Mag. Nat. Ilist. ser. 4, 
vol. V. p. 436. 

This species is not^ as Murray thought, identical with the 

256 Mr. C. J. Galian on Longicorn Cohoptera 

Plocederus cJiloropterus of Clievrolat. Murray's description of 
it is very complete. It will be sufficient therefore to point 
out the differences between it and other allied and very 
similar species. 

From viridipenms, Hope, and from cMoropterus^ Chevi'., it 
is distinguished by the very close punctulation of the basal 
half or third of the elytra ; from cldoropterus^ Chevr., it is 
further distinguished by the oblique lines or grooves forming 
a '' crown-shaped " impression on the disk of the prothorax. 

In P. chloropteriiSj Chevr., the prothorax is almost regularly 
transversely wrinkled above and the ridges are not interrupted 
by oblique impressions on the disk. The elytra, tliough 
more strongly punctulate towards the base, have not the 
punctures much more thickly spread on this region than 
towards the apex. 

In P. vi'ruhpennis, Hope, the sculpturing of the prothorax 
is almost exactly like that of lasalis ; the oblique lines are, 
however, somewhat more distinct and form a W-sha])ed 
impression on the disk. The elytra may be described as 
somewhat sparsely punctulate, with the punctures evenly 
spread over the whole surface and diminishing in size to the 
a]jex. The prosternal process is provided posteriorly with a 
more or less distinct median tubercle. 

It is difficult, from Hope's short diagnosis, to identify his 
species with certainty. The characters just given are taken 
from a species from Sierra Leone which Adam White had 
labelled viridipennis^ Hope, and which agrees with Hope's 

Plocederus gahonicns, sp. n. 

Niger ; etytris metallico-Tiridis, fusco tinctis ; prothoracc supra 
fortiter transversim rugoso, rugis antieis recte transversis. rngis 
pone medium sinuatis ; elytris subtilissime griseo-pubesccntibus, 
versus basin confcrtim punctulatis, versus apicemminutissime sat 
denseque punctulatis, apicibus truncatis, angulis dentatis : au- 
tennis ( 2 ) corpora vix excedcntibus, nigris (scape badio escepto), 
articulis a quinto ad decimum apice interne dtntieulato-productis ; 
pedibus femoribus (basi apiceque cxccptis) rufo-tcstaccis, tibiis 
basi nigris ; processu prosterui medio postice tubercidato. 

Long. 30, lat. 9| mm. 

Hah. Gaboon (W. Africa). 

The strong and almost quite regular transverse wrinkling 
of the prothorax unintcrru]itcd by any oblique impressions on 
the disk, the very close punctulation of the basal part of the 
elytra, nnd the median tubercle to the prosternal process will 

of the Group Cerambycinse. 257 

serve to distinguish tliis species from any of the simihirly 
coloured and allied species. 

Plocederus purpuripennlsj sp. n. 

2 . Niger ; anteniiis pedibusque et abdoraine rufescentibus, elytris 
metallico-puriiurasceutibiis ; urothorace supra transvcrsim irregu- 
laritenjue rugoso ; elytris nitidis, minutissimo sulisparsimipie 
punctulatis ; processu prosterni posticc in medio obsolete tuber- 

Long. 26, lat. 8;^ mm. 

Hah. Natal. 

Black, with the antennie, legs, and abdomen reddish, the 
elytra purplish metallic and very glossy. Prothorax above 
transversely and somewhat irregularly wrinkled, without 
oblique impressions on the disk. Elytra very minutely and 
somewhat sparsely punctulate, with the punctures almost 
equal in size and pretty evenly spread over the whole surface ; 
apices truncate, with the outer angles dentate. 

The character of the punctuation of the elytra is alone 
almost suHicient to distinguish this from any of the allied 
species. The species seems to me to come nearest to P. 

Plocederus melancholicus (Dupont, MS.), sp. n. 
Hamaticherus ftKatus, Dej. Cat., nee Thoms. 

Piceo-fuscus, subtiliter cinereo-pubesccns ; capite margino clypei 
leviter sinuata ; prothorace supra irregulariter minus fortiter 
rugoso, sulcis obliqins obsoletis impress© ; autennis articulis a 
quarto ad decimura apicc interne denticulato-productis. 

Long. 25-35, lat. Tg-lUl mm. 

Hah. West Africa. 

Head with the clypeal margin slightly sinuate ; with the 
frontal plaque almost in the form of a transverse carina. 
Antennae with the third joint unarmed ; with the joints from 
the fourth to the tenth each produced at the inner apical 
termination into a denticulate process. Prothorax acutely 
spined at the sides, irregularly and not very strongly wrinkled 
above, with some very faint oblique impressions, marking off 
a sort of diamond-shaped central area. Elytra dark brown 
with a tint of red, clothed with a rather faint ashy pubes- 
cence ; closely and minutely punctured, with the punctures 
somewhat unequal iu size ; apices truncate, with the sutural 
angles briefly spined, the external angles dentate. 

2o8 Mr. C. J. Gahan on Longicorn Coleoptera 

This species resembles P. denticornis, Fabr. ; but in the 
latter the elytra are brownish black without any reddish tint ; 
the third and fourth joints of the antenna are each furnished 
at their inner apex with a sharp and strong spine standing 
out at right angles, and the remaining joints up to the tenth 
are produced into sharp spine-like processes. P. Eminii, 
recently described by Mr. Waterhouse, has been compared by 
him with the present species. 

Plocederus facatus ^ Thoms. 

Thomson "was certainly in error in quoting this species as 
the fucatus of Dejean's collection. From his description I 
have been able to identify three specimens from the Gaboon 
as belonging to his species, and they are very distinct from 
the species just described. With a strongly wrinkled and 
somewhat densely pubescent prothorax, a rather dense yel- 
lowish-grey silky pubescence on the elytra, and a rather short 
and stout form, the species may be easily enough recognized. 
It is most nearly allied to P. spinicornis, Fabr., but may be 
distinguished by the denser pubescence of the prothorax and 
elytra. The third joint of the antenna is moreover very 
feebly spined or almost unarmed at the apex, whereas iu 
spinicornis this joint is distinctly spined at the apex, 

Plocederus spinicornisj Fabr. 

Lamia spinicornis, Fabr. Spec. Ins. torn. i. p. 224. 
Cerambyx denticornis, Oliv. Ent. iv. no. 67, p. 60. 

This species, described from specimens in the Banksian 
cabinet, has apparently been omitted from the Catalogue of 
Gemminger and Harold. Olivier altered the name for a 
reason — at the time perhaps valid enough, but now no longer 
good. It is w^ell to mention that, though Olivier's descrip- 
tion is that of Fabricius's species, his figure accompanying it 
represents a quite different species, which appears to me to 
be Prosphilus pilosicollis, Thoms. P. puhipennis^ White, is 
merely a slight variety of P. spinicornis^ Fabr. 

Plocederus consocius. 

Ceramhyx consocim, Pasc. (^Pachydissus in Cat. Geram. and Harold). 

This species is very nearly related to P. Iiumeralis, White, 
and the latter again to P. j^)tdestris, White. In all three the 
prothorax is irregularly transversely wrinkled above and 
armed on each side with a rather short and somewhat blunt 

of the Group Cerambycina?. 259 

spine. The elytra arc iinoly and closely punctured, the 
punctures on the basal part running together to form a fine 
rugosity. In P. pedestris the elytra, as well as the body, are 
black, with a very delicate greyish pubescence ; the legs and 
antennae are rufous ; the elytra are very closely punctulate up 
to the apex. P. humeralis is wholly reddish ferruginous, 
with the exception of the shoulders of the elytra, which are 
fuscous; it is clothed with a very delicate grey pubescence; 
the elytra are closely ])unctulate as far as the apex. P. con- 
socius is of a somewhat dull ferruginous colour, with the 
lateral borders of the elytra somewhat fuscous ; the punctu- 
lation of the elytra towards the apex is sparser and more 
minute than in the two preceding, and the apex of the elytra 
is more distinctly quadrispinose. These differences arc 
])erhaps little more than varietal. There are indeed in the 
British Museum collection two specimens from Southern 
India which seem to be intermediate in characters between 
the North-Indian humeralis and the Geyloaese consocius. 

Plocederiis ohesus. 
Plocederus ohesus, GaliaD, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. v. p. 51. 

Since describing this species I find that one completely 
resembling it had a short time before been figured in the 
' Indian Museum Notes ' (vol. i. no. 2, pi. v. fig. 4 a and h) 
as the Plocederus pedestris of White. The latter species it 
cannot possibly be, and I am only in doubt whether the 
species figured is my ohesus or the ferrugineus of Linna3us. 
Judging from the figure and the localities given I should 
say it is the former. The insect is stated to be injurious to 
timber-trees, and at page 91 of the 'Notes' some account of 
the habits of the larva is given. For the advantage of ento- 
mologists in India, and so tliat a correct determination of the 
species in question may be possible, I will supplement my 
short description of Plocederus ohesus, and point out how it 
differs from P. jyedestris. 

Length 27-45 millim., or from about 1-1| inch ; width 
9-15 millim. 

Clothed with a short but rather dense fulvous-grey pubes- 
cence almost concealing the derm beneath it ; the latter where 
rubbed is seen to be of a reddish chestnut or testaceous colour. 
The antenna? in the male are much longer than the body, ferru- 
ginous, with the intermediate joints usually tipped with black 
at the apex, with the scape finely rugose-punctate, with the 
remaining joints up to tlie tenth very minutely granulate, and 
with the fifth to tenth joints denticulately produced at their 

260 Iilr. C. J. Gahan on Longicorn Coleoptera. 

inner apical termination. The antennae in the female are as 
lono- as or a little longer than the body, with the third to tenth 
joints smooth and pubescent and with tlie fifth to tenth joints 
denticulately produced, as in the male. Prothorax irregularly 
transversely wrinkled above, thickly pubescent, with the ante- 
rior and posterior borders somewhat blackish ; armed at the 
middle of each side with a strong, sharp, and slightly recurved 
spine. Elyti'a with a close fulvous-grey pubescence, with 
usually the sutural line and the extreme lateral margins black ; 
very closely and regularly punctulate throughout ; apices 
truncate, with the angles briefly spinose. 

From pedestris this species can be readily distinguished 
not only by its size, colour, and dense pubescence, but more 
especially by the strong sharp spine with which each side of 
the prothorax is armed ; the rugce of the pronotum also are 
more numerous and more wavy in appearance. 

Massicus Fryi, sp. n. 

Pube brevi fulvo-grisea sat dense obtectus ; capita supra inter oculos 
sulco brevi longitudiuali : antennis ( J ) corpora duplo longiori- 
bus, scapo transversim rugoso at ad apicem intus subaiigiilato, 
articulis tcrtio quartoque incrassatis ; prothoraca lateraliter in 
medio valde rotundato, supra irregularitar corrugato, antice et 
postice transversim suleato ; elytris subelongatis, puba pallidiore 
subcinerea, sub humoris subglabris, fuscis, apicibus truucatis, 
anguhs suturalibus brevitar spinosis ; procassu prosterni postice 
valde promiuente et utrinque leviter tuberculato. 

Long, 50, lat. 12| mm. 

Uah. Borneo. In the collection of Mr. Fry. 

Amongst known species {Geramhyx) ye?»fsf«5, Pasc, seems 
most nearly allied to the present one. Though appearing to 
be congeneric, the differences between the two species are 
well marked. In venustus ( (^ ) the scape of the antonn;\2 is 
not angulate at the apex, but carries there a cicatrice limited 
by a short and not very sharp carina ; the third joint is a 
little longer than the scape or fourth joint ; the fifth to eighth 
joints each bear a small spine at their outer apical termina- 
tion. The prothorax is only slightly rounded at the sides, 
and above it is almost regularly transversely wrinkled. In 
the present species the scape is slightly angulate at the ajiox 
on the inner and inferior face, cairies no distinct carina, and 
is subequal in length to the third joint, the latter not beiug 
longer than the fourth ; not one of the joints of the antenni\2 is 
spinose at the apex on the outer side, though the joints from 
the sixth to the tenth are, as in venustusj denticulately pro- 

On new iSj)ecies of African LyciBnidtc. 2()1 

tluccd at their inner apex. Tlic protliorax is fully rounded in 
the middle at the sides, is narrowed at the base, and still 
more at the apex ; the whole space above between the ante- 
rior and posterior transverse grooves is covered with nume- 
rous rather short and irregular ridges *. J\Ir. Fry IkuI phucnl 
this species in the genus Massicus, and I have no doubt that 
this is the best place for it. 

[To be continued.] 

XXXI. — Descriptions of new Species of African LycajnidiO., 
chief y from the Collections of Dr. Staudinger and Mr. 
Henley Grose Smith. By W. F. KiRBY, F.L.S., F.E.S., 

A LARGE number of African Lyca^nidaj have been kindly sent 
over to j\lr. II. Grose Smith by Dr. Staudinger to be figured 
in ' Ehopalocera Exotica,' several of which have already 
been ]niblished in that work or will appear immediately. 
By far the larger number, however, cannot be figured for 
some little time, and I therefore publish descriptions, pending 
the appearance of the figures. Nearly all belong to genera 
which have already been more or less fully treated of in the 
section of our w^ork devoted to African Lyesenidse. 

Genus AsLAUGA, gen. nov. 
Wings short and broad, very densely scaled; anterior 
wings strongly curved outwards in the middle of the hind 
margin ; posterior wings with a concavity on tiie inner mar- 
gin at the anal angle. Anterior wings with the subcostal 
nervure five-branched, the first two branches emitted near 
together before the end of tlie cell and parallel, the other 
three short and emitted near the apex of the wing ; the third 
and fourth parallel, running into the costa before the apex, the 
fifth ruiniing to the hind margin just below the apex, 

Aslauga marginalis. 
Exp. 1 inch. 

Male. — Upperside tawny, with the hind margins and the 
costa of the anterior wings rather broadly brown. 

* Since writing the above I have seen a second male ppecimcn in the 
possession of Mr. Oliver Janson. In this the prothorax is imicli more 
regularly transversely wrinkled, and in that respect presents little diile- 
rence from vcmisttis, Pasc. 

Ann. (St) Man. N. Hist. Ser. 0. Vol. vi. 19 

262 Mr. W. F. Kirby on 

Underside uniform yellowish tawny. 
Body brown, abdomen tawny (antennae wanting). 
Hah. Sierra Leone. 

In the collection of Mr. Henley Grose Smith. 
Allied to Liphyra vininga, Hew., which is evidently con- 

Allotinus similis. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Upperside as in A. zymna, Westw.^ but posterior wings 
less produced. 

Underside : Anterior wings white, grey towards the costa 
and hind margin, with two grey, transverse oval spots in the 
cell and two white submarginal festooned lines towards the 
hind margin. Posterior wings pearly grey, with six or seven 
white transverse lines formed of connected lunules. 

Hah. Barombi, Cameroons (Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Pseuderesia cellularis. 

Exp. \\ inch. 

Male. — Upperside rich tawny, the base and costa of the 
anterior wings and the inner portion of the posterior wings 
irrorated with brown ; apical third of anterior wings and the 
hind margins of all the wings rather broadly bordered with 
black. Anterior wings with some small spots towards the base, 
a very large one at the end of the cell, and a fev\' others 
towards the dark border, from which the larger ones are 
hardly se))arated. 

Underside : Anterior wings with the costa, apex, and hind 
margin blackish, densely irrorated with yellow ; the lower 
part of the base is of a dull black, the disk being fulvous ; 
the spot at the end of the cell is well marked ; there is an 
oblique row of large connected spots towards the apex, beyond 
the cell, and a ix)w of small, sagittate, submarginal black spots 
before the fringes. Posterior wings dirty yellow, with a circle 
of iive large round spots near the base, having a smaller one 
in the centre ; besides these, there is a large one on tlie middle 
of the costa and a small one on the middle of the inner 
nuugin ; hind margin preceded by a festooned black line, 
within which is a row of large spots. 

Female. — Upperside similar, but of a j^aler fulvous, witli 
narrower borders, and with fewer traces of the submarginal 
black spots. 

Underside of a clearer yellow, with the spots and bhiek 

new Species of African Lycsenidie. 2G3 

inarkinp:.s smaller ; on the posterior wings the central spot in 
the i-ircle is absent. 

Unit. Canieroons. 

In the collection of Dr. StaudinG^er. 

Allied to P. [Liptcna) parva, Kirb. 

Pscuderesia paucipunctnta. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Female. — Upperside tawny ; anterior wings with the apex 
blackish, from two thirds of the length of the costa to two 
thirds of the length of the hind margin, beyond which the 
border is continued as a narrow line to the hinder angle. 
Posterior wings with the fringes blackish. A large spot at 
the end of the cell on all the wings. 

Underside tawny yellow, with the costa and apex of ante- 
rior wings and the whole of the posterior wings irroratcd with 
brown ; besides tlie spots closing the cells, there is one in the 
cell of the anterior wings and a smaller one above the cell 
of the posterior wings. Posterior wings with very indistinct 
traces of four submarginal dusky spots, one towards the tip 
and the other three towards the anal angle. 

Hah. Cameroons, 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Possibly an extreme variety of P. Petreia^ Hew. (of which 
2\ p7-eussi, Staud., is a synonym), which seems to vary con- 
siderably in depth of colouring and in the extent of the dark 
border on the posterior wings, and to a less extent iu the 
number of spots. 

Pseuderesia turhata. 

Exp. a little over an inch. 

Male. — Upjierside reddish tawny, the costa and tip of ante- 
rior wings and the hind margins rather broadly brown. 

Underside paler tawny. Anterior wings with two black 
spots in the cell, the costa irregularly black, throwing out 
a broad band at the end of the cell ; the paler apex is cut off 
by another oblique irregular band, and the costa and the space 
between this band and the hind margin are likewise spotted 
with black ; fringes black, and a submarginal black line on 
the upper part of the wing. Posterior wings more buff ; two 
spots on the costa above the cell, one large spot above, and 
two in the cell, which is itself closed by a black line, and 
three spots below the cell ; the rest of the wing is marked 
with large irregular black blotches. The black fringes are 
preceded by a zigzag black line. 


264 Mr. ^y. F. Kirby on 

J/ah. Camcroons {Preuss). 

In tlic collection of Dr. Stauclinger. 

Allied to P. parva, Kirb., and P. petreia, Hew. 

Pseuderesia similis. 

Exp. a little over an inch. 

Female. — Upperside nearly as in P. turhaia, but the costa 
of the posterior wings brown for two thirds of its length. 

Underside : Anterior wings red ; costa black for one third 
of the breadth of the wing to beyond the cell ; then the 
reddish space runs up, separating it from the apical area, 
which is marked with two much dentated grey lines ; the 
border itself is grey, edged within by a black line on its upper 
half. Posterior wings grey, with a black spot on the costa, 
two very large subcostal spots, three in the cell, the last linear, 
closing it, and three below ; the marginal area is occupied by 
three rows of black zigzag spots separated by two rows of 
grey ones. Fringes grey, edged within by a black and tlien 
by a grey line. 

Hah. Cameroons {Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

This might be the female of P. twhata, but the marginal 
markings of the posterior wings beneath are very different. 

Pseuderesia debora. 

Exp. lyVr inch. 

Male. — U])perside dull black, the incisions scaled witli 
white. Posterior wings with a large orange blotch extending 
from the second submedian nervule to the inner margin just 
above the anal angle. 

Underside : Anterior wings more of a slate-colour ; costa 
and hind margin dusted with grey, inner margin paler, with 
a whitish blotch at the hinder angle ; three red spots placed 
obliquely near the apex of the wings. Posterior wings dull 
black dusted with grey ; a broad red band formed of three 
nearly connected spots crosses the middle of tlie cell, but does 
not extend to the costa or inner margin ; witliin this is a row 
of smaller spots, three red and two black, placed alternately, 
and at the base is another red spot ; beyojid each of the upper 
and lower red spots of the band stands a black s[)ot, and after 
these another row of three disconnected red marks, a large 
one near the costa, a line closing the cell, and a small spot 
below ; beyond the line is another large red spot ; beyond 
these is a series of seven red spots edged witliin with black 
ones (and slightly edged with black on the outside too), one 

new Species of African Lycaenidaj. 265 

on the costa, three connected spots, placed much nearer the 
hind margin, and anotlier scries ot" three connected spots, 
running towards the anal angle. 

Hub. Barombi, Camoroons {Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Pseuderesia dinora. 

Exp. Ij inch. 

Ui)perside reddish tawny (lighter in the female than in tlie 
male), with the base and costa blackisii and the apex of 
anterior wings broadly, and the hind margin below and that 
of the posterior wings rather narrowly, black ; cell of the ante- 
rior wings closed by a large round black spot, not separated 
from the black colour of the costa ; that of the posterior 
wings closed by a short black bar. 

Underside: Anterior wings mostly black, costa irrorated 
with pale yellow in patches ; apex with a large yellow blotch, 
from which smaller yellow spots extend down the hind margin ; 
disk towards the hinder angle with a large fulvous blotch, 
spotted and irrorated with black. 

Posterior wings grey, yellow at the base and with a yellow 
blotch at the tip ; between this and the anal angle is a thick 
black, festooned, submarginal line, enclosing three small 
yellow spots ; within this are two large red spots, and within 
these an angulated row of seven large spots from the costa to 
the inner margin ; the third is red and adjoins a black spot, 
within which again is a large black spot closing the cell ; in 
the cell is a small spot, and there are two or three more 
large and small ones towards the costa, and again towards 
the inner margin. 

In the female the markings are rather more suffused, and 
one of the large spots on the costa of the posterior wings near 
the base adjoins a red dot. 

Hab. Cameroons. 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Very distinct from the other species of the group of P. parva 
by the three large red spots on the underside of the posterior 

Durhania gerda, 

Exp. l^inch. 

Female. — Upperside orange-tawny, hind margins slightly 
scalloped. Anterior wings paler on the disk, with a brown 
spot at the end of the cell, the costa slightly irrorated with 
brown ; the apical area with a brown shade running down- 

206 Mr. W. F. Kirby on 

wards parallel to the hind margin, which it does not touch, 
except at the apex ; fringes marked with a blackish interrupted 
line at tlieir base, swelling into more distinct spots at the extre- 
mities of the nervures. Posterior wings nearly uniform in 
colour ; fringes slightly speckled with blackish. 

Underside : Anterior wings rather paler than above, irro- 
rated with black on the costa above the cell ; a large brown 
spot at end of cell ; at one third of the distance between this 
and the apex are a series of four oblong spots placed obliquely, 
two larger and darker ones on the costa, nearly connected, and 
two others below ; marginal area irrorated with brown, and 
with a submarginal row of long blackish spots on a paler 
ground, dusted with grey ; fringes preceded by a broken 
blackish line, most continuous below. Posterior wings 
brownish tawny, with rather indistinct markings ; two dusky 
spots above the cell, two below, and one at the extremity ; 
beyond the cell are two festooned lines of connected lunules, 
the outermost preceding a more continuous series of darker 
lunules, the space between dusted with grey ; a series of 
blackish spots at the extremities of the nervures. 

Body tawny above j legs and antennae black, spotted with 

Hah. Baronibi [Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Allied to D. aslauga^ Trim. 

Larinopoda sylpha. 

Exp. about 1 inch. 

Semitransparent white, with iridescent ashy borders along 
the costa of the anterior wings and all the hind margins, 
ceasing at the anal angle of the posterior wings ; the costal 
border of the anterior wings sends off a projection at the end 
of the cell, most strongly marked in the female. 

Antennas black, ringed with white; club long, slender, 
pointed ; legs and under surface of abdomen yellow. 

Sexes nearly similar. 

Differs from our figure of L. muhata, Dew., (^ (Rhop. Ex. 
Afr. Lye. pi. ii. figs. 1, 2), by the absence of the black spot 
on the posterior wings. 

JIab. Barombi, Canieroons (Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. 8taudins?er. 


Larinopoda opaca. 

Exp. rather over an inch. 

Opaque white, with rather broad brown border on the costa 

new Species of African Lycjeniclas. 2G7 

of anterior wings and on tlic hind margins of all tlie wings ; a 
large oval sjjot at the end of the cell of the posterior wings; 
on the nnder surface the border does not quite reach the 
liindcr angle of the anterior wings. Fringes grey, with a 
blackish line at the base, separated from the broad border 
by a whitish submarginal line. 

Legs yellow ; abdomen white : antennae black, ringed with 
white ; club black, tipped with yellow. 

I/ab. Cameroons {Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Tingra lavinia. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Male. — Upperside white, with rather large black spots on the 
costa towards the apex of fore wings, at the ends of all tlie cells, 
and at the ends of the nervures on all the hind margins, and 
one nearer the base above the cells ; under this, on the anterior 
wings only, is occasionally another spot in the cell on the 
underside ; extreme base of the wings slightly stained with 
yellow ; apex of anterior wings slightly bordered with ashy 

In the collections of the British Museum (Gaboon) and Ur. 
Staudinger (Ogowe) . 

Allied to T. torrida, Kirb., but a larger, paler, and broader- 
winged insect. 

Tingra laura. 

Exp. Ij to 1^ inch. 

Male. — Upperside white, tinged with tawny at base. Ante- 
rior wings: costa irrorated with black, tip ashy to tiie lowest 
submedian nervule, its upper part edged within with three 
black spots, nearly lost in the ashy colouring ; another sj)ot at 
end of cell, two small ones in the cell, on one side only, and two 
on the disk opposite the lowest part of the border. Posterior 
wings with a spot on the costa above the cell, and another at 
its extremity ; other spots on the under surface showing 
faintly through. 

Underside white, tinged with yellow on the costa and at 
the apex of the anterior wings, and on the posterior wings, 
chiefly at base and tip ; hind margins spotted with black on 
the nervures. Anterior wings with a row of spots above the 
cell (only one distinct, the costa being irrorated with black), 
one at the end of the cell, and two submarginal rows at the 
apex, the outermost (nearly straight) of three larger, and tlie 
innermost (oblique) of four smaller spots. Posterior wings 

268 Mr. W. F. Klrby nn 

with a small spot at base of cell, a large one on the costa 
above the cell, a small one below the cell, and another at its 
extremity, beyond which is an angulated row of six spots 
running from the costa, and a shorter row of three between 
the upper ones and the apex. 

Female. — Upperside white ; apex of anterior wings rather 
broadly ashy, but this colour ceases on the hind margin at 
the lowest median nervule ; a conspicuous black spot at the 
end of the submedian nervure, and of all the nervures of the 
posterior wings except the first branch of the subcostal ; the 
only other distinct spots on the upperside are those at the 
ends of the cells and a small one in the cell of the anterior 
wings, but some of the others are also slightly indicated. 

Underside white, the ends of the nervures marked with 
small black spots. Anterior wings with a row of four small 
subcostal spots, two spots in the cell besides the larger one at 
its extremity, and another in the fork of the two lower median 
nervules. Posterior wings with a large spot above the middle 
of the cell, a small one at the base of the cell, a large one at 
its extremity, and one in the fork of the nervures below ; a 
submarginal row of six small spots, angulated outwards in 
the middle, commencing with a spot larger than the others on 
the costa. 

Antennae black, tipped with tawny in both sexes. 

Hah. Lagos. 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Tingra fatima. 

Exp. 1;^ inch. 

White, slightly stained with orange at the base of the costa. 
Anterior wings with the apex dark asliy to below the upper 
submedian nervule ] a large black spot at the end of the cell 
of all the wings. 

Underside white, with black discoidal spots, and a black 
line at the base of the fringes ; within it is a second on the 
upper half of the anterior wings. 

Ilah. Cameroons. 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

The sexes do not differ. 

Teriomima decipiens. 

Exp. rather more than 1 inch. 

Upperside white, costa (narrowly, but most broadly towards 
the base) and apex, as far as the upper branch of the sub- 
median norvure, ashy. 

)icic Species of African Lyctenidaj. 269 

Underside more inclinlnp^ to yellowish, with two siibmar- 
giiial yellow stripes in the male and one in the female ; fringes 
of anterior wings edged with a black line, as far as the ashy 
patch of the wing extends on the upper surface. 

Antennfe black, slightly spotted with white; club long and 
rather slender. 

JIab. Barombi, Cameroons {Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

The sexes liardly differ. 

Teriominia deh'catala. 

Exp. rather under an inch. 

Male. — Uppcrside white, the apical third of the anterior 
Avings ashy. Posterior wings with a few small marginal 

Underside tinged with yellow on the posterior wings and 
on the costa and apex of the anterior wings. Anterior wings 
"witJi a row of ashy spots on the costa, an oblique row on the 
inner side of the yellowish apical shade, and a spot at the end 
of the cell and a small dot within it. Posterior wings with 
a spot in the cell, spots above and below, and a streak at the 
end of the cell, and two rows of small obsolete spots neanjr 
the hind margins. 

Antennae black, ringed with white ; club long and rather 

Hah. Usugara. 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Closely allied to T. suhpunctata, Kirb., but with the spots 
much smaller, less numerous, and differently arranged. 

Teriomima serena, 

Exp. about 1 inch. 

Upperside yellow ; apex of anterior wings black, from two 
thirds of the length of the costa, curving round the hind mar- 
gin to the hinder angle, where the border ends in a point. 
Posterior wings rather narrowly bordered with black from 
below the tip to the anal angle. 

Underside paler, posterior wings inclining to whitish ; ante- 
rior wings with a row of black dots on the costa and one at 
the end of the cell ; all the hind margins with the ends of the 
nervurcs marked with black, which forms a nearly continuous 
line towards the apex of anterior wings j no discoidal spot on 
posterior wings. 

Antennae black, the shaft ringed with white. 

The sexes liardly differ. 

270 Mr. W. F. Kirby on 

Allied to T. tenera^ Kirb., but differs from all the allied 
species by the continuous narrow border to the posterior wings. 
J lab. Sierra Leone (Preuss). 
In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Teriomima modesta. 

Exp. rather over an inch. 

Male. — Upperside uniform smoky brown ; fringes rather 
paler, spotted neither above nor below. 

Underside clearer brown, with white spots. Anterior wings 
speckled with white at the base ; two spots in the cell, above 
the second is the first of a row of two or three subcostal dots, 
followed by a transverse row of four larger spots ; two sub- 
marginal rows of spots (four in each) on the upper half of the 
wing ; below these are two larger ones in a single line ; the 
first spot of the inner series is preceded by a small subcostal 
dash ; the second and third spots of the outer series have a 
small dash on the outside, and the fourth spot of the outer 
series is the smallest, being reduced to a dash. Posterior 
wings with two large spots on the costa, two in the cell, and 
a third (double) closing it ; two more rather irregular series 
of spots below the cell and a double row of submarginal spots, 
some of the lower ones of the outer row with smaller adjacent 
dashes on the outside. 

Antennae black, spotted with white on the underside ; the 
club long, gradually formed, and tipped with tawny. 

llah. Cameroons [Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Differs from T. adelgitha^ Ilew., in the unspotted fringes 
and upper surface. 

Teriomima cordelia. 

Exp. nearly an inch. 

Upperside purplish blue, shading into dusky towards the 
apex of the anterior wings ; fringes blackish. Thorax clothed 
with rich purple or green hairs. 

Underside brown, speckled witli tawny at the base and 
costa of the anterior wings and on the basal half of the pos- 
terior wings. Anterior wings (on their uj)per two thirds) with 
two, and posterior wings with three rows of submarginal lines 
or nearly connected crescents of tawny dusting. 

Head with a tawny line within each eye ; anlennte black, 
ringed with white ; club gradually formed, tipped with tawny ; 
logs tawny, banded with brown. 

llab. Cameroons (Preuss) ^ Ogowe {Bohh.). 

neio Species of African Lyctenidce. 271 

In the collection of Dr. vStamlinojcr. 

Allied to T. (lispar, Kirb., and T. melissaj Drucc, but 
dirters from the former and apparently also from the latter in 
the markings of the underside. 

Teriomima duhia. 

Exp. fo" inch. 

Male. — Upperside brown, distinctly suffused witli purple, 
and with or without a whitish spot beyond the end of the 
cell of the anterior wings. 

Underside brown, with two or three tawny spots or 
markings in the cells and an indistinct double row of sub- 
marginal tawny markings ; the white spot as above on ante- 
rior wings, and an interrupted, rather indistinct, tawny stripe 
running beyond the cell on the posterior wings. 

Antennai black, ringed with white ; club tipped with 
orange. Body rich purple and coppery green in some lights. 

Ilab. Sierra Leone and Barombi, Cameroons (^Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Perhaps a variety of 2\ melissa, Druce. 

Epitola hadiira. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Male. — Anterior wings rather pointed; posterior wings 

Upperside deep blue. Anterior wings with the costa 
(broadly), apical third, hind margin, and a basal stripe on 
the lower part of the cell black ; inner margin with a few 
coppery-green scales. Posterior wings with the costa broadly 
and hind margin narrowly black. 

Underside greyish brown, with a row of subraarginal 
lunules of greyish dusting, within which is a broader stripe of 
the same kind ; across the wings runs an irregular series of 
lines and zigzags of greyish dusting. 

Hah. Cameroons. 

In the Hewitson Collection of the British Museum as the 
male of E. cercene^ Hew. ; and in that of Mr. PI. Grose Smith. 

Allied to E. dunia, Kirb., but of a deeper blue and 
without the oblique pale zigzag line on the underside of the 
anterior wings. 

Epitola Staudingeri. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Male. — Upperside bright blue. Anterior wings with the 

272 Mr. W. F. Kirby on 

costa, apex, and hind margin narrowly black ; a very large 
oblong black blotch projects into the wing from the lower 
part of the hind margin, filling up the whole space nearly to 
the cell, from the inner half of tlie upper discocellular ner- 
vure to below the lowest branch of the median nervure. 
Posterior wings blue, with the costa, inner margin, and 
fringes black. 

Underside uniform greyish brown, without markings. 
Legs brown, ringed with grey. 

Hah. Sierra Leone {Preuss). 

h\ the collections of Dr. Staudinger and of Mr. P. Crowley. 

Epitola zelica. 

Exp. Ij-l^ inch. 

Uppcrside light blue, with a purplish shade in some lights. 
Anterior wings with the costa above the cell and the apex 
broadly blackish brown, the dark colour diminishing trian- 
gularly to the hinder angle. Posterior wings with the costa 
above the cell, the inner margin, and the hind margin (nar- 
rowly) blackish brown. 

Underside white, with an obsolete straight pale yellowish 
line and two or three obsolete zigzag lines between this and 
the cell. In the female these indistinct markings are 
wanting, and there is only a blackish line at the base of the 
fringes of the anterior wings, which is also present in the 

The sexes do not differ otherwise. 

Ilah. Barombi, Cameroons {Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Standi nger. 

Allied to E. zenna, Hew., but in that species the ujiperside 
is of a deeper blue and the underside is much more heavily 

Epitola Henleyi. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Upperside black and deep violet-blue, the blue portions of 
the wing broken up into spots by black spaces, especially 
along the nervures. 

Underside brown ; a pale space on the imicr margin of 
anterior wings, from which two rows of jiale submarginal 
spots run towards the costa — the outermost row formed of 
three nearly contiguous spots ; the innermost row of three 
spots, of which the two upper ones arc contiguous, separated 
from the third. Posterior wings with traces of two paler 
bands, parallel to the hind margin. 

new Species of African Lycajnida3. 273 

If(th. Baroinbi, Caincroons {Preufis). 

In tlic collection of Dr. Stau(lin;2;er. 

Uppersicle hardly distinf;uisliablc from E. hj/etta, Hew., 
with which a S])ecinion of E. Henleiii fiDni (Jalahar is placed 
in the llcwitson Collection of the British Musciun; but the 
underside is veiy different. 

Epitola catuna. 

Exp. 1-1 1 in. 

Male. — Ui)pcrside deep purplish blue, with ratlier broad 
blackish margins, the ncrvures narrowly black; fring-es grey. 

Underside greyish brown. Anterior wings darker at the 
base to beyond the cell ; at the end of the cell stands an 
obsolete grey spot ; the darker portion of the wing is bounded 
by a row of obsolete grey spots, much expanded on the inner 
margin ; on the hind margin is a row of obsolete grey lunulcs, 
dividing into two rows on the upper half of the wing. Pos- 
terior wings with three subraarginal rows of broad obsolete 
grey lunules, the innermost most indistinct. 

Antennre and legs very slightly ringed with white, only 
the extreme tip of the former tawny. 

Hah. Cameroons (Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Resembles E. IiT/etta, Hew., on the upperside, and the group 
of E. cercenCy Hew., below. 

Epitola doleta. 

Exp. 1^ inch. 

Male. — Upperside blackish brown, with bright blue 
markings. Anterior wings Avith scattered blue markings 
towards the base of the cell, a short bar just beyond the 
middle of the costa running obliquely outwards, and a band 
running nearly to the hind margin between the median and 
subraedian ncrvures. Posterior wings with the whole space 
between the upper part of the cell and thesubmedian nervure 
filled up with blue nearly to the hind margin. 

Underside as in E. catuna ; in one specimen the paler 
markings are almost entirely obsolete. 

Hah. Sierra Leone (Preuss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudinger. 

Perhaps the male of E. cephena. Hew., which it somewhat 
resembles on the under surface. 

274 On new Species of African Lycajnidaj. 

Epitola perdita, 

Exp. rather over an inch. 

]\[ale. — Anterior wings rather pointed, with tlie liind mar- 
gin oblique. Posterior wings oblong, nearly rectangular. 

Uppcrside black. Anterior wings rich blue from below 
the cell to the inner margin. Posterior wings with a large 
blue patch filling up two thirds of the lower part of the wing, 
but nowhere extending to the margins. 

Underside: Anterior wings slate colour, with a pale grey 
spot at the end of the cell and two more, nearly connected, 
near the hinder angle ; apex reddish, edged by a submarginal 
coppery-green line from near the apex to the middle of the hind 
margin. Posterior wings reddish, shading into buff towards 
the base, with a submarginal row of silvery-green lunules, 
edged with black within and (less distinctly) without. A 
Y-shaped series of silvery-green markings edged with black 
lines, not extending to the costa, across the middle of the 

hah. Camcroons. 

In the collection of Mr. H. Grose Smith. 

Epitola (?) harombiensis. 

Kx]). rather more than an inch. 

Anterior wings obtusely pointed at the apex, with the hind 
margin very convex. Posterior wings rounded. 

Upperside purplish blue. Anterior wings with the costa, 
apex, hind margin, and nervurcs black ; cell black, with 
irregular purplish markings towards the base ; inner margin 
but thinly scaled with purple. Posterior wings with the costa 
and inner margin broadly and the hind margin more nar- 
rowly black. 

Underside grey, a dark brown cloud extending from the 
base of the inner margin obliquely to beyond the cell ; thence, 
after an interruption, it spreads more broadly over the whole 
apical portion of the hind margin, except where it is sliglitly 
interrupted towards the costa before the apex. Posterior 
wings speckled with smoky brown, darkest on the hind mar- 
gin, where it shades into a broad border, ill-detincd towards 
the base and not extending to the anal angle. 

Hob. Barombi, Cameroons [Pretiss). 

In the collection of Dr. Staudingcr. 

Miscellaneous. 275 


Leaf-winged Ijocust. By J. J. Quelch, B.Sc. 

Of all the many varied and really wonderful contrivances to be met 
with ill nature tending towards the protection of various harmless 
creatures which are preyed upon by other forms, perhaps none are 
as wonderful as, certainly none are more remarkable than, the con- 
dition of the anterior pair of wings in certain of the Locustidtc, 
such as Pterochroza and other closely allied forms. In many genera 
of the family the front wings are elongated and narrow, like the 
wings of the grasshoppers, and are not only coloured green, like the 
ordinary leaf of a plant, but are fiirnislied with a large subcentral 
vein like the midrib of a leaf, with small veins springing therefrom. 
In Pterochroza and the other special forms referred to, of which a 
few different examples have lately been added to our museum collec- 
tion, the leaf resemblance is carried to a most perfect degree. In 
shape they are ovate, and generally, as in the common elm-leaf, the 
one side is somewhat wider than the other, according to the depth 
of the curve of the central vein, which is thickened like a midrib. 
From this side-veins pass off in all directions, branching and reticu- 
lating, exactly as in the case of the leaf of an ordinary dicotyledo- 
nous plant. The colouring of the wings is even more remarkable, 
the tint varying according to the species. In one the shade varies 
from reddish brown or reddish yellow to a dull purple, and closely 
resembles the shades to be found on the young leaves of many of 
the forest-trees, and more especially on the mora {Mora excelsa). 
In another the tint is of a deep green, which is said to fade away 
graduall)' on continued exposure to light after the death of the 
insect. In a third it is of a very pale yellowish brown, much like 
the coloui'ing on an old and fading leaf about to fall from the 
plant ; while in a fourth it is a dull dead brown, like that of a sere 
and fallen leaf. 

As though to give a more complete naturalness to the already 
seemingly quite natural leaves, variably sized spots of brown or 
yellowish white are sparsely scattered about the surface, just as are 
to be found so commonly upon leaves. 

Observations upon the growth, life-history, and habits of those 
forms are much needed ; but the specimens seem to be extremely 
rare — though it is much more likely that, inhabiting the foliage of 
trees and bushes, they are seldom, and then only accidentally, 
discovered. It is suggestive that the forms in the museum were 
only obtained when they had strayed into houses in or by the forest 
on the Mazaruni Hiver. — Journal of the Koyal Agricultural and 
Commercial Society of British Ouiana, June 1890, p. 141. 

276 Miscellaneous. 

On the Histological Constitution of certain Nematodes of the Gemis 
Ascaris. By M. Lfox Jaiimes. 

Naturalists who have studied the histology of the Nematodes 
up to the present time have asserted that the layer named by them 
(jranulnr layer was not cellular in the adult. Lcuckart, however, 
thought that there existed an epithelial layer formed by very small 
elements, situated internal to and close against the muscle-cells. 

In the investigations in which I am engaged, on certain species 
of Nematodes, and in particular Ascaris megaloeephala, A. lumhri- 
coides (calf), and A. suilla (Dujardin), I have never been able to 
establish the existence of this layer. With the aid of the histo- 
logical apparatus in use at the Faculty of Sciences of Toulouse I 
have long sought in the granular layer for any traces of an ectoderm. 
The granular layer is limited on one side by the cuticle, on the 
other by the muscular layer. 

Eut, on the other hand, these researches have brought to light 
certain particulars relating to the granular layer : transverse sec- 
tions at the horizon of the oesophagus show the continuity and 
structural identity of the oesophageal nervous ring and of the 
granular layer. Both are made up of fibrils interspersed with cells. 
The fibrils of the nervous ring on arriving at the body- wall bend 
inwards and distribute themselves between the cuticle and the 
muscular layer ; after this the nervous system and the muscular 
layer affect connexions so fine that it is impossible to assign their 
exact limits. 

Longitudinal sections at different horizons show little beds of 
cells in the granular layer, often disposed in several rows but never 
forming a continuous epithelium. 

These cells present various appearances : rarely cubic, sometimes 
rounded, most often flattened parallel to the bodj^-wall, they bear a 
variable number of prolongations. It is these prolongations which 
contribute to give the layer its fibrillar and felted aspect in the 

No intercellular substance is ever found between them. 

The cells of the granular layer are stained a uniform violet by 
chloride of gold, whilst this reagent colours the cuticle rose and 
purple. The external segmentation as revealed by this infiltra- 
tion does not correspond, at least in the adult, with any internal 

The great similitude of structure of the granular layer and of the 
nervous system leads us to think that the granular layer represents 
the ectoderm. This latter would differ much in its constitution 
from the ectoderm of other Metazoa ; it would be made up. in eflTcct, 
of neuro-epithelial elements, and the nervous system described by 
authors would only be a condensation of this mass at different points 
in the body. 

However, this idea needs corroborating by embrvological re- 
searches, in which 1 am now engaged. — Conij>/^,« licndus, July 7, 
IS'JO, p. 05. 

Jl/w cV . ^lai/. . \ 'a/ . Ili.<t . S .O.Vrl .(>. /'I .\ II . 

9 •*• 

fig 3 

fig 2 

fig 5 

H.H Godwin- Ausben, del. 

Maclure 8l C°libli. 

. ///// ..I' . \i,uf. . v.,/ . /y^v/ . ,v. i;. j ;./ .\i. ri. viii. 



A Alcock adi\at del 

Mirctern. Bros . ]itii. 

/////..I- Ma.i.x^i Hisi . s. i: i;./ 17 /'/ /.I 


A Alcock adi;a.t.del 

Mintern. Broa. litK. 

. ha,. A- . l/<f,/. . \'„l . II, si . S. C. In/ . II. I'l. X. 



Parker & Cowarxl litK 

Ti/Iinteiai Bi-os . ntip. 





No. ;}4. OCTOBER 1890. 

XXXII. — Notes on Slu(js, chief j/ in the Collection at the 
British Museum. By T. D. A. COCKERELL. 

The following notes result from a study of various species of 
slugs, many of them new or liitlicvto ill-understood, which I 
have been able to examine recently. Most of the specimens 
referred to are in the British Museum, though some few are 
in private collections. I have to thank Mr, E. A. Smith for 
aftbrding me every facility at the Museum ; and I am also 
greatly indebted to Mr. W. G. Binney for the opportunity of 
examining many species of American slugs. 

1. Aeiolimjjt, Anadenus, and Profhtsaon. 

This group of ^?-i'o/i-like slugs has not been very wxll 
understood, partly, no doubt, because of the difficulty of 
obtaining specimens of the species. I have been fortunate in 
seeing quite a large series of forms, which I tabulate as 
follows : — 

A. Sole not differentiated into parts ; respiratory orifice anterior ; genital 
orifice close to right eye-pedimcle. 

(1) No caudal mucus-pore. . . , Gen. Prophysaon, Bid. «fc Biun., 1873. 
Sect. a. Fasciafi. Body with dark dorsal band. 

i. Jaw ribbed P. fasciatum, Ckll. 

ii. Jaw striate, not ribbed. P. humile, Ckll. (priec. var. ?). 

Ann. (D Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 20 

278 Mr. T. D. A. Cockevoll's A^o/es on Slurjs. 

Sect, b, Ccerulei. Body without dorsal band, reticulation compara- 
tively simple iii. P. cavideum, Ckll. 

Sect. e. Typici. Body with a pale dorsal line. 

iv., V. Ochreous species, P. padficum, Ckll., and P. Jlavitm, 
Ckll. (price. \&r.?). 
vi., vii. Greyish species. P. Ayidersoni, Coop., and P. Ihmp- 

hilli, B. & B. (prsec. var.). 

(2) With a caudal mucus-pore. Gen. fprnec. subg.) Phetmcarion, Ckll., 


i. Back with no dark band. 

P. foliolutum, G uld. 
ii. Back with a dark band. 

P. nemphilU, W. G. Binn. 

B. Sole differentiated into parts; respiratory orifice nearly median or 
.'(lightly posterior. 

(1) No caudal mucus-pore. 

(1«) Genital orifice close to right eye-peduncle ; back keeled. 

Gen. nov. Anadenulus, Ckll. 
i. A. Cockerelli, Hemph. 

(16) Genital orifice not close to right eye-peduncle ; back not keeled. 

Gen. Anndemis, Heyn., 1863. 
Sect. a. Sidcati. I?ody with deep transverse sulci, 
i. A. Jerdoni, G.-Aust. 

Sect. b. Altivagi. Body with oblique fine sulci. 

ii. A. aJtira(ju.<i, Theob. 
iii. A. mndpstus, Theob. (pra?c. juv. ?). 
iv. A. SchUujiyiticeiti, Hejni. 

(Sect. ? v., vi. A. Blanfordi, G.-A., A. insignis, G.-A., not seen by me.) 

(2) With a caudal mucus-pore ; genital orifice not close to right eye- 
peduncle Gen. Ariolimax, Miirch, 1860. 

Sect. a. Maximi. Large species. 

i. A columhianns, Gould. (California 

to British Columbia.) 
ii. A. califunnciis, Cooper. (Cali- 
iii. A. costan'censis, Ckll.. nov. (Costa 

Sect. b. Parvuli. Smaller species. 

iv. Sole mottled .... A. m'tjer, Coop, 
v. Sole not mottled . . A. HcmphiUi, W. G. B. 

(Also of this genus: vi. A. Andersoni, W. G. B. : vii. A. Hecori, 
Weth., spp. dub.) 

Later on I shall have to puhlish .*!onic rather cojiiou.-* notes 
on the American species ; nioanwhilo it will be nset"ul to 
note : — 

'SU: T. I). A. Cockerell's yotes on SIups. L>70 

1) PropJn/saou hnml'e. — I do not tool certain that the cha- 
racter ut" the jaw is really specific ; it may be an 
aberration, but this cannot be settled until we have a 
series of specimens to examine. 1 have jilaced the 
type specimen in the British Museum. 

(2) Prophysaon flavum. — The difference between the sole of 

this and pacijicum observed may be partly due to 
postmortem contraction. Possibly ^ay^m is a variety 
o'i pacijicum. 

(3) Projjhi/saon Andersoni, Coop., has priority over P. Ilemp- 

hillif B. & B., and I cannot detect any spc;cilic differ- 
ence between them. P. Andersoni, W. G. B., 
belongs to Fasciati, and is P.fasciatuni, Ckll. 

(4) Phenacarion is very near to Prophysaon ; indeed it is 

most difficult to separate P. foliolatuni and Pr. Heinp- 
hilli specifically. I have not seen any good material 
of Phen. Hemphilli^ \V. G. B., but it appears to be a 
distinct species. If Phenacarion is not kept as a 
genus and Projyh. Hemphilli is regarded as distinct 
i\0VL\ Andersoni^ then P. {Phen.) Hemphilli will require 
a new name. 

(5) Anadenulus CockereUi. — I at first referred this species, of 

which I saw the types, to Anadenus ; but it is really 
distinct enough to be separated from it, besides being 
American, wiiile the true ^/«a Jen i are Asiatic. The 
genital orifice in true Anadenus is quite a long way 
from the right eye-peduncle, as in Ariolimac. 

(G) ArioUmax columhianus and californicus are hardly to be 
separated as species ; californicus is more keeled and 
has a narrower sole. A. Hecoxi, a third species from 
the United States, has never been described, and 
cannot be recognized. Mr. Binney informs me it is 
a large species. 

(7) Ar. Andersonij W. G. B., is a doubtful species, probably 
a variety oi A. niger. The "foliated appearance" is 
not specific, as it occurs also in A. niger. 

ArioUmax costaricensis, subsp. nov. 

A. californicus^ subsp. — Length QS millim. (in alcohol), 
mantle 27 millim. long, respiratory orltice 19 niillini. from 


280 Mr. T. D. A. CockercH's Notes on Slugs. 

anterior border ; sole 17 millim. broad. Colour dark oliva- 
ceous. Back well keeled for about 18 millim., keel inclined 
to be flexuose. General form of cilifornicus. Sole trans- 
versely wrinkled-sulcate, especially lateral areas. Rugaj like 
cah'fornicus, about 17 rows on each side of body, counting 
from dorsum to sole. Mantle rather finely granulose. 
Caudal pit distinct. Jaw dark, ribbed. 

The alcohol in wliicli they have been is coloured yellow. 

Hab. Costa Rica (il/r.t/awsow). Four specimens in British 

Anadenus Jerdoniy G.-Aust. 

Godwin- Austen's type of this extraordinary slug, from 
Cashmere (coll. Jerdon), is in the British Museum ; I made 
the following notes supjjlementary to the original descrip- 
tion : — Jaw dark, not greatly curved, witli about twelve 
strong ribs. Body with transverse deep sulci, stronger tlian 
the longitudinal ones. Mantle broadly ovate. Colour entirely 
greyish ochreous. E,es}»iratory orifice 28 millim. from ante- 
rior border of mantle. Mantle 38 millim. long. Slug about 
90 millim. long. External genital orifice beneath anterior 
right border of mantle, 9 millim. from base of right eye- 
peduncle and 5 millim. from edge of sole. Sole with median 
and lateral areas not strongly differentiated. This species 
departs considerably from the ordinary type of Anadenus. 

Anadenus altivagus, Theob. 

Two specimens from Simla {Theobald) in British ^luseum, 
from which I made the following notes : — 

Length 47 millim. Mantle oval, 22 millim. long, uni- 
colorous, granulose; respiratory orifice 14 millim. from ante- 
rior border. Sole very broad, lat. 18 millim. ; median area, 
lat. G^ millim., thus nearly the same width as either lateral 
area. Sole finely transversely wrinkled. Reticulations on 
body numerous and small, more longitudinal than transverse 
— t. e. oblique lines run from dorsum downwards and back- 
wards, and these are connected by numerous longitudinal 
lines and reticulations between them. The oblique lines arc 
about eight or ten on each side. Colour dull ochre, spotless ; 
neck grey above. 

Another specimen in British ^luseum, from Sikkim (coll. 
Schlagintweit), is evidently also altirii</us, but is 74 millim. 

Ur. T. D. A. CockereH's Notes on Slu,/s. 281 

long; Sole hit. 2.'5§ inillim. ; median area, lat. lOh niillini., 
thus bruucier than either lateral area ; lateral areas ^ramilose. 

Anadenus modest us^ Theob. 

^^'ith the Hikkini altivagus in the British Museum is the 
small specimen ret'erred to by Godwin-Austen (Land and 
Freshwater Moll. India, 1882, p. 54). It has the oblique 
lines on the back characteristic ot section Altivagi^ and also 
the flattened tail. It is 19^ millim. long; mantle 8 millim. 
long, respiratory orifice slightly posterior, i. e. 5 millim. from 
anterior border. Sole, lat. 5^ millim., median zone broader 
than either lateral. Colour dull greyish ochreous, with lateral 
black marbling on mantle (representing broken-up lateral 
bands) and black lateral bands, irregular in outline, on body. 
This is very ])ossibly the young of A. altivagus, but it is also 
apparently TheobakPs modistus. lleynemann described a 
similar form as the young of Schlaghdiceiti. If the young 
of altivagus is striped, no doubt the young of a species so 
closely allied as ISchlagintweiti would be similar, and the 
immature slugs might be very hard to distinguish specifically. 
There can be no doubt, supposing these striped slugs are 
juveniles, that Theobald's modestus is the young of altivagus 
or Schlagintweiti. 

Anadenus Schlagintioeitiy Heyn. 

Colour grey, slightly olivaceous, becoming white beneath 
mantle posteriorly. Neck and head dark above. Sole 
narrower than in altivagus, median area approximately of 
equal width to either lateral area. Mantle 24 millim. long, 
respiratory orifice slightly anterior to middle. Back with 
flatter rugai than in altivagus^ but pattern of reticulation the 
same. These notes are from a specimen in the British 
Museum marked " Coll. Schlagintweit, Simla to Sulsanpor 
[Sultanpur, in G.-A. Moll. Ind.], Himalaya," and, apparently 
in Dr. lleynemann's writing, '^Anadenus Schlngintweitiy 

Another specimen in tiie Britisii Museum from Kulu, 
Himalaya {Schlagintweit), is also Scldagintweiti , but has the 
sole more wrinkled and tlie median area narrower ; colour also 
darker, but the white below mantle conspicuous. 

A. Scldagintweiti is exceedingly closely allied to altivagus, 
but it may be a good species, it is easily distinguished by 
its difi'erent coloration. 

282 :\rv. T. D. A . Cockerell's Notes on Slugs. 

IT. The Tandonia Section of AifAziA. 

The keeled slugs, referred by modern authors to the genus 
Amah'a, Moquin-Tandon, were divided bj Lessona and 
Pollonera in 1882 into groups — PiRAiNEA, the group of -4. 
gngates, and TaxdoNIA, the group of A. carinata and A. mar- 
(jinata. A tlilrd group, having an incomplete keel, is }rnU- 
nastrum, Bourg. {= Subamalia, Poll., 1 887). The Tanuoxia 
section is credited by Pollonera with twelve species, but 
several of them are very closely allied — not more distinct, 
indeed, than other races almost universally considered varieties. 
Probably the number of species will be greatly reduced when 
it becomes possible to com])are living examples and dissect 
fresh specimens of all of them. 

I give here a list of the recorded forms, with notes : — 

Amalia marginata (Drap.). 

Known by its small spots and banded mantle. There is a 
s])ecimen in the British IMuseum from Waldeck, received 
from Dr. Heynemann, from which I made the following 
notes : — 

25 millim. long (in alcohol), narrower than carinata, and 
hardly arched. Sole ochrey ; median area hardly twice as 
broad as one lateral area. Keel straight, ochreous. Body 
ochreous at sides, bluish grey dorsally, with a peppering of 
dark grey points all over (except under mantle and on sole). 
Mantle with lateral dark bands fading away anteriorly. 

This is quite a distinct species and quite different from the 
English slug, carinata. Leach, usually called marginata. I 
have never seen an English example of true marpinata, nor 
can I find any evidence of its occurrence in the British 
Islands by searching the literature. The figure and descrip- 
tion by Rimmer (Land and Freshwater Shells of British 
Islands, 1880) belong to the true marginata, but they are 
copied apparently from the French, and have actually no 
reference to an English slug. Heynemann (Die nackt. 
Landpulm. des Erdbodens, 1885) gives ^I. marginata as 
l^ritish, but he was probably misled by British authors, 
lioebuck (' Science Gossip,' 1884, p. 78) records var. rusticn 
from Gloucestershire; but it is probable — 1 think practically 
certain — that he had not the true nistica, Mill,, as understood 
ill France"^, but a variety of ^. carinata. 

* Kn'jilinger, I'^TO. grivefi ri/sficiis. Mill., as ii >viu)nym ol" Z. {Lehuutn- 
nia) tncin/i/iatii-i, Miill. 

Mr. ']'. D. A. Cockerell's Xotes on Slwjfi. 283 

A. pyrrichusy Mai)., is a form of manjinata, and var. rufuJuy 
jMoq.-Taiicl. (Moll. «le France, pi. ii. tig. 4), also belongs 

A. rusticus, ^lill., 1843, appears to be another form of 
the same species as given by Moquin. L. carinatati of 
Daniel, Heidelberg list (Quart Journ. (3onch. vol. i, p. 113), 
may be true JuntyinatOj ami not Leach's Sj)ecies. Var. nion- 
giauefini.s^ Paul., from Calabria (near Mongiana), is probably 
referable also to man/inata. 

Amalia marginata, form pyrrichus (Mabille). 

Amalia marginata, form rufula (Moq.). 

Amalia marginata, form rustica (Mill.). 

Amalia marginata, var.? mongianensis, Paulucci, 1879. 

Amalia Reuleauxi, Clessin, 1887. 

Amalia Reuleauxi, form punctata^ Cless. 

1 have not seen a sufficient description of Reuleauxi, but 
it seems allied to marginata. 

Amalia carinata (Leach). 

1820. Li»ia.v carinatus, Leach, Moll, of G. B. pi. viii. tig. 3. 

1823. Liinax Sowerhyi, Fer. pi. viii. D. 

1840. Liincuv carinatus, J. E. Gray, Man. of Land and Freshwater 

ShelLs Brit. Is., by AV. Turton, new ed. pp. 115, 116, tig. 
1844. Lima.v carinatus, Brown, iu text {Sowerhii on plate), lU. Rec. 

Couch. Gt. Brit, and Trel. pi. Iviii. fig. 6, pi. lix. fig. 14. 
1803. Limax Sowerhyi, L. Reeve, Land and Freshwater Moll. Brit. Is. 

p. 17, fig. 1. 
1800. Lima.v Soiverhii, R. Tate, Land and Freshwater Moll. Gt Brit 

fig. 13. 
1875. Limcu- Sowerbii, S. P. AVoodward, Man. of the Mollusca, 3rd ed 

fig. 124. 

1882. Milax Soioerbyi, Locard, Cat. Gen. des Moll. viv. France. 

1883. Amalia marginata, Roebuck, Journ. of Conch. April, p. 40. 

The above (excepting the second and the last two) are 
references to British figures of this species, all representing- 
Leach's species, and not Draparnaud's marginata. Tlie slu"- 
has been elsewhere described by several authors, but the 
bibliography here given will suffice for present requirements. 
The older authors correctly referred it to carinata, but the 
reference to marginata, " Miiller " or " Drap.," has been 
universal in England of late years, and needs corrcctin"-. 
Limax marginatum, Miiller, is not even an Amalia. 

284 Mr. T. D. A. Cockcrcll'.s Notes on Slwjs. 

Leacli's type, marked ^^Liviax carinatus, given hy li. 
Latham," is still in the British Museum*; it is a rather large 
pale specimen, 

A. carinata is easily known from viarginata by its dark 
sulcus on the mantle and the usually dark-reticulated body. 
There is in the British Museum a specimen of A. carinata 
from Ecuador, collected by Mr. Buckley ,• doubtless it is an 
introduced species in that country. It is rather remarkable 
that the species has not yet been introduced into North 

Amalia carinata^ form Sowerhyi (Fer.). 

Fcrussac's Sowerhyi is simply a form of carinata^ bright- 
coloured and with strong markings. 

Amalia carinata^ form hicohr (Ckll.). 

Amalia marginata, var. bicolor, Ckll. Sci. Ctoss. Aug. 1687, p. 187. 

Sides black, keel and sole orange. 
Ealing, Middlesex. 

Amalia carinata^ form fuscocarinata (Ckll.). 

Amalin mnr(/inata, var. fuscocarinata, Ckll. Nat. World, Sept. l88l>, 
p. 179. 

Keel coloured like the rest of the body. 
Bedford Park, Middlesex. 

Amalia carinata^ form rustica (Roeb.). 

Amalia mar</inata, var. rustica, Itoeb. Sci. Goss. 1884, p. 78 ; Journ. of 
Concb. Oct. 1885, p. 3(i;3. 

Colour grey, without any admixture of brown or yoUow. 
This is ai)parently not rustica, Mill. 

• The ]?ritit<ii ]\lust'um also possesses specimens of Amalia carinata 
i'roni tlu' following localities in England: — Counn. Docks, London, S.E. 
{J. E. l)aiiivh\ S. Shields (7v. Ilotvsc) \ near London (./. E. Jlartinij); 
liedfoid Parlv, Chiswick ('/'. 1). A. Vocherell) ; and a few others withont 
locality precisely given. One big speciiuen oi A. carinata is marked "/-. 
carinatH)^ and var. pallida (J. V.. Daniel)." I cammt ascertain that an\ 
var. pallida of the species has been described. The specimen from 
Ecuador, presently to be mentioned, wits collected by Mr. Huckley, pur- 
chased of E. Gernu'd. It is 3(.) millim. long, mantle V2\ millim. long, 
sole pale ochrev, median area twice as broad as eitlier lateral area. It 
dilVers in nc tiling fioni those found near London. Among the Inniford 
Park lot is a sj)ecimeii of form )iit/rcKccns. 

Mr. T. 1). A. CockeicU's Notes on .'Sluj^. 28.3 

Amdlia carinata^ form nujrescens (Rocb.). 

Amalia manjinata, var. nit/rrscens, Rofbuck, MS., Ckll., Nat. Wuild, 
Sept. I68i>, p. 17lt. 

Dark grey or nearly black, without an internal shell. 

Middlesex and iSurroy. 

'I'liis is an extreme dark form, and, curiously enough, 
though several specimens have been carefully dissected by 
two or three concliologists, no shell has been found present. 
Limax Elireiiheriji, Bourg., a form of L.favus^ is similarly 
said to have no shell. 

Amalia fuha (Paulucci). 

Amalia carinatu, Leach, subspecies. 

Li»uuv carinatu^, liis.-*o, 1820. 

Mil<ix carinatus, Locard, Cat. Gen. Moll. France, 1882. 

The southern form of carinata^ known as carinata, llisso, 
has been considered a distinct species from that of Leach by 
Locard and others ; but it appears to be only a subspecies at 
best. Kisso's name is later than Leach's, so it cannot be 
used according to the law of priority. A. argillaceus^ Gass., 
1856, has been quoted under carinata, Kisso, but it is really 
a .synonym of carinatu^ Leach. 

A. iinn-r/i'nala, var. fulva, Paulucci, 1879, belongs to the 
southern slug, being the young or a sligiit variety, and 1 have 
adopted this as the earliest available name for the subspecies. 

Amalia fulva^ form Ujj)us (Less. &, Poll.). 
Amalia Julva, ioxm. i)allidissima (Less. <Sc Poll.). 
Amalia fulvuj form insolita (Less. & Poll.). 
Avialiafulva^ var. oretca (Less. & Pull.). 
Amalia fulva, var. casertana (Less. & Poll.). 

For these varieties see Lessona and PoUoncra's excellent 
monograph of the Italian slugs. 

Amalia Eichwaldii (Kal.). 

Amalia carinata, Leach, subspecies. 

Krynickillus Eichioaldii, Kaleniczenko, Bull. Soc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 
1851, tab. vi. tig. 1 a, b. 

The figure represents a small pale brown slug with a con- 

280 Mr. T. D. A. Oockcrell's Notes on Slags. 

spicuous yellow keel. No sulcus visible on mantle. Body 

Amalia Pacomei (Florence). 
Milax Pacomei, Florence, Bull. Soc. Mai. France, 1889, p. 326. 
A doubtful species ; perhaps a form of A. falva. 

Amalia llessei, Bttg. 

Amalia carinata, Leacli, subspecies. 

A small slug- from Corfu, having the markings on the 
mantle tu-like. This ox-like marking is not a specific cha- 
racter, as it is more or less visible on carinata^ marginata^ 
oretea, baripus^ and pallidida. 

Amalia pallidalay subsp. nov. 
Amalia carinata, Leacli, subspecies. 

Length (in alcohol) 17 millim. ; mantle, length 6^ millim. ; 
sole broadish, diam. o millim. Colour entirely pale ochrey, 
or back and mantle more brownish, mantle-sulcus sliglitly 
brown. Head pale ochrey, tentacles greyish. Mantle broad, 
squarish-blunt before and behind. Body narrowish, very 
strongly and highly keeled. Reticulations by strong grooves, 
forming flattened elongate-squarish ruga?, interstitially smooth 
and shiny. Sole with the median area not twice as broad as 
either lateral area, pale ochrey, unicolorous. Kespiratory 
orifice well posterior. Grooved stria>- in median area of sole 
as numerous as in lateral areas. Keel not flexuose. Tail 
flattened laterally, not at all attenuate. A delicate subtrans- 
parent s])ecies. 

Described from two sj)ecimens in the British Museum, 
presented by Dr. J. E. Gray. 

Habitat unknown, but probably South European. 

Allied to A. gracilis^ A. Kobelti, and A. Ilessei, and 
])erhaps oidy to be regarded as a variety of one of them. 

Amalia Kobelti^ Hesse. 
Amalia carinata, Leach, subspecies. 
A unicolorous yellow species from Greece. 

Mr. T. ir A. C.xkrrcir.s Xofes on Slu;js. 2S7 

Ainalia gracilis, Lcydif^, 187G. 

Smaller than cnriiuitn^ and mantle without black sulciis- 
marking. A. cibinien.^is, Kim., is a synonym. 

Amalia gracilis, form Inuiapestcnsis (Hazay, 1881). 

Hazay's fijijnrc represents an elongate slug, nearly uni- 
colovous ])alish sepia, tail quite tapering, head and tentacles 
blackish or grey. 

Amalia baripus (Bourg.). 

Milcui barijnm, Bourn:. Moll. Nouv. Lit. ou peu conuiis, 18G3-1868, 
pi. .xxxii. tigs. 7-10. 

Ilah. Syria. 

l^ourguignat's figure represents a small pale bluish Amalia, 
keel pale, head and tentacles pale violaceous ; mantle with 
the sulcus and a posterior median short line or band black. 

Amalia cristata (KaL). 

KrynuhiUus cristatus,\\.ii\.W\W.>ioc. Imp. Nat. Mosc. 1851, tab. v. 
ligs. 1 a, h. 

Kaleniczenko figures a pale reddish-ochre slug ; head and 
neck blackish ; no sulcus visible on mantle. Tryon's " cris- 
tata, Kal.," seems more like Eichwaldii. 

Kaleniczenko gives Limax megaspidius, Blainv., as iden- 
tical with cristatus ; but megaspidius, as attested by the 
original of Ferussac's fig. 4, pi. vi., in the British Museum, 
is a young albino Limax maximus. 

Amalia tyrrena. Less. & Poll. 
Amalia etriisca, Issel. 

Two Italian species, fully described in Lessona and PoUo- 
nera's monograph. 

To sum up, I give here a table showing the velationshi[)s 
of the various forms as nearly as I can nuike them out. 


.Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell's Notes on Slugs. 

3 Fairfax Puiad, Bidford Turk, Cbiswick, W., 
August 24, I^IH). 

On the Rclationsliip of the Rodentia to the Marsupialia. 289 

XXX III. — On the Relationship of the Rodentia to the 
Marsujyialia. By Dr. A. Fleisciimann *. 

The group of the Rodents incliules a great number of multi- 
farious forms ; generally small and active animals, they are 
able to adapt themselves to the most ditferent conditions of 
existence over wide limits, and in consequence of the flexi- 
bilUy of their requirements they people the surface of our 
planet in astonishing quantity. Their palaeontological range 
extends back to the commencement of the Tertiary period. 
]t is remarkable that even then there were forms living in 
great numbeis which have maintained their full power of 
existence with but trifling clianges to the present day. In 
the strata whicli furnish us with the knowledge of those 
times, however, remaii?s of gigantic Rodents are preserved 
which flourished side by side with smaller allied forms, but 
owing to unfavourable conditions soon disappeared again. 
Now we have alone: ^vith families of almost universal distri- 
bution others whose dwelling-places are limited to particular 
regions, and the last giant among the Rodents, the Gapy- 
hara^ leads a solitary existence in the marshy plains of tiie 
South-American rivers. 

It might be thought that a group of animals with a history 
extending so far back in time and showing such remarkable 
conditions of geographical distribution and so elegant a bodily 
structure would have induced many naturalists to come for- 
ward as its historiographers. But from the study of the lite- 
rature this expectation appears to be a deceptive one. 

It is true that we can cite abundance of works upon the 
systematic arrangement of this class and the relationship of 
the different species and families founded upon the structure 
of the teeth. If we leave out of the account the special 
researches which have been made upon the typical experi- 
ment-animals of our laboratories, the guinea-pig and the 
rabbit, anatomical investigations upon the constitution of the 
different systems of organs have been, since the time of 
Pallas, very rarely extended to the whole group. And if the 
knowledge of the soft parts must be characterized as quite 
unsatisfactory, the want of works on the phylogenetic history 
of these animals is still more to be regretted. 

Leaving out of consideration the various attempts to refer 
the Rodents to a certain place in the system, we have here to 

• Translated from the ' Sitzungsbericlite der konigl. Preussischen 
Akademie der Wissenschaften zu Berlin,' March 20, 18i)0, pp. 299-305. 

290 Dr. A. Fleischmann on flie Relationfihip 

cite only a work of M. Schlosser's ' On tlie Rodents of the 
European Tertiary, witli Considerations upon the Organiza- 
tion and Developmental History of tlie Rodents in general " 
(' Palffiontofrraphica,' Bd. xxxi.). Schlosser is the first and 
only naturalist who, from the standpoint of the modern 
theory of evolution, has submitted the palteontological remains 
of the animals in question to a remarkably thoroughgoing 
treatment, and then made an attempt at a phylogenetic 
arrangement under close consideration of the skeletal and 
dental structure of the recent forms. Deductions from very 
numerous facts led him to the hypothesis that the Rodentia 
are directly related to the Marsupials. From my ,own inves- 
tigations I regard this conception as quite irrefutable ; but 
unfortunately Schlosser was led, half a year after the publi- 
cation of his exemplary work, to recall his fine demonstrations 
and even to characterize them as untenable. 

Since that time the question has rested completely, for, 
owing to the little sympathy that many zoologists have with 
pala^ontological results, Schlosser's work appears to have 
become known only to a few. 

By some investigations in developmental history I was 
led several years ago to give more attention to the question 
of lhe genealogical relationships existing between the ditierent 
classes of Mammalia, and 1 now venture to put forward a 
brief report upon the results at which I have arrived with 
respect to the Rodentia. 

As the relationship of the Mammalia is determined cus- 
tomarily by the nature and number of the teeth, I will com- 
mence my statement Mith the dentition of the Rodents. The 
remarkable parallel in dentition between Marsupialia and 
Rodentia has already been repeatedly dwelt upon without any 
careful inquiry whether we have here a mere analogy or an 
actual homology indicative of direct relationship. The course 
of conversion, according to my observations, which agree 
well with previous statements, may be traced from the 
kangaroo-like Marsupials to the true Rodents, the analogous 
lateral branches of Phalangista and Phascolomys furnishing 
opportune evidence of the former intermediate forms. The 
dentition of Phalangista vidpina shows in the upper jaw two 
canines and six incisors, of wdiich the middle ones are the 
largest, the lateral the smallest. In the lower jaw there are 
two large chisel-shaped incisors, the alveoli of which extend 
as far as to the first molar. Behiiul the two large incisors 
there are four smaller ones; there are therefore six incisors 
in the lower jaw, diminishing in size posteriorly, so that the 
third pair appears only in the form of very diminutive points 

of the liodeniia to the Marsupial ia. 201 

wliich fall out early in life, but the second pair is long 
retained. In Ifi/p.sij>ri/))nius two incisors in the lower jaw 
work against six in the upper, and of the latter the first pair 
have grown considerably stronger, while the second and third 
pairs are of inferior size. In P/(alan(jista the six incisors 
stand in an elegant horseshoe-like curve on the margin of the 
broad preniaxilla; ; but in Hi/i^siprymnus the snout has 
become narrower, the premaxillaj being laterally compressed. 
Then the four smallei- incisors curve more towards the middle, 
in order to function, as opposed to the upper teeth, in tearing 
of!" j)lants. A large series of skulls of Uypsiprymnus shows 
in what different ways this purpose can be attained. But the 
four teeth are too weak to be retained with advantage in 
adaptive groups ; hence they undergo the same fate as the 
corresponding teeth in the lower jaw of Phalangista. In this 
way it seems to me tiiat tlie typical dentition of the Rodents 
with its two pairs of incisors has been produced. Tlie trans- 
formation of the enamelled and root-bearing incisor into the 
persistently growing gnawing-tooth furnished with an 
enamel plate on one side only may also be easily traced in 
the stem of the Marsupialia. In the group of the Lago- 
morpha the dentition shows conditions which accord well with 
my speculations. In the upper jaw, behind the gnawing- 
teeth, the second pair of small incisors is quite pressed towards 
the median plane ; they are also changed and have acquired 
the power of persistent growth. The gnawing-teeth them- 
selves, in both the upper and the lower jaw, also have very 
short alveoli and a slight curvature. 

isotwithstanding the undoubtedly important part which 
the dentition plays in rapid systematic diagnosis I do not 
think that the notion of a direct blood-relationship can be 
founded with sufficient certainty upon the similarity of the 
dentition alone. Thercfo.e I will adduce further proofs. 

The horizontally inward projection of the angle in the 
lower jaw of the Marsupials is well known as a very con- 
venient and striking character. If the liodents be phylo- 
genetically related to the Marsupials this structure must also 
be still recognizable ; and in fact the comparison of many 
skulls has shown me that the often described bending of the 
posterior angle of the mandible in Rodents, which occurs in 
variable degrees in different sections of the order, is derivable 
in a direct series from what is found in the Marsupials. I 
affirm most decidedly that Rodentia and Marsupialia manifest 
their relationship by the homologous behaviour of the angle 
of the mandible. In Muridffi, 8ciurida3, and Myoxidaj this 
peculiarity is particularly clearly marked, although it has 

292 ])r. A. Fleisclimanii on the Belationshij) 

been somewhat changed by the .secondary influence of the 
musculature there inserted ; it does not prevail, liowever, 
throughout the whole group, and is always absent in the 
Hystrichidaj, Subungulata, Octodontidge, Lagostomidas, and 

This modification, however, may be referred back to con- 
ditions within the Marsu])ial series, for among them many 
forms have lost a distinct mandibular angle, such as, for 
example, Phascolarctos. Then the lower jaw, if looked at 
from the side, appears as a band dilated posteriorly into a 
triangular plate. Nevertheless the contour of the margin and 
the pits and bony ridges occurring on the outer surface of the 
end of the jaw betray tlie previous history of the part by very 
intelligible tokens. Even in true Marsupials we find evidence 
of the endeavour to bring the mandibular angle from the 
inwardly directed horizontal position into a more vertical one 
and into the same plane as the ascending branch. In Rodents 
all desirable steps of the retroversion have been retained, in 
the end giving origin to the great increase of the surface of 
the posterior extremity of the mandible. 

Side by side with this we recognize a reduction of the coro- 
noid process ; very strongly developed in the Marsupials, it 
is retained in all the E-odents which possess an inwardly pro- 
jecting mandibular angle, but it becomes small until it nearly 
disappears in llodents with a broad mandibular plate. 

As I conceive the origin of the dentition of the Rodentia to 
have passed througli stages such as the living survivors of 
the leaping and climbing Marsupials still display in model, 
the dentition of their ancestors must have gradually lost the 
omnivorous character and become herbivorous ; consequently 
the direction of movement of the lower jaw must also at the 
same time have become modified. 

In point of fact this transformation may be still recognized 
from the position and form of the condyJas glenoiduUs in the 
lower jaw, which passes from the transverse direction general 
in the omnivorous Marsupials into a position parallel to the 
sagittal plane; and, in accordance with this, the cavitas gle- 
noidalis on the squamose part of the temporal, which in the 
Marsupials attains no great extension, becomes gradually 
longer so as to pass on to the jugal arch and become a long 
groove-like excavation. 

The occurrence of the change of food may be further in- 
ferred from the constitution of the digestive organs in the 
Rodentia. I indicate now only the form and structure of the 
stomach. Whilst in most Rodents this possesses a pretty 
simple structure and form, it becomes more highly ci>mpli- 

of the Rodent id to the Marsupialia. 293 

cateil in the Murilniin animals. Even in tlic common domes- 
tic mouse the divisii^i of the stomach into two halves, of 
which that on the loft has horny e[»ithelium and that on the 
rigiit glandular mucous membrane, is very striking. In the 
Hamster these divisions of the stomach are visible externally, 
and in the field-mice with persistently growing molars, 
which are the most specialized, we also find the greatest com- 
plication in the structure of the stomach, as, indeed, has 
already been fully described by Ketzius. 

The Marsupials possess a true cloaca, and their lineal rela- 
tions, the Rodents, agree with them pretty directly in this 
respect. For the former possession of such an arrangement 
is always manifested by the fact that the external orifices of 
the urogenital apparatus and the anus are placed close 
together, so that they nearly touch and are surrounded by 
common sphincters. In a mature embryo of the beaver I 
found them close together in a common naked and somewhat 
sunken area. 

In Marsupials the two cornua of the uterus open by sepa- 
rate apertures into the vagina ; in the Rodents the same con- 
dition prevails, and its homological significance is not 
destroyed by a short fusion of the two cornua in some few 

The greatest number of teats is attained in the Marsupialia, 
Rodentia, and Insectivora. Taking into consideration the 
circumstance that the occurrence of rudimentary teats in other 
divisions of the j\Iammalia indicates reduction from a previous 
more abundant endowment, the numerous teats of the Rodents 
should indicate the primitive organization of those animals. 
Moreover, Gegenbaur has shown that the milk-glands of the 
Rodentia are in perfect homology with those of Marsupials. 

The structure of the larynx is directly connected with that 
of the Marsupials, as already indicated by Mayer in 1829 ; 
and R. Owen has long since stated that the brain of the 
Rodentia agrees with that of the Marsupialia in essential 
points. Not only the external form, but the internal struc- 
ture is homologous in both. In common also there are the 
poverty of convolutions, the want of a well-developed corpus 
callosu7n, the strong development of the vermiform body in 
the cerebellum, and the free position of the corpora quadri- 

On the spinal cord the spinal nerves are arranged as in 
Marsupials ; the lumbar region especially, according toJhering's 
investigations, presents the greatest similarity. 

But what particularly confirms me in adhering to the 
assertion that the Rodents are related to the Marsupials in a 

Ann. <& Mag. N, Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 21 

294 On the Relationship of the Rodentia to the Marsupialia. 

direct line consists in the numerous and striking similarities 
which occur in the two groups during embryonic develop- 
ment. If the yelk-sac of the opossum during its uterine 
existence is of considerable extent, and at the moment of 
birth considerably exceeds the allantois in size, so also in the 
Rodentia, e. g. rabbits and squirrels, the yelk-sac continues 
comparatively large during the whole period of pregnancy 
and the allantois small. In both groups the same course 
of development may be recognized, except that by the fusion 
of the allantochorion with the uterine mucous membrane, 
tliat is to say by the formation of a discoidal placenta, the 
function of the allantois is greatly increased. But the original 
conditions of the phylogenetic history may be inferred from 
the volume of the yelk-sac equalling that of the allantois for 
a long time. 

A disciform vascular area with acordifugal sinus terminalis 
upon the yelk-sac appears in perfectly homologous develop- 
ment in Marsupials, rabbits, and squirrels. The long persis- 
tence of an ecto-entodermal proamnion, which in the opossum 
is retained until birth, is likewise demonstrable in the above- 
mentioned Eodents. The inversion of the germinal layers in 
the Murida3 and Subungulata is to be regarded as a moditica- 
tion of a certainly A^ery simple ancestral uterine development. 

When considered from the phylogenetic standpoint all the 
organs of the Eodentia sliow themselves to be directly deriv- 
able from the type of the Marsupialia, and without any logical 
difficulty we may recognize step by step in the existing forms 
the stages which render the transformation of long-inherited 
arrangements intelligible. This fact has not struck me alone ; 
it has forced itself directly upon every naturalist who has 
studied the different organs of the Kodents from the point of 
view of comparative anatomy, and I can only lay claim to 
the merit of having tested the correctness of the various scat- 
tered statements and combined them into a simple theory. 

In the present report I have only expressed my views as 
to the pliylogeny of the Rodentia without referring to other 
Mammalia. But I would not thereby convey the impression 
that I have occupied myself with that group alone ; on the 
contrary, I have also taken other divisions into the range of 
my investigations, and have been led, with regard to the 
Insectivora and Bats, to the conclusion tliat between these 
two groups and the Marsupialia with Carnivoroid dentition 
there exists a very intimate relationship, which may be con- 
firnu'd both anatomically and cnibryologically. Upon this 
subject, as u])on the j)hylogeny of the Carnivora, I shall 
venture hereafter to report to the Academy. 

On the Dathyhial Fishes of the Arabian Sea. 295 

XXXI V. — Natural History Notes from H.M. Indian Marine 
Survey Steamer ' Investigator ^ Commander R. F. Iloskyn, 
M.N.j commanding. — No. 18. On the Bathyhial Fishes of the 
Arabian Sea, obtained during the season 1889-90. By A. 
Alcock, M.B., Surgeon I. M. S., Surgcou-Niituralist to 
the (Survey. 


§ 1. Sketch of the Hydrography and Zoology of the Dredging 

§ 2. Notes on the Fishes, with Descriptions of new Species. 

§ 1 . Sketch of the Hydrography and Zoology of the 
Dredging Stations. 

The bathybial fishes which the ' Investigator ' has to record 
from the Arabian Sea number nineteen specimens, of fifteen 
species, thirteen genera, and six families, all of which were 
obtained in two hauls of the trawl at the following stations : — 

Station 104.— 11 a.m. to 4 p.m., 3rd May, 1890. 

Lat. 11° 12' 47" N., long. 74° 25' 30" E., oft^the Elicapeni 
Bank, in the Laccadive Sea. Depth 1000 fathoms. Tem- 
perature at the surface 83° Fahr., at the bottom 38°'6 Fahr. 
Bottom olive mud, with 2"15 per cent, of shells of Foramiui- 
fera, chiefly Glohigerina and Palvinulina. 

Besides nine species of fishes, the trawl contained numerous 
specimens of Sponges (including Hyalonema and Polio pog on'}), 
Alcyonids, Actinids, Turbinolid Corals ( Garyophyllia) , Echi- 
noids (including Fhormosoma), Asteroids, llolothuroids 
(including Deima), and Crustaceans (chiefly Penajids). 

Station 105.— 7 A.M. to 12 noon, 5th May, 1890. 

Lat. 15° 02' N., long. 72° 34' E., about 75 miles west of 
the Goa coast, Laccadive Sea. Depth 740 fathoms. Tem- 
perature at the surface 83° Fahr., at the bottom 44° Fahr. 
Bottom coral-mud, with 12 per cent, of Foraminifera shells. 

Besides six species of fishes, the haul brought to light a 
very large number of Crustaceans (Isopods, Pena^ids, Palse- 
monids, Crangonids, Homarids, Pagurids, Galatheids and 
Homolids) ; Actinids, Turbinolid Corals ; Astropectinids, 
Ophiurids, Echinoids (including Asthenosoma), Holothuroids ; 


296 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

and Gastropod and Lamellibranch Mollusks ; besides some 
curious green-coloured Fucus-\[ke ova (?) adherent to the last. 

By the Laccadive Sea is meant the basin which intervenes 
between the west coast of India and the parallel series of 
ridges whose peaks form the bases of the shoals and atolls of 
the Laccadive Archipelago. 

It is a long narrow basin, open to tlie south and closing in 
gradually to the north, its boundary here being tlie Angrias 
Bank, in lat. 16° 30' N. It slopes steeply from east to west, 
its greatest depths, which are not much over 1100 fathoms, 
being close to the Laccadive Islands, which individually rise 
abruptly from the bottom. The nature of the bottom on the 
Indian side is, as would be expected, determined by detritus 
from the land ; but on the Laccadive side the bottom consists 
almost entirely of coral-mud, with a variable proportion — from 
2 to 12 per cent. — of Foraminifera shells. 

§ 2. Notes on the Fishes^ with Descriptions of new Species. 

The bathybial fishes collected in the Laccadive Sea are 
remarkable for their large size. 

At twenty stations in the Bay of Bengal and neighbouring 
waters the ' Investigator ' has taken deep-sea fishes ; and on 
contrasting them with these from the Laccadive Sea, the 
superior bulk of the latter is strikingly manifest. Among 
the Macriiri, comparing mature females, the two specimens 
from the Laccadive Sea measure respectively 22 and 19^ 
inches, and weigh respectively 1*5 and '65 lb. ; while the 
two largest specimens from the Bay of Bengal measure 
respectively Mj and 11 inches, and weigh respectively '23 
and "lo lb. The Ophidiids from the Laccadive Sea are 
also larger and heavier. Again, the longest deep-sea Phy- 
sostorae taken in the Bay of Bengal measures but 16 inches, 
against the 21 inches of the longest Physostome from the 
Laccadive Sea ; while the average length of the Bay of 
Bengal specimens of this suborder is under 9 inches, against 
an average length of nearly 14 inches of the Laccadive Sea 

The occurrence in the deep waters of the Arabian Sea of 
forms hitlicrto known from tlie depths on the one Iiand of the 
Mid-Atlantic, and on the otlier hand of the Nortli Pacific, is 
a further illustration of the wideness of distribution of true 
bathybial fishes. 

The following: is the list of the fishes : — 

of the Arabian Sea. 297 

Family Ophidiidae. 
MoxOMiTOPUS, gen. nov. 

Agrees witli Sircmho, Blkr., as diagnosed by Dr. Giinther 
in the 'Catalogne of Fishes/ vol. iv. p. 373, except that the 
pseudobranchia3 are rudimentary. 

1. Monomitopus nigripinne. 

Siremho niffripitmis, Alcock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist., Nov. 1889, 
p. 384. 

I described this species from a single, rather mutilated 
specimen from the Andaman Sea ; but with a well-preserved 
and larger specimen from the Arabian Sea (Station 105) I 
find that the pscudobranchia?, instead of being " thick and 
fleshy," as originally stated, really consist of two small 
pinnules only, on each side, parts of the opercular muscles 
having been mistaken for thickened pseudobrancliia; in the 
first specimen. The complete radial formula is 

B. 8. D. 95-100. A. 85-88. C. 8. P. 28. V. 1. 

Neobythites, Goode & Bean. 

2. Neobythites pterotus. 

Neohythites pierotus, ^Vlcock, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. Sept. 181X), 
p. 210. 

A large female specimen, 11 ^ inches long, from Station 
10-1, from which I am able to make the following corrections 
in the original description : — Eight branchiostegals ; snout 
obtusely pointed ; basal third of anal fin scaly. 

Paeadicrolene, Alcock. 

3. Paradicrolene Vaillanti. 

Dicrokne introniger, Vaillant, nee Goode and Bean ; Vaillant, Exp. Sci. 
* Travailleur' et ' Talisman,' Poiss. pp. 258-262, pi. xxiii. iig. 2. 

From M. Vaillant's most excellent and exhaustive descrip- 
tion I have no difficulty in identifying this Ophidiid. But 
though I can only dissent with diffidence from such an expe- 
rienced ichthyologist, I cannot concur in his opinion that this 
fish is identical with Dicrolene intronigra of Messrs. Goode 
and Bean. Apart from numerous minor points of disagree- 
ment, the Dicrolene type is stated to have only seven bran- 

298 Mr. A. Alcock on the Baihyhial Fishes 

Our single specimen is a female 10^ inches long, with the 
radial formula 

B. 8. D. 106. A. 78. C. 6. P. dextra 18/6. 
P. sinistra 18/9. V. 2. 

It was taken at Station 105, 740 fathoms. 

Dermatorus, gen. nov. 

Allied to PorogaduSy Goode & Bean, and to BathyonuSf 

Body compressed, with long tapering tail. Head with 
well-developed muciparous cavities and spiniferous bones. 
Snout depressed, with jaws conterminous in front. Eye of 
moderate size. Mouth very wide ; villiform teeth in bands 
in the jaws and palatines, few and scattered on the vomer. 
No barbel. Gill-openings very wide ; eight branchiostegals ; 
four gills ; well-developed gill-rakers. Pseudobranchiai quite 
rudimentary. Scales small, deciduous. Lateral line indis- 
tinct. Ventral fins contiguous ; each consists of a single 
simple filament. No pyloric cteca. 

4. Dermatorus trichiuruSj sp. n. 

Snout depressed, pointed. Head-bones and opercles with 
numerous acute spines. Body compressed, elongate, low — 
its height being from rr to iV of the total — ending in a long 
lash-like tail. 

B. 8. D. 160 + .r. A. 140-1-^. C? P. 16 (?). V. 1. 

Head symmetrically cuneiform, its raucifcrous cavities well 
developed, opening externally by large pores, and bounded 
by salient spiuigerous crests ; its length is between ^ and | 
of the total, its height a little more than the length of its 
postorbital portion, its breadth not quite half its length. A 
strong, acute, erect spine at each anterior orbital angle, and 
diverging backwards from it, on each side, two irregular 
rows of acute recumbent spines, the last spines of the rows 
situated respectively at the exterior occipital and the post- 
temporal angles ; operculum with a strong sharp spine above ; 
preoperculum with a double border, and each border with 
three rather distant spines radiating from its angle ; an 
obliquely reclining humeral spine. 

Snout not overhanging the mouth, depressed, rounded from 
side to side, its dorsal and ventral profiles meeting at a very 
acute angle ; its length is * that of the head, equal to the 

of the Arabian Sea. 299 

width of the interorbital space, and ^ greater than the major 
diameter of the eye. 

Eye situated high up, the supraorbital border entering the 
dorsal profile. 

The posterior nostril much larger than the anterior. 

]\Iouth-clcft extremely wide, the maxilla, which is much 
expanded behind, measuring i^ of the head-length ; jaws con- 
terminous, witii sharp dentary edges and rudimentary labial 
folds. Villiform teeth in narrow bands in the jaws and ])ala- 
tines, scattered and obsolescent on the wide V-shaped head 
of the vomer. Tongue very small, papilliform. 

Gill-openings very wide, the membranes entirely free ; four 
gills with narrow lamina ; gill-rakers well developed on all 
the arches, those on the outer side of the first arch, to the 
number of twenty, very long and bristle-like. The pseudo- 
branchiaj are reduced to two small l;itnella3 on each side. 

Small deciduous scales on the body and at least the poste- 
rior half of the head ; there are apparently twenty rows 
between the vent and the dorsal fin. 

In the fresh state there is a thick subcutaneous layer of 
mucus, as in Bathyonus. Lateral line undistinguishable. 

The dorsal fin begins immediately behind the vertical 
through the gill-opening, the anal immediately behind the 
vent, which is a head-length distant from the gill-opening. 
Pectorals narrow, pointed, as long as the rostrorbital por- 
tion of the head. The ventrals arise close together, just 
behind the pectoral symphysis ; each consists of a simple fila- 
ment as long as the postrostral portion of the head. 

Stomach siphonal ; intestine long (half the total), much 
coiled ; no pyloric CfBca. Air-bladder small. 

Colours in the fresh state: — rransparent grey: oro- 
pharyngo-branchial membrane and parietal peritoneum intense 

A single female specimen 7 inches long, with the end of 
the tail missing. 

Station 104, 1000 fathoms. 

Family Macruridae. 

Maceurus, Bloch. 

Subgenus Macrurus (Bloch). 

5. Macrurus Ilextii^ sp. n. 

B. 6. D. T^/110 circ. A. circ. 110. P. 21-22. V. 7. 

L. lat. circ. 130. L. tr. J . 

29 circ. 

The length of the head is half that ot the entire trunk or ^ 

300 Mr. A. Alcock on tlie Batliyhial Fishes' 

of tlie total, ancl jnst in excess of the greatest height of the 
body. The tail is rather abruptly constricted ; its greatest 
height, behind the vent, is about | that of the tnink, and 
behind this it rapidly diminishes. 

Snout faintly trihedral ; its length is equal to the major 
diameter of the orbit and to the width of the flattened inter- 
orbital space at its middle, and all but \ of the length of the 

Kostrils very large, the anterior subtubular in appearance. 

Mouth quite inferior; the maxilla almost reaches the 
vertical through the middle of the orbit. Teeth in broad 
villiform bands in both jaws, and in the lower an inner row 
of moderately and in the upper an outer row of considerably 
enlarged, conical, acute teeth. 

Barbel about 5 as long as the eye. 

Gill-membranes broadly united, thick, coriaceous ; attach- 
ment of first branchial arch to opercle broad. 

Body and head, except the glosso-hyal region, covered 
with rather deciduous spinigerous scales ; those on the body 
uniformly large and deeply imbricating. There are five rows 
between the first dorsal fin and the lateral line. A scale from 
the dorsal half of the trunk is 5 of an inch high by \ of an 
iiich broad, with a shallow, triangular, non-imbricate area 
bearing about twenty-tight close, parallel, longitudinal series 
of small, equal, close-set, semierect spinelets. 

First dorsal spine rudimentary ; the second slightly pro- 
longed, its front edge faintly crenulated in its basal, sharply 
serrated in its distal half. The interval between the first and 
second dorsal fins is equal to the length of the base of tlie 
first, or a little more than the length of the snout. The 
pectorals measure rather more than half the length of the 
head. Ventrals with the first ray slightly prolonged, reaching 
to the origin of the anal. 

Stomach siphonal ; intestine very long, much coiled. 
Fourteen or fifteen large long pyloric cieca. Liver large, 
both lobes almost equally developed. An air-bladder. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Chocolate, with blackish fins ; 
oro-])haryngo-branchial membrane and })arietal peritoneum 

One specimen — a female with gravid ovaries — measuring 
22 inches in length and weighing (after preservation in spirit) 
l;j pound. 

Station 104, 1000 fathoms. 

of the Arabian Sea. 301 

6. Macrurus ]Vood-}fasoni\ sp. n. 
B. 6. D. §/100 ciic. A. circ. 105. P. 21. V. 8. 


L. lat. circ. 130. L. tr. i 

1'2 circ. 

The length of the head is nearly § tliat ot" the entire trunk, 
or between 4^ and 4§ in the total. The greatest height of 
the body is not quite | the length of the head. The tail is 
long and ta])ering. 

Snout trihedral, with strong median and lateral tubercles ; 
its length slightly exceeds the major diameter of the orbit, 
which is almost ^ the head-length. 

The width of the interorbital space in the middle is equal 
to the vertical diameter of the orbit. 

IMouth completely inferior ; the maxilla reaches a short 
distance behind the vertical from the anterior border of the 
orbit. Small conical acute teeth in broad bands in both 

Barbel a small papilla, not equal in length to the vertical 
diameter of the posterior nostril. 

Gill-membranes broadly united. 

Body and head, except the glosso-hyal region, covered with 
rather deciduous spinigerous scales; those on the body of a 
uniform size and deeply imbricate. There are four and a 
half rows between the first dorsal fin and the lateral line. A 
scale from the dorsal half of the trunk is | of an inch high by 
i of an inch broad, and bears about twenty short, longitu- 
dinal, parallel series of small, equal, semierect spinelets. 

First dorsal spine rudimentary; the second with numerous 
close-set recumbent barbs along its front edge. The interval 
between the first and second dorsal fins is double the length 
of the base of the first, or equal to tlie length of the post- 
orbital portion of the head. Ventrals witii the outer ray 
slightly prolonged, reaching to the origin of the anal. 

Stomach siphonal ; the much-coiled intestine measures 
considerably more than the entire fish in length ; eleven or 
twelve long large pyloric creca. A large spongy air-bladder. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Chocolate, with blackish fins ; 
oro-pharyngo-branchial membrane and parietal peritoneum 

One specimen — a female with gravid ovaries — measuring 
19j inches in length. 

Station 104, 1000 fathoms. 

302 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhial Fishes 

Bathygadus, Gtlir. 

7. Bathygadus longijilis^ Goode & Bean. 

Bathygadus longifilis, Goode & Bean, Proc. U. S, Nat. Mus. viii. p. 509 ; 
Giintlier, Zool. ' Challenger ' Exp. xxii. p. 157. 

Uymenocephalus longifilis, Vaillant, Exp. Sci. ' Travailleur ' et * Talis- 
man,' Poiss. pp. 218-221, pi. xxiii. fig. 1. 

A large female specimen, llf inches long, with gravid 

It has the radio-squamal formula 

B. 7. D. 11 140 circ. P. 15. V. 8. 
L. lat. circ. 150. L. tr. circ. 25 through vent. 

The fourth branchial cleft exists, though it is not apparently 
functional. The stomach is siphonal ; the intestine coiled, 
with about twenty-two large long pyloric casca. The liver 
and spleen are very large, and the air-bladder is well- 

A smaller male (?) specimen, 8 inches long, with the same 
radio-squamal formula and with the barbel measuring more 
than I the length of the head. 

Station 105, 740 fathoms. 

Family Scopelidae. 

SCOPELENGYS, gen. nov. 

Apparently nearly allied to Scopelus^ Gthr., and to Xano- 
hrachhim, Gthr. ; but as the single specimen for which the 
generic distinction is claimed is entirely denuded of its 
integuments down to the muscles, its exact position among 
the Scopelidae cannot be accurately defined at ])resent. 

Head and body compressed. Eye small. Mouth very 
wide; the maxilla dilated behind. Acute villiform teeth, in 
bands uncovered by the lips in the jaws, and in the palatines 
and vomer. Gill-openings very wide ; gill-covers complete. 
PseudobranchijB rudimentary. Dorsal fin near the middle of 
the body, short ; an adipose dorsal. Anal fin short. Caudal 
forked. Pectorals well developed. Ventrals with ciglit rays. 
[Scales, if present, very deciduous.] No air-bladder. Pyloric 
ca2ca present in moderate number. 

of the Arabian Sea. 303 

8. Scopelengys tristisj sp. n. 

B. 8. D. 12. A. 13. P. 15. V. 8. 

Head and body rather elongate, compressed. Eye situated 
high up, very small ; its major diameter is a little more than 
^ the length of the snout, wliich is about ^ the length of the 
licad, which is not quite ^ the total without the caudal. 
Moutli wide, its cleft very oblique, approaching the vertical, 
with the lower jaw projecting in repose ; the maxilla, which 
is widely dilated behind, measures more than half the length 
of the head ; tlie premaxilla is a stout bone, firmly attached 
to the maxilla, which it equals in length. Acute villiform 
teeth, in rather broad bands uncovered by the lips in the pre- 
maxilla and mandible, in narrow bands in the palatines, and 
in a small patch on each side of the head of the vomer ; no 
teeth on the tongue. 

Gill-openings very wide ; gill-covers complete ; long close- 
set gill-rakers on the first arch. Pscudobranchire rudimen- 
tary, consisting of three or four small lamello3 on each side. 

The dorsal fin begins above the origin of the ventrals ; the 
whole fin is included in the anterior half of the body 
measured with the caudal. Adipose dorsal rather large, 
fimbriated. The anal fin begins a little more than a snout- 
length behind the posterior limit of the dorsal. Caudal 
forked. Pectorals entire, about as long as the maxilla, and 
reaching just beyond the origin of the ventrals ; they arise close 
to the ventral profile. 

Eight large pyloric casca. No air-bladder. 

Colours in the fresh state apparently uniform black 

One specimen, 6| inches in length. 

Station lOi, 1000 fathoms. 

Family Alepocephalidae. 

Bathyteoctes, Gthr. 

9. Bathytroctes squamosus^ sp. n. 

Snout short. Eye very large. The entire head uniform 
intense black j apparently some scales on the opercles. 

B. 7. D. 17(18). A. 17(18). C. circ. 35. P. 10. 

V. 9. L. lat. circ. 50. L. tr. i. 


Head with its ventral profile almost horizontal, its dorsal 

304 Mr. A. Alcock o)i the Bathyhial Fishes 

profile forming a continuous curve synchronous with an arc 
of a circle of 56° ; its length is 3f in the total measured 
without the caudal, and just over the greatest height of the 
body. Snout with the tip formed by a prominent knob at 
the symphysis of the lower jaw ; its length, including the 
mandibular element, is less than its breadth and about f the 
major diameter of tlie eye. Nostrils large, situated high up, 
above the anterior angle of the orbit. Eye very large ; its 
major diameter, which is obliquely ascendant from before 
backwards, is a little more than \ the length of the head ; 
interorbital space gently concave, ^ that diameter of the eye. 

Mouth-cleft wide, approaching the transverse; premaxilla 
short and slender ; the broad maxilla, composed of three 
longitudinal plates, of whicli the innermost (uppermost) is 
movable, reaches just behind the level of the mid-orbit, and 
includes the mandible in repose, except anteriorly, where the 
latter strongly projects. Small, even, acute, uniserial teeth, 
recurved in the premaxilla, mandible, palatines, and vomer, 
procurrent or procurved in the maxillai. Tongue large. A 
row of pores along the limb of the mandible. 

Gill-o])enings very wide, the membranes entirely separate ; 
fourth gill-cleft occluded ; gill-rakers long and close-set on 
the first three arches, longest on the first. Pseudobranchi^e 
large and coarse. Scales large, deciduous, except on the 
lateral line, where they are adherent and also perforated or 
bifid. There are pittings in the skin, which look like scale- 
folds, on the operclcs. 

The dorsal fin begins just behind the origin of the ventrals, 
which arc situated in the vertical through the middle of the 
body measured without the caudal. The anal begins in the 
vertical through the third dorsal ray. Both these fins have 
fieshy succulent bases, and the rays increasing in length 
regularly and steeply to the fourth, and then decreasing as 
regularly but more gradually to the last. Caudal symmetri- 
cally forked. Pectorals long and narrow ; their longest rays 
equal the length of the head behind the anterior nostril, and 
in repose almost touch the bases of the ventrals. Ventrals 
broad, reaching slightly beyond the vent. 

Stomach large ; intestine coiled in a spiral ; five or six 
large ])yloric ereca. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Head uniform deep black, 
body pinkish brown, fins transparent grey ; oro-pharyngo- 
branchial membrane and entire peritoneum black. 

A heavy fenude specimen, 10^ inches long, with gravid 
ovaries, the mature ova measuring i of an inch in diameter. 

Station lOo, 740 fatlioms. 

of the Arabian Sea. 30o 

The stomach contained a large Pcnosid. 

This sjX'cics difTcrs from all described Bathytroctes and 
from all liitlicrto known Alopocoplialida:: in })osscssing (api)a- 
rently) scaly oi)erclcs ; but, apart from the need of actual 
demonstration on this point, the atlinities are so clearly indi- 
cated that one would hardly wish to separate the species from 
a family still so incompletely known on the ground of this 
one peculiarity. 

Narcetes, gen. nov. 

Closely allied to Bathytroctes^ Gthr. 

Head naked. Body rather elongate, compressed, covered 
with scales of moderate size. Eye rather small. Month 
wide ; the maxilla extending beyond the vertical through the 
middle of the orbit. Fine teeth in premaxillffi, maxilla;, 
mandible, palatines, and vomer, those in the premaxillse and 
mandible pluriserial ; no teeth on the tongue. 

Gill-openings wide ; gill-covers complete; seven brancliio- 
stegals ; four gills, with narrow laminae ; gill-rakers long. 
Pseudobranchiai present. No adipose dorsal fin. Caudal 
forked. Pyloric ceeca in moderate number. Ovaries with an 

10, Narcetes erimelas, sp. n. 

B. 7. D. 15-16. A. 12. C. circ. 35. P. 10-11. 
V. 9. L. lat. 68. 

Head broad, pyramidal, its length 3g to 3j in the total 
without the caudal ; body elongate, its greatest height, just 
behind the gill-opening, about 51 in the same standard, and 
gradually diminishing to the caudal peduncle. 

Head-bones sculptured, especially the operculum and pre- 
opcrculum, both of which have their border augmented by a 
semimembranous corrugated fringe. 

Snout nearly as broad as long, depressed, rounded from 
side to side, its dorsal and ventral profiles meeting at an acute 
angle ; its length is a little over ^ that of the head, and more 
than half as long again as the eye. Nostrils very large. 

Eye rather small, its major diameter 5| in the head-length, 
and not quite equal to the width of the deeply concave inter- 
orbital space. 

Mouth wide, oblique ; the maxilla reaches conspicuously 
behind the vertical through the posterior border of the orbit. 
The premaxilla is a short strong bone ; the maxilla is com- 

306 Mr. A. Alcock on the Bathyhicd Fishes 

posed of three longitudinal plates, of which the innermost 
(uppermost) is movable ; the mandible is very strong and 
broad, and its under surface is excavated for a wide mucous 
channel which opens by six large circular pores on each side. 

Teeth small, even, uniform, acute ; those in the jaws 
standing, uncovered by the lips, outside the mouth ; those in 
the prcmaxillai and mandible recurved, quadriserial anteriorly, 
and laterally triserial in the former, biserial in the latter ; 
those in the maxillse uniscrial, procurrent or procurved ; those 
in the palatines uniserial, incurved ; those in the vomer 
recurved, in a group of two or three on each side. Tongue 
large, toothless. 

Gill-openings very wide; gill-membranes entirely separate; 
gill-covers large, complete ; gill-rakers decreasing in size 
from the first arch to the fourth, those on the first arch being 
close-set, finely pointed, and as long as the eye ; fourth gill- 
cleft rather wide ; gill-laminaj very narrow, the individual 
lamelke extremely delicate. Pseudobranchia^ large. 

Head naked ; body covered with deciduous scales of mode- 
rate size. The lateral line runs straight along the middle of 
the body. 

The dorsal fin begins almost in the vertical through the 
origin of the ventrals, which are situated a snout-length 
behind the vertical through the middle of the body measured 
without the caudal. The anal fin begins two rows of scales 
behind the vertical through the hinder limit of the dorsal. 

No adipose dorsal. Caudal symmetrically forked. Pec- 
torals and ventrals well developed, broad, fragile. 

Stomach very large, with thick walls thrown into deep 
longitudinal folds ; the organ must be widely distensible in 
correlation with the wide mouth. Intestine coiled in a spiral ; 
ten very large pyloric ca3ca in a bunch. Xo air-bladder. 
Ovaries with an oviduct. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Head, iris, body, fins, oro- 
pharyngo-branchial membrane, and entire peritoneum deep 

Two female specimens, measuring respectively 13^ and 9^ 

Station 105, 740 fathoms. 

Both specimens when brought on board were in a cata- 
leptoid state, the whole muscular system being quite rigid, 
and cutaneous excitation eliciting no responsive movement. 

I have separated this fish from Bathytroctes chictly on 
account of the pluriscrial teeth in the prcraaxillaj and mandible. 

ofiJie Arabian Sea. 307 

Platytkoctes, Gthr. 

11. Platytroctes apus, Gthr. 

PlatyirocU^s apiis, Giiuther, Ann. & Map:. Nat, Hist 1878, vol. ii. 
p. 249 : and Zool. Chall. Exp. xxii. p. L'l'O, pi. Iviii. fig. A. 

One specimen, 6 inches long, answering in every respect 
to Dr. Gunther's description, except that the eye is hirger in 
this specimen, being ^ the length of the head and nearly 
twice as long as the snout. 

Station 105, 740 fathoms. 


Head naked. Body elongate, covered with minute hardly 
imbricate scales. Anterior bones of the head produced into 
a long tube terminating in a narrow mouth. Margin of the 
upper jaw formed equally by the premaxilla3 and raaxillge. 
Uniserial teeth, in the jaws only. Eye large. Gill-cover 
apparently complete. Gill-opening wide below, contracted 
above, and not surpassing the level of the pectoral fin ; four 
gills with narrow laminee. Pseudobranchise almost rudimen- 
tary. Dorsal fin belonging to the caudal portion of the body ; 
no adipose dorsal. Anal fin very long. Caudal forked. 
Pyloric caeca few, small. No air-bladder. 

12. Aulastomatomorpha phospherops^ sp. n. 
B, 5? D. 21. A. 41. P. 7. V. 6. 

Body elongate and compressed, surrounded from the mid- 
dorsal line behind the nape to the raid-ventral line behind the 
vent by a continuous thick succulent fold of the integuments, 
like, but not so wide as, that of Plati/troctes ; its greatest 
height, including this fold, is a little more than ^ of the total 
without the caudal. 

Head low and rather depressed, its length 3^ in the total 
without the caudal ; produced anteriorly into a long tubular 
snout, at the end of which is the small mouth ; completely 
invested by a thick spongy or fungus-like poriferous skin, of 
a brilliant snow-white reflexion, and probably luminous in 
function. This covering is continuous round the branchio- 
stegal rays and opercles with the equally thick velvety mem- 
brane which lines the external parietes of the gill-chambers, 
and it sends a fold backwards to the base of the pectoral on 
each side. 

308 Mr. A. Alcock on the Batliyhial Fishes 

The snout is a little less than half the length of the head, 
or 6§ in the total without the caudal. 

TJie eyes are very large and extremely prominent; the 
major diameter of the globus oculus is sliglitly over \ the 
head-length, but owing to the encroachment up to the mar- 
gin of the cornea of the broad posterior orbital fold, the 
diameter of the exposed " eye " is only a little more than i 
of the same standard ; the true (bony) interorbital space is 
less than half the diameter of the eye in width. 

Nostrils situated high up, above the anterior orbital angle. 
Mouth at the extreme end of the tubular snout, small, the 
jaws apjiarently with limited motion. The upper jaw, wliich 
projects slightly beyond the lower, is formed in its anterior 
half by the premaxilla, in its posterior half by the maxilla. 
Minute, acute, recurved teeth in a single row in the pre- 
maxilla3 and mandible ; no teeth in the maxilla. 

Gill-openings very wide below, contracted above, and not 
surpassing the level of the pectorals. Gill-covers apparently 
complete ; their constituent bones, including the branchio- 
stegal rays, though well calcified, are extremely thin and 
fragile, and are completely concealed within a continuous 
uniform investment of confluent external skin and internal 
mucous membrane. Four gills, with narrow lamina} and 
coarse lamclkc ; the fourth gill-cleft wide ; gill-rakers well 
developed on all the arches, moderately long on the first, 
short on the fourth and fifth. Pseudobranchia^ rudimentary, 
consisting of four or five delicate short lamellae on each side. 

Body covered with minute, hardly imbricate, cycloid scales, 
about 4V by y'o of an inch respectively in the shortest and 
longest diameters. The lateral line traverses the middle of 
the body uninterruptedly. 

The dorsal fin begins slightly in advance of the posterior 
fourth of the body measured without the caudal ; the length 
of its base is shorter than the snout ; its rays, like those of 
the anal, increase gradually in length from before backwards, 
the longest being not quite equal to the major diameter of the 
bulbus oculus. The anal begins an eye-length behind the 
vertical through the middle of the body as above limited, and 
ends a short distance behind the vertical througii tlie ])oste- 
rior limit of the dorsal ; its longest rays slightly exceed the 
longest dorsal rays. Caudal symmetrically forked, its rudi- 
mentary rays very numerous, both dorsally and ventrally. 
Pectorals narrow, rather more than \ of the head in length. 
Ventrals short, arising immediately behind the vertical 
through the middle of the body, as above limited^ and 
reaching just behind the vent. 

of the Arabian Sea. 309 

Stoniacli subsiplional ; intestine long, coiled in a spiral ; 
four small pyloric caica, arranged in a ring. No air-bladder. 
Keproductive glands very large, appai'cntly discharging in 
the male (?) through a well-developed post-anal papilla. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Head snow-white, iris black, 
body chocolate, fins blackish grey ; oro-pharyngo-branchial 
membrane and entire peritoneum intense black. 

One specimen, apparently a male near maturity, measuring 
11 inches in length. 

Station 104, 1000 fathoms. 

This fish differs from all described Alepocephalids in 
having the pseudobranchiaj quite rudimentary and the ante- 
rior bones of the head produced into a snout like that of 
Aulastoma ; but its affinities are quite clearly Alepocephalid. 

Family Halosauridae. 
Halosaurus, Johnson. 

13. Halosaurus affinis, Gthr. 

Halosaurus affinis, Giiuther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1877, vol. xx. 
p. 444 ; and Zool. Chall. Exp. xxii. pp. 241, 242, pi. lix. fig. 13. 

Two specimens, measuring respectively 18f and 19 inches 
in length, answer the diagnosis of this fish. 
The radial formula is 

B. 11. D. 11-12. A. circ. 200. P. 13. V. 1/8. 

There are nine large pyloric caeca, arranged in a row like 
the teeth of a comb along the first f inch of the intestine, 
and embracing the ascending limb of the stomach. 

Station 104, 1000 fathoms. 

14. Halosaurus Hoskyniij sp. n. 
Closely allied to the preceding. 

B. 10. D. 11. A. circ. 175. P. 13. V. 1,8. 

Head naked, its length | of the total, and exceeding the 
distance between the gill-opening and the base of the ventral 
fin by about an eye-length. 

Length of the snout 2\, in that of the head, the preoral 
portion being not quite a half of the whole. 

The major diameter of the eye equals the width of the 
interorbital space, and is contained 7^ times in the head- 
length and just over 3 times in the length of the postorbital 
portion of the head. 

Ann. <Ss Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 22 

310 On the Dathyhial Fishes of the Arabian Sea. 

The maxilla docs not quite reach the vertical through the 
anterior margin of the orbit. 

The pterygoid band of teeth is very broad and not con- 
tinuous with the palatine band. 

Eight moderately long gill-rakers on the middle of the 
first arch, besides some small ones above and below. 

Scales extremely deciduous, those on the lateral line larger 
and more adherent than the rest, measuring \ of an inch in 
diameter ; with a small central perforation ] thirty between 
the gill-opening and the vent. 

The dorsal fin begins rather more than an eye-length be- 
hind the level of the ventrals. 

Seven large pyloric creca in a longitudinal row embracing 
the ascending limb of the stomach. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Body and fins uniformly dark 

Two female specimens, 20 and 21 inches long. 

Station 104, 1000 fathoms. 

I have thought it sufficient to indicate simply the diagnostic 
points of this species, which I have named after the accom- 
plished hydrographer in charge of the Survey. 

Family Muraenidae. 

Group Anouillina. 

Promyllantok, gen. nov. 

Allied to Congromurcena. 

Body stout, with the muscular and osseous systems well 
developed. Tail about as long as the trunk. Muciferous 
cavities of the head well developed. Eye rather small. 
Cleft of the mouth narrow, not extending behind the middle 
of the eye. Villiform teeth in broad bands in the jaws and 
in a broad confluent patch on the palate. Tongue free. 
Nostrils lateral. Gill-openings widely separate ; four gills 
with wide clefts. No scales. Pectoral and vertical fins well 
developed, the latter confluent. The dorsal begins some 
distance behind the occiput. 

15. Promyllantor purpureus, sp. n. 

The head is ^, the tail a snout-length over half the total ; 
the body is massive, its greatest height equals the length of 
the postorbital portion of the head. 

Head with its muciferous cavities highly developed, low, 
broad, inflated, ending iu a broad, pointed, swollen snout, 

Mr. G. A. Boulenger on the Genus Pseudoxyrhopug. 311 

which is twice the lengtli of the eye or \ tlie total Icngtli of 
the head, and conspicuously prominent beyond the mouth. 
Eyes circular, set nigh up on tlie side of tiie head, deep 
beneath a small transparent area of skin, a diameter and a 
half apart. 

Anterior nostril a short wide tube situated inferiorly at the 
tip of the snout. Posterior nostril a large circular foramen 
just above the anterior orbital angle. 

Mouth subrostral ; its angle reacliing slightly behind the 
vertical through the anterior border of the orliit ; the jaws 
completely hidden by the very thick inflated lips. Villiform 
teeth in broad bands in the jaws, and in a broad, confluent, 
triangular patch covering the palate. Tongue free. 

Gill-openings small, widely separated foramina, hardly 
larger than the eye ; four gills with narrow laminte and coarse 
lamellffi and wide clefts ; no gill-rakers. 

Integument thick, coriaceous, scaleless, investing the 
vertical tins and completely concealing their rays. The lateral 
line traverses the middle of the body. 

Vertical fins confluent ; the dorsal begins a distance beliind 
the occiput equal to the length of the postrostral portion of 
the head, or just behind the level of the tips of the pectorals 
when laid full back. The anal begins immediately behind 
the vent. Pectorals small, pointed, equal in length to the 
rostrorbital portion of the head. 

Stomach with a cul-de-sac of moderate size ; intestine wide, 
little convoluted ; liver large, indistinctly lobated, embracing 
the oesophagus. Air-bladder very large, with very thick 
spongy walls and a small central cavity. 

Colours in the fresh state : — Body and fins uniform purple- 

One female specimen, 17 inches long, with mature ovaries. 

Station 104, 1000 fathoms. 

I am greatly indebted to Professor Wood-Mason for 
counsel and advice. 

XXXV. — On the Ophidian Genus Pseudoxyrhopus, Gthr. 
By G. A. Boulenger. 

A CURIOUS snake from Madagascar was described by Jan in 
1863 under the name of Homalocephalus, wdiich name, being 
preoccupied in entomology, was changed by Glinther to 
Pseudoxyrhopus in 1881. Jan placed his new genus among 


312 Mr. G. A. Boulcngcr on the Genus Pseudoxyrhopus. 

the Coronellincs and next to Lamprophis, wliicli is regarded 
by Gunther as related to the Lyeodonts, a view which I share ; 
Guntlier, on the contrary, was inclined to place it " with the 
larger and more-developed Colubers." But tlie remarkable 
dentition of the lower jaw does not appear to have been 
noticed by either author, an omission which accounts also 
for the fact that other species of the same genus have been 
described under the generic names of Xenodon (Peters), 
LiopJiis (Giinther), and Coronella (Boulenger). This man- 
dibular dentition points to aflSnity with the Lyeodonts, near 
which I would place Pseudoxyrhopus in the system, with the 
following definition : — 

Maxillary teeth 16 to 18, the two posterior strongly 
enlarged and separated from the preceding by an interspace ; 
anterior mandibular teeth much larger than the posterior and 
increasing in size to the fifth, sixth, or eighth. Head 
scarcely distinct from neck; eye small, with round pupil. 
Body cylindrical ; scales smooth, without pits, in 17 to 25 
rows. Tail rather short ; subcaudals all or part in two rows. 


Figiiro sbowinp tlio dentition of: — A. P. microps; B. P. qttinque- 
liiicatus ; C. P. hnerituc. 

Five species arc known, which difior in the following 
characters : — 

A. Scales in 25 rows; frontal as broad as 
long; rostral just visible from above: 
two labials entering the eye; ventrals 
207-225 ; subcaudals 45 P. inicnjKi, C.thr. 

Mr. G. A. Boulengcr on the Genus Pseudoxyrliopus. 313 

B. Scales in 21 rows ; frontal ft little longer 

than broftd ; two labials euteriug the eye. 

a. Rostral just visible from above; veutrals 

15o ; subcaudald 35 P. heterurus, Jan. 

b. Portion of rostral visible from above at 

least half a^ lou;:r as its distance from 
the frontal; ventrals 142; subcaudals 
4o-47 P. quinquelineatus, Gthr. 

C. Scales in 19 rows; ft-outal longer than 

broad ; portion of ro.'^tral visible from 
above half as long as its distance from tho 
frontal ; two labiiJs entering the eye ; 
ventrals lo7-140; subcaudals 40-47 .... P. imerina, Gthr. 

D. Scales in 17 rows ; frontal a little longer 

than broad ; three labials entering the 

eye ; ventrals 1G2 ; subcaudals 42 P. punctatus, Ptrs. 

All agree in the following points : — Supraocular not more 
than lialf the width of the frontal ; loreal longer than deep ; 
one pra3- and two postoculars ; temporals 1 + 2 ; anal divided. 

List of the Species. 

1. Pseudoxyrhopus microps. 

Pseudoxyrhopns microps, Giiuther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. llist. (5) vii. 
1881, p. 359, fig. 


2. Pseudoxyrhoims heterurus. 

Homahicephalus hcU-rurus, Jan, Arch. Zool. Anat. Phys. ii. 18G3, p. 280, 
and Icon. Ophid. xvii. pi. iv. tig. 2 (18GG). 


3. Pseudoxyrhopus quinquelineatus. 

Liophis quinquelineatus, Giinther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (5) vii. 1881, 
p. 359, fig. 


4. Pseudoxyrhopus imerince. 

CoroneUa microps, Boulenger, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (6) i. 1888, 

p. 104, pi. V. fig. 4. 
Liophis imerin<e, Giinther, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. (G) v. 1890, p. 71. 


L. imerince is the adult of the previously described G. 
microps^ which name, however, is preoccupied by Pseudoxy- 
rhopus microps^ Gthr. 

314 Mr. A. Smith Woodward on a 

5. PseudoxyrJiopus punctatus. 
Xenodon punctatm, Peters, Mon. Berl. Ac. 1880, p. 221, pi. — . fig. 3. 

Stated to be from Brazil, but its habitat will probably prove 
to be Madagascar. I am indebted to Dr. Paul Matschie, of 
the Berlin Museum, for a sketch of the dentition of the type 
specimen, which shows the fourth and fifth mandibular teeth 

XXXVI.— ^ Neio Theory o/Pterichthys. 
By A. Smith Woodward, F.Z.S. 

The missing link between the Chordata and some of the 
non-Chordate phyla below has long been sought in vain 
among the organisms revealed by palaeontology. The almost 
invariable destruction of soft tissues during fossilization 
evidently constitutes the chief obstacle to the quest ; and it 
still seems most probable that none of the intermediate types 
developed hard skeletal parts such as could be preserved 
under ordinary conditions. There is, however, one anoma- 
lous group of early Palaeozoic skeletons which has been almost 
invariably referred to in this inquiry, i. e. the tribe com- 
prising FterichthySj Bothrioleins^ Cephalaspis, and their allies. 
At the time of their first discovery the superficial aspect of 
these skeletons at once led to their comparison with the con- 
temporaneous Eurypterids, then believed to be Crustaceans ; 
somewhat later they entered the heterogeneous order of 
" Ganoid " fishes ; still further investigation led to a sugges- 
tion that they might possibly be a primitive armoured form of 
Marsipobranch fish ; and a few years ago Pterichthys and 
Botliriohpis were compared by Cope* with the shielded types 
of Tunicates, e. g. Chelyosoma. 

Quite recently an attempt has been made to show that this 
gradual growth of ideas has proceeded in a wrong direction ; 
and a well-known investigator of the morphology of Arachnida, 
Mr. William Patten, now claims f to justify, on philosophical 
grounds, the first impressions of the earliest collectors, lu 
the modern acce])tation of the term, Trilobites and Merosto- 
mata are Arachnids ; and it is in this direction, according to 

• E. D. Cope, "The Position of l^erichthijs iu the System," Auier. 
Nat. vol. xix. (,1885), pp. 28!.)--Pl, with ligs. 

t W. Patti'u, '• C)n the Origin of Vt'ittbratt's from ArncLuiJs," Quart. 
Journ, Micr. Sci. vol. xxxi. (18W), pp. 3o'J-30o, tig. 13. 

Nexo Theory o/* Pterichthys. 315 

Mr. Patten, tliat naturalists must seek the ancestors of the 
Chordati' pliyhun. 

However plausible the theory and however convincing tlic 
arguments deduced from the morphology and embryology of 
existing types, we venture to think that Pterichthys and 
Bothriolepis cannot be cited as having any distinct bearing on 
the subject. AJore especially docs it seem clear that the 
dermal plates in the fossils just mentioned cannot be inter- 
j)reted as the homologues of certain plates of the Arachnids, 
in the manner the author supposes ; and when it is suggested 
that the so-called dorsal shield of Pterichthys is on the luemal 
aspect of the animal, an ichthyologist, at any rate, is unable 
to regard the statement as anything beyond unjustifiable 

In the first place, Mr. Patten gives outline-sketches of the 
anterior lia^mal shield of a Trilobite and compares it with 
corresponding outlines of the dorsal (*' hasmal ") shield of 
Pterichthys and Bothriolejns. Unfortunately, however, the 
latter are copied from old erroneous figures, the inaccuracy of 
which was pointed out some time ago in these pages by Dr. 
R. IJ. Traquair *. The agreement in general size and shape 
is first insisted upon ; but that, it must be admitted, is a 
circumstance of very secondary importance. In the second 
place it is stated that, like that of the Trilobite, the " cepha- 
lothoracic " shield of Pterichthys and Bothriolejns exhibits a 
cervical suture, proving the concrescence of vagus segments ; 
but the groove in qnestion is shown by overwhelming evi- 
dence to be nothing beyond a superficial slime-canal, evidently 
connected with the sensory system. The same remark 
applies to the inner of the " great semicircular sutures 
extending parallel with the edge of the shield around the 
front and sides," which is another point of supposed similarity 
insisted upon j the so-called outer semicircular suture repre- 
sented in Pterichthys (evidently after Pander) does not exist. 
The "ocular plates^' and "facial suture" certainly are in 
part comparable ; and there is some fanciful resemblance of 
the median plates to the median lobes of a Trilobite, but the 
comparison does not appear very satisfactory. 

Having thus disposed of what is assumed to be the hsemal 
shield, Mr. Patten remarks that the " neural surface of 
Pterichthys, or the neural surface of a true fish/' has " the 
median cranial plates arranged in pairs, terminating in a 
posterior unpaired plate," corresponding to the coxal plates 

* R. H. Traquair, " On the Structure and Classification of the Astero- 
lepidfe," Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. [6] vol. ii. (1888), pp. 485-604, 
pis. xvii., xviii. 

316 On a Neio Theory o/Pterlchtliys. 

and the metasternum of Scorpions and Merostomata. Again 
we fail to find any justification for this statement in Dr. 
Traquair's restoration, the accuracy of which we have been 
able to verify in every respect. Moreover, when the conclu- 
sion is reached that " since their eyes are situated on the 
haemal surface . . . Pterichthys, Bothriolepis^ &c. are nearer 
related to the Arachnids than to the Vertebrates," it is obvious 
that some of the most fundamental characters in the skeleton 
of the first-named genus have been overlooked. 

Even in the dorsal shield itself there are features inexplic- 
able except on the supposition that it covered the neural 
aspect of an organism provided with a typical vertebrate 
brain. The plate between the eyes, for example, exhibits a 
deep pit on its visceral surface identical in position with that 
which few will deny received the pineal body in several early 
shielded types (e. g. Goccosteus), which are proved to be 
vertebrates by the discovery of the axial skeleton of their 
trunk. But the characters of the tail of Pterichthys, now 
well known, seem to the present writer absolutely conclusive 
of the relations of the neural and hsemal aspects. As shown 
by Dr. Traquair, this tail is fish-like in every respect ; it ha3 
ridge-scales and a median fin on the border that continues 
the convexity of the eye-bearing shield, and the pointed 
extremity of the tail is turned upwards towards this border. 
Moreover, at least one specimen in the British Museum proves 
that there was a large terminal fin extending chiefly on the 
convex border of the extremity. Such structures are unparal- 
leled in any known group except that of the fishes ; and when 
they do occur here tlic produced body-lobe of the heterocercal 
tail is invariably directed towards the neural aspect, while 
the ridge-scales and median fin, when present only on one 
border, are without exception on the same aspect. 

A tail of a closely similar character is also known in the 
allied family of Cephalaspidida;, and it seems to tlie present 
writer proved beyond doubt that all the organisms of this 
type are true Chordata, while many probably reach the pliase 
to which the term Vertebrate is now commonly restricted. 
Indeed, as nearly all the special points noticed by Mr. Patten 
result from a consideration of insuflicient or inaccurate data, 
it seems needless to follow him further in his wide ireuerali- 
zation as to the arrangement of the cxoskoleton and eyes in 
the lower vertebrates. There is much }vn-allelism m the 
skeleton of totally distinct groups that yet remains to be 
explained ; and it seems quite as philosophical to us to infer, 
from the known anatomy of a cockle, that the valves in the 
extinct Sjiiriyer were lateral shields, as to interpret mere 
superficial resemblances in the armour of Ptcnc/tf/tys and 
Eurypterids as homologies. 

Ofi the Palccozoi'c Divalved Entomostraca. 317 

XXXVI T. — Notes on the Fahvozoic Divalved Entomostraca. — 
No. XXIX. On some Devonian Entoynides*. By Prof. T. 

[Plato xr.f] 


Since the piiLllcition of the pnj)cr (in 1879 \) on the Devo- 
nian Entoniides (the so-called " Cypridincn ") of Germany, 
these little fossils have been frequently noticed by observers 
and writers, and their true generic position has been generally 
accepted. The lists of synonyms for the species here noticed 
■will supply the more important references. 

A very extensive series of specimens has been obtained of 
three species by Mr. W. A. E. Usshcr, F.G.S., in Devon- 
shire ; and from among them a selection has been made for 
illustration (see PI. XI. figs. 1-4). 

A very interesting species from the Eifel district has been 
described by Mr. J. M. Clarke, of Albany, New York, under 
the appropriate name of Entomis variostriata ; and he has 
kindly sent me some examples to examine and illustrate (see 
figs. 5-8 in the same Plate). 

Entomis serratostriata. — At page 516 of the 'Versteiner- 
ungen rhein. Schicht.-Syst. Nassau,' by G. and Fr. v. 
Sandberger, 1850-56, it is stated that Cypridina serrato- 
striata, Sand., had been met with at Pethcrwin, in Cornwall. 
In his Presidential Address for 1857 General Portlock 
expressed his doubts as to " Cyprtdijia serratostriata " 
having been found at South Petherwin, in Cornwall, or in 
the corresponding beds of the Pilton group in North Devon ; 
and stated that " Mr. Godwin-Austen informs me that he saw 
it, in company with Mr. F. RcBmer§, in beds which he con- 
siders higher in the series " (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xiii. }). Ixxxix). 

In Dr. Bigsby's * Thesaurus Dcvonico-Carbonifcrus,' 1878, 

* No. XXVIII. appeared in the Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist, for October 

t This Plate has been drawn with the aid of a grant from the 
Royal Society for the illustration of the fossil Ostracoda. 

X Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. iv. pp. 182-187, pi. xi. 

§ Dr. Ferd. llcemer tells me (in letter of September 30, 1889) that 
this was his late brother Fr. Adolph Tvoemer, of Clausthal ; also incor- 
rectly referred to as " Ferd. lioemer," Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, 
vol. xi. (1873), p. 414. 

318 Prof. T. R. Jones on the 

" Petherwin " is mentioned, at p. 27, among several localities 
for Cypridina {Entomis) serratostriata, Sandb.* 

In the Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xxiii. (18G7) pp. CIS 
and C70, Mr. Etheridge refers '■'■Cypridina serratostriata " to 
the English Upper-Devonian (Petherwin) , probably on MM. 
Sandberger's authority. 

The occasion and circumstances of the first discovery of 
^^C. striatostriata'''' in Soutli Devonshire are given in detail 
by Fr. Adolph lloemer in the report of a geological excursion 
which lie had made with Mr. R. A. C. Godwin-Austen, from 
Newton-Bushel to West Ogwell, Cliudleigh, and other 
localities (see the ' Neues Jalirbuch f. Min. &c.,' Jahrg. 
1853, pp. 810-818). At page 812 this little fossil (now 
known as Entomis ser7-atostriata) is mentioned as occurring 
in a series of red schists near Bickington, at tlie south-eastern 
foot of the Rarashorn Down — a locality quite distinct from 
those mentioned by Dr. E. Kayser t as yielding the same 
fossils J, during a tour in Devon after the Meeting of the 
Geological Congress in London in 1887. 

Pursuing his researches in South Devon, ^Mr. U.>slicr, 
making the Official Geological Survey of the district, found 
that the Entoniis-sl^tes (equivalent to the mis-named " Cypri- 
dinen-Schiefcr ")" occur in the area between Kingsteignton 
and Bishopsteignton, on each bank of the Teign, where the 
characteristic Posidonomya and Entomis, with an occasional 
imperfect Trilobite (perhaps Fliacops), have been found in 
them. On the other side of the Teign alluvium from Knowles 
Hill, Newton-Abbot .... to Ilighweek and Houghton, 
their occurrence is similarly proved by fossil evidence. They 
are recognizable by similar characteristics near Ilsham and 
Anstey's Small Cove. 

" In Whiteway Farmyard greenish-grey clay-slates were 
identified as ' Cypridinen-Schicfer ' by Kayser, who mentions 
the occurrence of numerous examples of Posidonomya venusta 
as well as Trimerocephalus (cf. cryptophthahnus) in them. At 

• I\Iy friond Mr. W. A. E. Usshor tells me that he sees no reason why 
Eiatoniidi's should not occur at 8(.>uth Petherwin ; for the Pethorwiu beds 
are l^pper Devonian and souiewhat similar in places to the Livaton beda 
(between Bickin^'ton and Bovey), and they are correlated with the 
rilton bods; he also regards them as being correlative with the zone of 
Ithywlumtlla htiinsis in the Ardt nnes. 

t " Ueber das Devon in Devonshire und im Boulonuais," Neues Jahrb. 
f. Min. &c., lf>89, vol. i. part 2, p. IS.J. 

\ On the road from Ugbrookc Park to Lowell (near Chudloigh\ar.d at 
Whiteway Farm, about 3 niiloa soutli-east of Chndlei^h. These places 
are uorth-ea^t of the Dovoy valley: Hickinjrton is south of that valloy. 

Falaozoic Divalved Entomostraca. 319 

Goodrington red clay-slates contain Posidonomya venusta 
and Entomis serratostriata. 

" The faulted inliers of Upper- Devonian slate in the Culm- 
measure area between Bickington and Bovey-Tracey contain 
beds of diflerent lithological type, all of which have their 
analogues in the Chudleigh district and in the Upper-Devo- 
nian tract between Rydon Farm and Abbotskerswell, south 
of Newton-Abbot. Though they probably represent the 
* Cypridinon-Schiefer ' for tlie most ])art, there are beds at 
and near Livaton and Woodhouse wliich may belong to a 
higher horizon." (Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. vol. xlvi. (1890) 
p. 513.) 

In the specimens collected by Mr. Ussher for H.M. Geolo- 
gical Survey I detected {ibid. p. 514) from — 

" Whiteway Farm : some small oblong Ostracoda (? Pri- 

mitueY^ and E. liichteri, sp. nov.*, rare. 
" About a quarter of a mile north-north-west of Whiteway 
Farm : Entomts serratostriata (Sandberger), good and 
" South bank of the Teign, west of Combe-Cellars : En- 

toim's, very obscure. 
" Kingsteigntou liaihvay-cutting, near Hackney : Entomis 

serratostriata^ numerous. 
" Knowles Quarry, Newton- Abbot : Entomis serratostriata 

and E. gyrata (Richter) . 
" East side of Knowles Hill, Newton-Abbot : Entomis 

serratostriata and E. gyrata. 
" North of Greenaway Place, near Newton- Abbot : En- 
tomis serratostriata ? 
" Castle-Dyke Quarry, near Highweek : Entomis gyrata, 

abundant; E. serratostriata, rare. 
" West of Western House, near Highweek : Entomis 

" By road west of Western House : Entomis gyrata. 
" East Ogwell : Entomis serratostriata. 
" West of Livaton : Entomis serratostriata, rare. 
" Lane near Lenda Mill, near Livaton : Entomis serrato- 
striata, obscure. 
" Anstey's Cove Cliff: Entomis serratostriata, numerous. 
" West end of Goodrington village : Entomis serratostriata, 
squeezed and obscure." 

* This was giveu as E. Sundbert/eri from N.N.W. of the farm, loc. cit. 

320 Prof. T. R. Jones on the 

Description of the Species. 

1. Entomis\ serratostriata (Sandberger). 
(PI. XI. figs. 1 a, &, 2 a, h.) 

" Cytherinen-Schiefer," G. Sandberger, Neues Jahrb. f. Min. &c., 1842, 

p. 226. 
Cypridina J serratostriata, G. Sandberger, Jahrb. Vereins Naturk. 

Ka.ssau, 1845, pp. 120, 121, and 123, pi. i. figs. G and * ; et Cypri- 
dina dimidiata, G. Sandberger, ibid. p. 123 ; " coll. et litt." 
Cypridina serratostriata, 'Rronn, Index Palieont. 1848— 49, parti, p. 387, 

part ii. p. 500; et ^'Cytherina dimidiata, Sandb., i?i litt. et specim." 

p. 387. 
Cytherina striatula et C. hemisphcerica, Richter, Beitrag Palaeont. 

Thiiring. Waldes, 1848, pp. 19, 20, pi. ii. figs. 5-17. 
Cypridina serratostriata, G. and C. L. Fr. von Sandberger, Verstein. 

rhein. Scbichten-Syst. Nassau, part i. 1850, p. 4, pi. i. figs. 2, 2a-i. 

(Including Cytherina striatula and he7niq}harica, Richter, in the 

Cypridina serratostriata, Fr. Rolle, Neues Jahrb. &c. 1851, p. 6(33. 
Cypridina serratostriata, Bronn and Ferd. Rcemer, Lethaja geognost. 

3rd edit. vol. i. (1851-56), part ii. (1852-54), p. 532, pi. 9^ 

figs. lOa-rf. {Cytiierina striatula et C. hemisph(erica, Richter, are 

included in the synonymy.) 
Cypridina serratostriata, F. A. Rcemer, Beitr. geol. Kenntniss nord- 

vvestl. Ilarzgeb. part i., Palajontographica, vol. iii. 1854, p. 42, pi. vi. 

figs. 15 a, b. 
Cypridina ? serratostriata, Jones, in Morris's Catal. Brit. Fossils, 1854, 

p. 104. 
Cypridina serratostriata, Richter, Beitrag Paliiont. Thiiringer "Waldes, 

l)enkschr. Math.-naturw. Classe k. Aliad. Wissensch. \\'ien, vol. xi. 

1856, p. 121, pi. ii. figs. 20-29. 
Cypridina globulus, Richter, ibid.y. 122, pi. ii. figs. 30-32. 
Cypridina serratostriata, F. A. RcEiner, Verstein. Harzgebirges kc, 

I'alaiontographica, vol. xjii. 1863, p. 232. 
Entomis of the Cypridinen-Schiefer, Jones and Kirkby, Geologist, 

vol. vi. 1863, p. 460 J Report Brit. Assoc. Newcastle (for 1863), 1864, 

Trans. Sect. p. 80. 
Cypridina serratostriata, Ferd. Rcemer, Geognost. Beobacbt. im Pol- 

uischen Mittelgebirge, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesell. 1866, pp. 673 

and 690, pi. xiii. figs. 4, 5 (the fig. 5 gives a squaniose appearance to 

the sculpturing, somewhat like Richter'3 tigs. 21-25, 30, and 32, 

Denkschr. 1856). 
Cypridina serratostriata, Richter, Das Thiiringi^che Schiefergebirge, 

Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Ges. vol. xxi. 1809, List of Thuringian 

Palaeozoic Fossils, pp. 390 and 391. 
Cypridina serratostriata, Ludwig, Ueber die Gliederung devon. Format. 

&c., Neues Jahrb. .."cc, 1869, p. 674. 
Cypridina serratostriata, Richter, Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. Gesell. 

vol. xxi. 1869, p. 708, pi. xx. figs. 3-10. 

t For an account of Entomis and it^ .synonyms see "Monograph of the 
British Carboniferous Kntonmstraea," Pahvonl. Soc. 1884, pp. 82-t^4. 

X Not the Cypridina oi Mihie Kdwards, as explained in tlio 'Mono- 
graph of the Tertiary Entomostracu,' Palaeont. Soc. 1856, p. 9. 

Palaeozoic Divahed Entomostraca. 321 

Entomis aerraUistriata (Sanilberger), Jones, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 

ser. 4, vol. xi. 18?;}, p. 414. 
EntamU (jlubitlus (Riebtcr), Jonoa, ibid. p. 41.5. 
Hichteria senntostridta, Jones, Neut'S Jahrb. f. Min. &c., 1874, p. 180 

(see Ann. i*v: Mag. Nat. Hist. September 1870. p. 18-"5). 
Cifpridina (Entomis) serratostriatii, Bigsby, Tbesaur. Dov.-Carbonif. 

'1878, p. L'7. 
Richteria {Eiitomvi) serratostriata, Bigsby, ibid. p. 28. 
Entomis serratostriata, Jones, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. iv. 

1870, pp. 182-187, pi. xi. figs. 1, 3, 5, 7, 13-17. 
Entomis serratostriata, Jones, ibid. ser. 5, vol. xii. 1883, p. 24"), pi. vi. 

tigs. 4 and 5. 

Owing to tlie usually bad state of preservation in which 
these little Ostracodous valves and carapaces occur, both 
from loss of the test and the pressure they have suffered in 
various directions, they rarely present perfect conditions for 
description and figuring (see pi. xi., Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 
September 1879, for various examples). The English speci- 
mens, now figured, form no exception, but are variously 
modified, with the nuchal sulcus misplaced in figs. 1 and 2, 
and nearly or quite extinguished in figs. 3 and 4 of other 
species. Other specimens have indications of the sulcus in 
its proper mid-dorsal position ; and in size these English 
examples correspond with the German *. The best preserved 
as to outline have the normal oval shape and the delicate, 
raised, longitudinal stria?, which usually appear to be pitted, 
but are sometimes pimpled, along the underside, as seen also 
in pi. xi. (1879), figs. 1 Z>, oh, and 7 h ; the pits or pimples 
having different interstices, according to age and state of 
preservation. The raised lines converge at the ends of the 
valves, as in pi. xi. (1879), figs. 1 a, 5a, and la. On these 
lines, in hollow impressions of the valves, pits (PI. XI. 
figs. 2 a, 2 h) occur, and these have evidently been left by 
little prickles once existing on the valves ; and in raised 
casts (of the convex valves) there are minute tubercles or 
pimples (PI. XI. figs. 2a, 2h), instead of small pits, and 
evidently the bases of broken prickles, small setse, or bristles, 
once fringing the thin longitudinal ridges. 

2. Entomis Richteri, sp. nov. (PI. XI. fig. 3.) 

Entomis Sandberyeri (Richter), Jones, in Quart. Journ. Geol. Soc. 
vol. xlvi. 1890, p. 514. 

This at first sight looks like an exaggerated form belonging 
to the species last described. Its much larger size (2 x 1*4 

* Tbese latter were figured in pi xi., 1879, with an amplification of 18 
diameters ; the former are X 30 diam. in PI. XI. 

322 Prof. T. R. Jones on the 

milllm.) and coarser ridges, however, are strong distinctions. 
It has been much modified, the ridges having been squeezed 
up into sharp edges ; and at the same time the upper margin 
seems to have been flattened and broken and the sulcus nearly 
obliterated. At one time I thought that it might match 
Eichter's E. Sandbergeri, taking into account his bad 
drawings ; but I cannot now reconcile the two forms, how- 
ever much they may have been modified by pressure, particu- 
larly as the ridges are spiral in Richter's fig. 17, pi. xx., 
Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. (tcs. 1869, and they are simply 
longitudinal and somewhat convergent at the ends in PI. XI. 
fig. 3. As it is larger and more roundly oval (proportionally 
higher) than E. serratostriata, with fifteen instead of about 
thirty ridges, and therefore belonging to the thich-iorinkled 
group, I separate this form as Eniomis Richteri^ after my 
deceased friend Dr. Reinhard Richter, who interested himself 
for many years in the discovery and elucidation of many forms 
of the Devonian Entomides in the neighbourhood of Saalfeld. 
This specimen, from VVhiteway Farm, is unique. 

3. Entomis gyrata (Richter). (PL XI. fig. 4.) 

Cytherina, Richter, Beitrag Paliiont. Thiir. Waldes, 1848, p. 46, pi. vi. 

fig. 212. 
Cijpridina gyrata, Richter, Denkschr. Akad. Wissensch. "Wien, vol. xi. 

1856, p. 122, pi. ii. figs. S3, 34; and Zeitschr. deutsch. geol. GeseU. 

vol. xxi. 1869, p. 769, pi. xx. figs. 13. 14 (bad figui-es). 
Richtena {L'ntomis) gyrata, Bigsby, Thesaur. Dev.-Carbonif. 1878, 

p. 27. 
Entomis (/yrata, Jones, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. o, vol. iv. 1879, 

pp. 185-187, pi. xi. figs. 4, 8, 10-12, and 18 (From Dr. Richter's 

typical specimens.) 
Entomis gyrata, Jones, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. xii. 1883, 

p. 245,' pi. vi. figs. 3 a, 3 ft. (Uralian.; 

We know from G. West's careful figures (above referred 
to) of Dr. Richter's own specimens what E. gyrata really is, 
with its curious subconcentric wrinkling, which reminds us 
(as Richter has noticed) of the delicate markings of our 
finger-tops. The specimen before me, from Castle-dyke 
Quarry, Devon, has its wrinkles, ridges, or costulaj wide 
apart and squeezed into sharp edges, and therein it differs 
from the type ; but the pattern appears to be essentially the 
same. When perfect the valve was about 1 millim. long by 
0*7 millim. high, which is rather smaller than the German and 
Uralian specimens. Rather than propose a new specific 
standing for this unique specimen 1 place it with E. gyrata^ 
on account of the plan of the ornament, though badly pre- 
served. It may possibly be a variety of that species. 

Palaeozoic Bi'valved Entomostraca. 323 

4. Entomis variostriaiay J. M. Clarke. 
(PI. XL figs. 5-8.) 

Entomis i-ariostrinta, Clarke, Xeues Jahrb. f. Min. &c., 1884, vol. i. 
p. 184, pi. iv. \vr. 3. 

Mr. J. M. Clarke, of Albany, New York, found this species 
rather abundant in the Intumescens-ViiAk, belonging to the 
lower part of the Upper Devonian, at Bicken, Westphalia. 
The specimens he described in liis paper when he was in 
Germany were from 2 to 2^ millim. long ; but the only 
examples that he could lately send for examination and 
figuring are smaller, though plentifully distributed in two 
little pieces of the rock from Bicken. 'J'hcsc carapaces arc 
subglobular, or, rather, subovatc, with a high convexity in 
the middle (1'8 millim. in fig. 8) ; glossy black and of many 
sizes, scattered through a dull black limestone, and leaving 
glossy impressions. They vary from 1'6 x 1*3 millim., 1'4 x 
•76 millim., 1*2 x -9 millim., to '6 x '4 millim., and smaller. 
The sulcus, as noticed also in Mr. Clarke's description, loses 
its simple furrow-like sliape in some cases by having its sides 
unequally raised or by being represented only by a central 
pit ; in the small (probably young) state, fig. 7, the sulcus is 
not well developed; and the other conditions may also belong to 
stages of growth. The ornament is essentially a concentric 
series of thin, raised, interrupted lines, like those of Entomis 
gyrata (see figs. 4 & 5). In fig. 8 a they are quite concentric 
to the central pit, but with a somewhat angular or lozenge- 
like contour ; in fig. 6 a, however, they are curved at one end 
of the valve and longitudinal at the other. Between these 
raised striaj are numerous delicate, transverse, flexuous, and 
branching lines, starting from the lower or underside of the 
linear wrinkles or costulee, and dying out before they quite 
cross the interspaces (fig. 6 h) . The variability of the 
ornament has been very appropriately recognized as charac- 
teristic of this German species. 


Fig, 1. Entomis seyratostriata (Sandb.). a, hollow impression of left 
valve, X 30 diam. ; b, ornament of the same, X 75 diam. From 
N.N.W. of Whiteway Farm. 

Fiff.2. Ento7nis setratosti-iaia (Sandh.). a, convex cast of jight valve, 
X 30 diam. ; b, ornament of the same, showing ridges and 
pimples, X 75 diam. From N.N.W. of Whiteway Farm. 

Fiff. 3. Entomis Richteri, sp. no v. Left valve, somewhat crushed, X 30 
diam. From Whiteway Farm. 

Fig. 4. Entomis gyrata (Richter), variety. Left valve, imperfect, x 30 
diam. From the Castle-Dyke Quarry. 

Fig. 5. Entomis vatiostriata, Clarke. Left valve, X 30 diam. 

324 Mr. A. G. Butler on the Acceptance or 

Fig. 6. Entomis variostriata, Clarke, a, ri^lit valve, showing both sulcus 
and striai to be modified, X 30 diam. ; b, striae and interstitial 
ornament, X 75 diam. 

Fiy. 7. Entomis variostriata, Clarke. Right valve of a young individual, 

Fig. 8. Entomis variostriata, Clarke, a, right valve of a large specimen, 
with a central pit rnpresentinpr the sulcus ; and the strife modified, 
X 30 diam. ; b, ventral profile of the same, x 30 diam. 

Figs. 5-8 from Bicken, Westphalia. 

XXXVIII. — Notes made during the present Year on the 
Acceptance or Rejection of Insects hy Birds. By AiiTHUK 
G. Butler, F.L.S., F.Z.S., &c. 

As I consider that the question of the immunity from destruc- 
tion of certain insects by birds is still far from being an 
ascertained fact, I have again made notes this year on the effect 
produced by offering various insects and their larvjB to the 
occupants of my aviaries. These are as follows : — 

Indoor Aviaries. 

1. Cockatcels, Budgerigars, and Australian Zebra-Finches. 

2. Pekin Nightingales alone. 

3. Whydah-birds, Weavers, American Nonpareils, Saffron- 
Finches, St.-Helena Seed-eaters, Green Singing-Finches, 

4. Mannikins, Waxbills, and Blue Robins. 


5. Cage containing White-eared Persian Bulbul. 

Outdoor Aviaries. 

1. Chaffinches, Hen Bullfinch, Great Tit, Blackbird; all 
in good-sized cages. 

2. Chaffinches, Greenfinches, Redwings ; all flying freely 

3. Large cages containing Blackbird and Fieldfare. 

4. Bimtings, Bullfinches, Linnets, Goldfinch, Canaries, 
Siskins, Indigo-Finch, and Australian Zebra-Finches ; all 
Hying freely about. 

Altogether thirty-six species, most of them flying about in 

Rejection of Insects hy Birds. 325 

large aviaries fitted up with natural branches and growing 
shrubs and trees. 

I made my tirst observation on the 27tli April, when I 
turned full-grown females of the two spiders Tegenaria 
domestica and Dysdcra Camhridgei into the aviary containing 
the Blue Robins, Waxbills, and Mannikins. Not one of the 
birds showed the least fear of them (the smallest birds, as a 
matter of fact, do not fear the largest British spiders), but the 
cock Blue Robin flew down at once and devoured each as soon 
as it began to run. 

On the 1st of May I obtained a number of larvas of the 
cockchafer (Mehlontha vulgaris)^ and on the 1st, 2nd, and 
3rd of the month I gave examples to the Fieldfare, Black- 
birds, Redwings, Blue Robins, Pekin Nightingales [Leiothrix 
hiteus), Bulbul, and Great Tit; the Blackbirds, Bulbul, and 
Great Tit ate theirs immediately, the Blue Robins killed but 
did not relish theirs, the other birds ignored the larvas. 

On May 4th and throughout the summer hundreds of the 
two white butterflies Ganoris rapce and brassicce have been 
eaten with great satisfaction by the Blue Robins, Yellow 
Hammer, Nonpareils, Indigo-Finch, and Cliaffiiiches. 

On the 1st and 19th June I turned larvas of Hyponomeuta 
padella into my outside Finch aviary and into the Blue-Robin 
aviary ; the Indigo-Finch ate one or two but did not relish 
them ; the other birds ignored them *. 

On June 9th and lOth I offered soldier-beetles (Te^ep/io/'Ms) 
to the Blue Robins and Chaftiuches, which appeared to eat 
them with pleasure ; yet, after this date, although I repeatedly 
offered this beetle to them, both species refused to touch it. 

On the 19th June I obtained the first specimens of ^ri><a//s 
tenax and turned them into my three largest aviaries : the 
Blue Robins, Orange Weavers, and Nonpareils examined 
this fly, but would not eat it, although last year the Non- 
pareils ate a considerable number ; the Indigo-Finch, how- 
ever, at once flew down, seized and ate the flies with pleasure. 

About the middle of the month my hen Blue Robin went 
to nest and the cock became most attentive to her, carrying 
every insect to her until her eggs were hatched, when he 
transferred his attentions to the young. On the 27th June, 
however, previous to the hatching of the eggs, I found a large 
gravid female of the gooseberry-moth {Abraxas grossulariata) , 
which, when thrown into the aviary with the Indigo-Fincii 
and Buntings, feigned death and so escaped notice : I there- 

* It will be remembered that this larva was much eujoyed by a speci- 
men of Carpodacus formerly in my possession. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser, 6. Vol. vi. 23 

326 On the Acceptance or Itejection of Insects hy Birds. 

fore took it out and threw it into the Blue-Robin aviary ; the 
cock bird immediately flew down, seized it, and was so much 
pleased witli its flavour that, although the hen begged for it, 
he would not give it uj), but devoured it himself. The 
young birds were hatched during the first week of July, but 
ordy one was eventually reared ; this nestling was almost 
entirely fed upon flies, spiders, large and small (including 
numerous full-grown females of Tegenaria atrica, one of the 
most repulsive-looking of our British species) , white butterflies, 
numerous examples of Pterostichus madidus, moths (including 
Agrotis saucia and Zeuzera (cscuU), mealworms and small 
eartlnvorms : the only moth I was doubtful about was the 
wood-leopard [Zeuzera cesculi) ; the old birds ate several 
specimens, but I did not see them disgorge them for the 
benefit of the young. 

On the 16th August I obtained a full-grown caterpillar of 
Cerura vinula, a specimen of which, it will be remembered, 
was greedily eaten some years ago by my Nightingales. I 
turned it into the Blue-E,obin aviary, and the hen flew down, 
seized it in the middle, and carried it to the ground, then 
started back suddenly as if stung (possibly the larva had 
ejected acid into her mouth or eyes) ; she then examined it 
curiously, pecked at it cautiously, springing back after each 
peck, and finally flew away. The cock and young bird now 
flew down and examined it, the former pecking it and jumping 
back several times, evidently half afraid of it ; then both flew 
away, and I took it out. It was quite uninjured, so I turned 
it into the next aviary, when the Weavers and Nonpareils 
flew down and formed a circle round it ; they walked round 
and round witli outstretched necks for two or three miuutes, 
the hen Nonpareil alone venturing to peck it once ; then all 
flew away simultaneously. The caterpillar never once put 
itself into what is supposed to be a " terrifying attitude," but 
crawled like a great gaudily-coloured slug along the ground. 
I now turned it in with the Leiothrix, and they jumped 
round and pecked at it, but found it too tough a morsel ; I 
do not think tiiey were a bit afraid of it. I next oftered it to 
one of my Blackbirds, but he sidled away along his perch 
and looked in a contrary direction. Lastly I put the cater- 
pillar into the cage containing a Great Tit, and he ilew down 
at once, seized and tore it to pieces, eating it with relish. 

At first sight it would appear that, judging by these 
cx})criments, the caterpillar ot Ccrnra viiiuhi enjoyed almost 
])erfcct innnunity from destruction ; but when we consider 
that the birds which rejected it were, with the exception of 
the Blackbird, only those which would never come in contact 

Revision of British Mollasca. 327 

with it in a state of nature, and that the bii-J ot' all others 
wliich wouUl be most likely to come across it was the very 
one which showed no fear of it, but devoured it with avidity, 
the protective character of the catcr[)illar, consistin;^ chiefly 
in its violent contrasts of colour (for the one experimented 
with never exserted its tentacles, even when violently 
pecked), ceases to be of any very great advantage to it. 

On the 25th August I obtained larval of Spilarctia lahri- 
cepeJa, which one of my Blackbirds ate directly they were 
thrown into his cage*. 

]\Iy experiments this year have convinced me that the tastes 
of birds not only differ in individuals of the same species, but 
that the same individuals in consecutive years vary as to their 
likes and dislikes ; in the second place they have confirmed 
the opinion, based upon previous experiments, which I 
expressed in my last paper, viz. that no insectivorous bird 
has the least fear of the largest British spider (doubtless if 
one offered a Mygale to a Waxbill or Golderest the bird would 
be alarmed) ; thirdly that, as already sliown, the imago of 
Abraxas grossulariata is far from being distasteful, although 
the larva is distinctly so to many, if not to all, insect-eaters ; 
lastly, that caterpillars and birds do not share with human 
beings the notion that the line of beauty is terrifying when 
seen in a large moth-larva. If a caterpillar gets a dig in the 
back from the beak of a bird it doubles up just as a human 
being would from a blow on the opposite side of his body ; it 
does not do it to terrify the bird, but simply because it is in 

XXXIX, — Revision of British Mollasca. By the Rev. 
Canon A. M. Norman, M.A., D.C.L., F.R.S., F.L.S., &c. 

[Continued from p. 91.] 

Order IV. P U L M O N A T A. 

It is only in a few cases that I have thought it necessary 
to make observations on the species of Land and Freshwater 
Mollusca, nor have I, with few exceptions, given the varieties. 
These will be found in * British Conchology ; ' and very 
much has been written since on the subject in the ' Journal 
of Conchology,' to which journal it is only requisite to refer 
those who are interested in the subject. 

* This Larva has since been eaten with salisf action by a Cliailinch. 


328 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Suborder I. GEOPHILA. 


Fam. 1. Testacellidse. 
Genus Testacella, Cuvier. 

176. Testacella haliotidea^ Drap. 

Var. scutulum, Sowerby. 

177. Testacella Maugei, F^-ussac. 

This species is completely naturalized and widely spread 
now in gardens throughout England, and has been also found 
in Jersey by Mr. Bull. 

Fam. 2. Limacidse. 

Genus 1. Limax, Linn^. 

178. Limax maximus^ Linn^. 

179. Limax marginatus^ Miiller, = L. arhorum^ Bouch. -Chant. 

This is generally considered, and I think with reason, to be 
the L. marginatus of Miiller ; but Jeffreys in Brit. Conch, 
vol. i. followed Draparnaud in applying that name to L. cari- 
natus ; but see vol. v. p. 155. 

180. Limax Jlavus, Linn. 

181. Limax agrestisj Linn. 

182. Limax laivis, Muller, = Z'. hrunneus^ Bouch. -Chant. 

Jeffreys, who had little studied other Mollusca tlian tliose 
which bear external shells, supposed that this was a variety 
of L. agrestis. It is very different in form from that species, 
very local, and inhabits, so far as I have observed, marshy 
meadows. Jeffreys at a later period described it (see Brit. 
Conch, vol. V. p. 156). 

183. Limax tenelliis, Miiller. 

The admission of this species into our lists I believe chiefly 
rests on IMr. Alder's authority. The specimen figinod by 
Forbes and Hanley was found at AUausford, near Shotley 
Bridge, Co. Durham. All IMr. Alder's oritjinal drawings are 
in my possession, and among them is that of this slug. 

of British MoIliLsca. 329 

There are three figures — one of the natural size, the second a 
lateral enlarged view, being tliat given in F. & II., the third 
taken from below ; but a point of especial interest is that at 
one corner of the cardboard are still to be seen traces of a 
yellow stain, underneath which is written "stain of the 
mucus." " Tiie mucus (tliis character is especially to be 
noted) is orange-coloured" {F. cO i/.). 

North ^lavine, Slietland, on stones in a watercourse of a 
mountain rill {Jeffreys). 

Subgenus Amajlia, Moq.-Tondou. 

184. Limax carinatus, Risso, = L. marginatus^ Drap.& Jeffreys 
(non Mliller). 

185. Ltwioaj ^o^rt^^s, Draparnaud. 

This is generally considered a rare species ; but I have 
found it more frequently than the last, and described it many 
years ago ('Zoologist,' 1853, p. 4048). I have had speci- 
mens from St. Martin's, Guernsey ; Torquay ; Tenby ; several 
places in the county of Durham, including my own garden 
here; Cumbrae, N.B. ; Killarney, Ireland. 

Genus 2. Vitrina, Draparnaud. 

186. Vitrina pellucida (Miiller). 

Genus 3. Conulus, Fitzinger. 

187. Conulus f ulcus (Miiller). 

A species apparently of more extensive distribution than 
any other land-shell — the whole of Europe, North Africa, 
the Azores, Western Asia, Siberia, Central Asia, whence it 
is recorded by von Martens. I cannot find the slightest 
difference when shells of the American Helix chersina^ Say, 
are placed beside European fulvus, and that shell ranges from 
Alaska to Florida, Hudson's Bay Territory to California and 
Texas. Most authors make Ji. chersina a synonym of G. 
fulvus; but Dall (Proc. U. S. Nat, Mus. 1885, p. 271) 
writes : — " This species will probably be found identical with 
Z. fulvus ; but as the name of fulvus is not uncontested and 
there seems to be some discrepancy in observations of the 
soft parts, I prefer to retain Say's name." 

Genus 4. Hyalinia, F^russac. 

188. Hyalinia cry stallina (Miiller), 

330 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

189. ITyalinia nitida (Miiller). 

190. Ilyalinia excavata (Bean). 

191. Ilyalinia pura (Alder). 

192. Ilyalinia radiatula (Alder), ?= Ilelix hammonis^ Strom. 

H. radiatula^ like Gonulus fulvus, lias an enormous range, 
extending over Europe, Caucasia, Siberia, Amoorland, and 
North America, down to Florida and up to such remote places 
as Behring Island, and even Point Barrow, Alaska, whence 
Dall records it " from moss off tlie tundra.^' It is the Ilyalina 
j)ellucidaj Lelinert, and Ilelix electrica, Gould. 

193. Ilyalinia glabra (Studer). 

Thirty years ago my dear old friend Alder gave me a series 
of seven specimens of this shell rightly named, which had 
been found by Mr. Gilbertson, of Preston, about 1837 *. I 
also have from his collection three European specimens of 
the same shell, which I have little doubt were sent to him 
for comparison by Fdrussac, with whom he was in frequent 
correspondence. Dr. Jeffreys in 1870 (Ann. & Mag. Nat. 
Hist. May) recorded the species as British, it having been 
found by Mr. Thomas Rogers at Marple Wood, Cheshire, 
and by himself at Grassmere and Barmouth. Three of Mr. 
Rogers's specimens (given me by JefFrej's) range in my 
cabinet next to those of Gilbertson. Subsequently I collected 
this shell in company with Jeffreys in his own grounds at 
Ware Priory ; and it has since been found in many other 

194. Ilyalinia alliaria (Miller). 

195. Ilyalinia cellaria (Miiller). 

196. Ilyalinia Draparnaudi (Beck). 

In the 'Journal of Conchology,' vol. iii. p. 177, this shell 
is stated to have been found by Mrs. Fitzgerald at Guernsey, 
Torquay, and Bristol. 

197. Uyalinia nitidula (Drap.). 

Var. 1. nitens, Mich. 

Var. 2. Ilehnii, Gilbertson. 

Westerlund and other continental authors, who have 

* Aider, ^rag, Zool. and Hot. 1^38, ii. i>. 108, and Ch-ay's TiirtonV 
Manual, p. lOO. 

of British MoUusca. 331 

greatly multiplied so-called species in this genus, regard //. 
nitens as distinct from //. nitidula, and Ilchaii as a variety 
of it. 

Fani. 3. Helicidae. 

Genus 1. AiaoN, Ferussac. 

198. Arion ater (Linn.). 

Var.^(a'W5 (Miillcr). 

199. Arion hortensia (Ferussac). 

Genus 2. Geomalacus, AUman. 

200. Geomalacus maculosusy Alluian. 

Genus 3. Helix, Linnd. 

Subgenus 1. PtTNCTUM, Morse. 

201. Helix pygmceaj Drap. 

Subgenus 2. Patula, Held. 

202. Helix rotundata, Miiller. 

203. Helix rupestris, Studer. 

Subgenus 3, Valloxia, Risso. 

204. Helix pulcJiella,Uu\[ev. 

Var. costata, Miiller. 

Subgenus 4. AcaxN'thinula, Beck. 

205. Helix aculeata, Miiller. 

206. Helix lamellata^ Jeffreys. 

Subgenus 5. Gonostoma, Held. 

207. Helix obvoluta, Miiller. 

Subgenus 6. Chilothema, LeacU. 

208. Helix lapicida, Linn. 

Subgenus 7. Frtjticola, Held. 

209. Helix hispida, Linn. 

Var. 1. concinna, Jeffreys. 
Var. 2. depilata, Pfr. 

332 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

210. Ilelix rufescens, Pennant. 

211. Helix granulata, Alder, = U. sericea, Drap. (non Miiller) . 

212. Helix revelata, Ferussac. 

213. Ilelix fusca, Montagu. 

214. Heli.v cantiana, Montagu. 

215. Helix carthusiana, Miiller. 

Subgenus 8. Akianta, Leach. 

216. Helix arhustorum, Linn. 

Varieties of this species described, J. W. Taylor, ' Journal 
of Conchologj,' vol. iii. p. 241. 

Subgenus 9. Eupabypha, Hartmann. 

217. Helix pisana, Miill. 

Subgenus 10. Xebophila, Held. 

218. Helix virgata, Da Costa. 

219. Helix ericetorum, Miill. 

220. Helix caperata, Montagu, = ? /7. intersecta, Poiret. 

221. Helix acuta^ Miiller, = 5w?2m«s acufus, Jeffreys. 

Subgeniis 11. Tachka, Leach, 

222. Heli.r nemoralis, Miiller. 

Var. alholahiata. 

The shell agreeing in size, texture, &c. with the 
type, but the lip white. 

Scarborough {Bean d; Leckenhy). 

Var. roseolahiata. 

Slicll agreeing in size, texture, &c. with the type, 
but the lip rosy pink. 

1 have two specimens of this variety, one from 
AVells, Somerset, and the other from Falmouth. 
They agree in coloration and are yellow, girt with 
five deep salmon-coloured bands. 

223. Helix Jiortoisis, Miiller. 

YiXY.fuscolahiata, ls.Ycg]., = Jii/l>ri(l(ij Poir. 

of British }foUusca. 333 

Subgenus 12. Pomatia, Leach. 

224. Helix aspersa, Miill. 

225. Helix pomatia J Linn. 

Fam. 4. Pupidae. 
Genus 1. Buliminus, Elucnberg. 

226. Buliminus montanus (Drap.). 

Var. albinus. 

Cooper's Hill, near Cheltenham (/. W. Taylor). 

227. Buliminus ohscurus (ilull.). 

Genus 2. Pupa, Draparuaud. 
Subgenus 1. Laitria, Gray. 

228. Papa cylindracea (Da Costa) = Papa umhilicata, Drap. 

Var. Sempronii, Chai'p. 

" Shell smaller, aperture without denticle, lip 
not so wide ; Penjghent, Yorkshire." (/. JV. Tay- 

229. Pupa anglica (Ferussac) = Papa ringens, Jeffreys. 
Sutherlandshire [Baillie of Brora). 

Subgenus 2. Toequilla, Faure-Big. 

230. Pupa secale, Drap. 

Var. Boileaiisiana, Charp. 

Dorriuge Bridge, near Ingleton, Yorkshire (AW- 

Var. edentula, Taylor. 

Bocks near Ingleton, Yorkshire {J. W. Taylor) ; 
Eastbourne, Sussex {Lay dell). 

Subgenus 3. Pupilla, Leach. 

231. Pupa muscorum, Mu\\.,=^Pupa marginata, Drap. 

Var. edentula, M.-Tand. 

Brough, N.E. Yorkshire (J. W. Taylor) ; Mar- 
gate {Cockerell) ; Clevedon, Somerset {A. M. N.). 

334 Eev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Var. albina, Menke. 

Cleeve Priors, Worcestershire ( W. II. Boland) ; 
Weston-on-tlie-Green, Oxfordsliire (not Westou- 
super-Mare, as erroneously given by Jeffreys) 
[A.M. N.). 

Subgenus 4. Sphyrabium, Agaasiz. 

232. Papa edenlula^ Drap. 

Var. columella, von Martens. 

Subgenus .O. Istumia, Gray. 

233. Pupa minutissima, Hartmann. 

Subgenus 6. Al^^a, Jeffreys. 

234. Pujm alpestrts, Alder. 

235. Pupa Lilljehorgi, West. 

Vertigo Moulinsiana, Jeffreys, Brit. Conch, vol. i. (1862) p. 25.5, vol. v. 

pi. XV. fig. 6; Reeve, Bnt. Moll. 180.3, p. 117, descr. et syn. uec tig. 

qufe ex Moq.-Tand. cop.; uec P. Moulinsiana^ Dup. (^r/eWesterlund). 
Vertigo jnodesta, Westerlund, (Efverd. af K. Vet.-Akad. Forh, 1805, 

p. 550 (nee V. modesta, Say). 
Pupa LiUjehorgi, Westerlund, Expos*? critique des Moll, de Terre et 

d'Eau douce de la Suede et Norvej:e, 1871, p. 90 ; Fauna der in der 

palaarc. Reg. lebenden Moll. iii. 1887, p. 130. 
Vertigo Lilljehorgii, Jeftreys, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. ii, 

(1878), p. 380. 

Under stones by the side of a small lake at Ballinahincli, 
near lioundstone, Co. Galway, where Jeffreys made this acqui- 
sition to the British MoUusca in 1845. 

I searched for the shell in this locality in 1874, but did not 
succeed in rediscovering it. 

236. Pupa Moulinsiana^ Dupuy. 

Pupa Moulinsiana, Dupuy, Hist. Nat. des Moll. 1850, p. 415, pi. xx. 

fig. 11. 
Pupa Charpentieri, Shuttleworth, Chemn. Conch. -Cab. 1852, p. 120, 

pi. xvi. figs. 41, 43. 
Pupa Mouliyisiatta, Jeffreys, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 4, vol. xix. 

1877, p. 432 (partim),'and ser. 5, vol. ii. 1878, p. 380 (uec Brit. 

Concli. vol. i. p. 255, nee vol. v. pi. xv. fig. 0). 
Pupa Mouliusiafia, Reeve, Brit. Land and Freshw. Moll. (^1803), p. 117, 

Pupa Moulinsiana, Westerlund, Fauna der in der paltiarct. Region, 

lebenden Mollusca, iii. 1887, p. 130. 

Ottcrbourne, Hants; Ilitchin, Herts; and Essex border of 
Herts near liyc House (//. Groves). 

of British Mollusca. 335 

DuiHiy's figure of this shell is good. Jeffreys says that it 
13 found on grasses in wet places high up the stalk. 

237. Pupa 2>}/(jmcraj Drap. 

Var. quadridentata, Studer. 

Norwich (IF. K. Bridgmnn, in Mas. Norm.), 
Dirtcar, near Wakefield {J. W. Taylor). 

238. Pupa suhstriata, Jeffreys. 

239. Pupa antivertigOj Drap. 

Subgenus 7. Vertigo, Miiller. 

240. Pupa pusilla, Miill. 

[Pupa tu7nida, Westerlund. 

Pupa tumida, "Westerlund, Expos(5 critique des Moll, de Terr, et d'Eau 
douce de la Suede et Norvege, 1^71, p. 99; Fauna dor in der 
palaarct, Reg. lebenden Moll. iii. 1887, p. 141. 

" I am indebted to Dr. Westerlund for Pupa tumida^ of 
which 1 find a specimen in my collection named V. jfusillay 
var. I am not sure that it is more than a dwarf variety or 
form of V. pusilla. The two specimens sent by Dr. Wester- 
lund differ from each other in the number of teeth, one speci- 
men having five and the other seven teeth. He describes 
V. tumida as ' 6-dentata ' and V. pusilla as ' 6-8-dentata.' " 
{Jeffreys^ Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, vol. ii. 1878, 
p. 381.)] 

241. Vertigo am/ustior, Jeffreys. 

Bundoran, Co. Donegal ; Ballina, Co. Mayo; and Killauley 
Glebe, Co. Sligo {Miss Amy Warren), 

Genus 3. Balea, Prideaux. 

242. Balea perversa (Linn.). 

Genus 4. Clausilia, Draparnaud. 
Subgenus 1. Clausiliastea, MoUend. 

243. Clausilia laminata (Mont.). 

Subgenus 2. Alinda, Adams. 

244. Clausilia hipUcata (Mont.). 

336 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Subgenus 3. Kuzmicuia, Brusina. 

245. Clausilia hidentata^ Strom, = 0. rugosa^ JefFr.,= 2\ 
niyricanSy Pult. 

Wcstevlund makes Clausilia rugosa^ Drap., a diflferent 
species from Turbo nigricans^ Pulteney ; bat the Turho 
hidentatus of Strom is an earlier name than either, dating 
from 1765. 

246. Clausilia parvula^ Studer. 

Clausilia parmila, A. Schmidt, Kritisclie Grnppen der Europiiischen 
ClausDien, 1857, p. 33, tigs, 60-74, 18!J, lOO ; Jeffreys, Brit. Couch. 
V. p. 101, pi. xcix. fig. 2. 

Kinver, near Stourbridge; several specimens {Grant Allen) . 

The above reference will give good figures of the shell, the 
European distribution of which is thus represented in my 
collection : — Namur, Metz, Drachenfels, Geneva, Savoy, and 
var. minor from Carinthia. 

It must be remembered that this is not the first time that 
so-called CI. parvula has been recorded as British. Gray 
(' Manual,' p. 218) writes : — " Mr. Alder has kindly commu- 
nicated to me ' a specimen of the shell he sent to Turton, 
which Dr. Turton calls C. parvula (t. v. p. 59), and also tlie 
specimens of the true G. parvula (according 1o Ferussac), 
found in Germany, for comparison.' lie furtlier observes 
that all the British specimens he has seen he thinks are only 
varieties of G. nigricans^ which I think the specimen fully 
bears out." 

247. Clausilia Boljjhi (Gray). 

[Jeffreys, vol. v. p. 162, pi. xcix. fig. 2, records Clausilia 
{Papillijera) solida, Drap., as British on the strength of 
a single specimen found by i\Ir. Rich (a dealer in shells) 
with C. laminata at Stapleton, near Bristol. The wretclied 
figure given appears to me to represent tlie allied C. hidens^ 
Linn. (= C. papillaris, Miill.) rather than C. solida^ Drap. 
C. hidens was long ago recorded by Pulteney as having 
occurred in Dorset, and I have a specimen which was one of 
several said to be 13ritish preserved in the Plymouth Museum, 
and given me thence in 1853.] 

Fam. 5. Stenogyi'idae. 

Genus 1. CiONELLA, Jeffreys. 

Cochlicupa of Fc'russac included species of Glandina, and 
is a synojiyni of that genus rathei than of the present one. 

of British MoUusca. 337 

248. Cionella luhrica (Mull.). 

Subgenus Azeca, Leach. 

249. Cionella tridens (Pultency). 

For notes on this species see Taylor, ' Journal of Con- 
chology,' vol. ii. |3. 220. A reversed monstrosity has been 
found by Mr. J. Emmet, of Boston Spa. 

Genus 2. CiECiLiANELLA, Ferussac. 

250. CcBcilianella acicula (Muller). 

Fam. 6. Succineidae. 
Genus Succinea, Draparnaud. 

251. Succtnea 2Jutris (Linn.). 

252. Succinea elegans, Risso. 

Westerlund separates S. elegans and S. Pfeifferi^ Rossm., 
and gives seven named varieties of the former and seventeen 
of the latter. I cannot myself, after an examination of twelve 
of these named varieties, find any points which seem to me to 
constitute specific characters between these most variable 
shells, and therefore 1 follow Jeffreys in using the earlier 

253. Succinea stagnalis, Gassies. 

Succinea putris, \av. vitrea, Jeffreys, Brit. Concli. vol. i. (1872), p, 152. 
Succinea viresceiis, Jefiveya, Ann. & Mag. Niit. Hist. ser. 5, vol. ii. 

(1878), p. 378 (nee S. viresccm, Morelet, Jide Baudon). 
Succinea staynalis, Gassies, Malac. Ten\ et d'Eau douce do la rdg. int. 

litt. de I'Aquitaine, p. 14, fig. 2. 
Succijiea stagnalis, Baudon, Deuxieme Suppl6iuent a la Men. dea 

Succinics Fran^aises (1879), p. 1, pi. xi. figs. 1-3. 

Jeffreys gives the following localities : — Carmarthenshire, 
Grassmere, and St. Albans (/. G. e/.), Cork [Hum.'ph'eys) ^ 
Mitcham, in Surrey [Henry Groves). 

The Succineoi are most difficult to distinguish and the forms 
run into each other, so that I am myself disposed to hold that 
we have but two species, S. iJutris and S. ohlonga. Succinea 
stagnalis affords a good illustration of confusion. Jeffreys first 
referred it to S.putris as var. vitrea (I suppose taking that name 
from Moquin-Tandon) ; then receiving from Baudon the shell 
described by him as >S^. dehilis, said that his shell was the same, 
but that it was not S. dehilis (Morelet, MS.) C. Pfeiffer, the 

338 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

types of which he had examined in the Cuminf^ian collection, 
but that it was S. virescens, Morelet. Baudon (1. c.) replies 
that Jeffreys's shells are not Moquin-Tandon's vitrea, which is 
ii var. of putr IS, that they are not S. virescens, Morelet, with a 
type of which he has compared them. He refers them to S. 
stagnalis, Gassics, and figures two of Jeffreys's shells — that 
from Grassmerc, which he considers typical, and that from 
St. Albans, which he calls var. Jeffreysi. Judged by the 
drawings of these two shells, it seems to be a case of distinc- 
tion without a difference. However, we have at least a 
certain name, and the British shells are S. stagnalis (Gassies), 

In the ' Annals ' Jeffreys referred his shell to S. dehilis^ 
Baudon, from whom he had received specimens : it may be 
supposed that these specimens were Baudon's var. viridula, 
which would be colourless, like Jeffreys's own vitrea ; and it 
appears to me that to distinguish Baudon's figure of that 
variety in his original monograph (pi. ix. fig. 5) from his 
subsequent figures of >S'. stac/nalis is hair-splitting indeed. 
But Jeffreys also stated that, having examined Pfeiffer's (/. e. 
Morelet's) type, he found that to be a different thing. How 
so, I would ask, in anything but colour? 

It happens that in the collection of the late Dr. Tiberi, of 
Naples, now a part of my own, 1 find two Succinexe labelled 
^'Succi. dehilis, Mori. Alger.," and two others labelled ^'Suc- 
cinea pleuraulaca, Letour. Alger." This collection is re- 
markably rich in types, and I have no doubt, although it is 
not so stated, that these shells were received from the authors 
whose names are attached to the species. These shells are 
identical, pale horn-coloured, but differing slightly in depth of 
tint, remarkable for their short spire, and are exactly repre- 
sented by the figure in Baudon's original monograph as .SVof/zjea 
dehilis, var. stagnalis, pi. ix. fig. 7. Now Morelet, in his 
second Supplement, has removed from his original S. dcbilis 
the varieties stagnalis and tuberculata, and elevated them to 
a species under the first of these names. Turning to Wester- 
lund we find S. jileuraulaca, Letour., given as a variety of US'. 
imtris, and S. dehilis, Pfciffer, holding specific rank. 

With reference to Jeffreys's ('Annals') criticism on a 
mistaken reference of Baudon to S. humilis as having bcL'U 
described by Morelet, see Baudon (' Troisitme Suppl<§mont 
}l la Mon. des Succinees Fran.^aises ' (1881), p. 12), where he 
writes: — " Le nom de dehilis I'ote donni^ par M. ilorelet, et 
rfeiffer deerivit l'esp^ee. J\I. ]\Lorelet me dit, ;\ ce sujet : ' Je 
ii'ai jamais decrit cette coquillo. II y a vingt ans environ 
que je donnai a Cuming, sous Ic nom de dcbilis, unc Ambrctte 

of Britlsli MoUusca. 339 

que i'ai recucillic en Algerie. C'est dans la collection do cot 
amateur que Pt'citTcr la vit et la doorivit.' " 

254. Succinea oblonja, Drapaniaul. 


Fani. 7. Oncidiidae. 

Genus Oncidiella, Gray. 

255. Oncidiella celtica (Cuvier). 

The yonnp: of this species in its larval state is furnished 
■with a shell which is afterwaixls cast off. 

The systematic position of the Oncidiidae has been much 
disputed. Bergh *^ after reviewing the varied opinions of 
authors, sums up his views thus : — ^'The Onchidia agree with 
the Pidmonata in the structure of the nervous system^ in the 
existence of a lung and of a parenchgmatous kidney, in the 
presence of the peculiar pedal gland, and in various peculia- 
rities of the generative system. From a tolerably extensive 
knowledge of the so-called Nudibranchs I cannot but regard 
the Onchidia as pretty widely separated from them. On the 
contrary, they branch off from the Pulmonata ; they are Pul~ 
monata which have adapted themselves to an amphibiotic or 
marine mode oflifey 


Fam. 8. Auriculidae. 
Genus 1. Carychium, O. F. Miiller. 

256. Carychium minimum^ Midi. 

Genus 2. Alexia, Leach. 

257. Alexia myosotis (Drap.). 

258. Alexia denticulata {^lon\.)^Melam2-)us myosotis, var. 
ringens, JefFr. 

Genus 3. Leuconia^ Gray. 

259. Leuconia hidentata (Mont.). 

Var. alba, Turton. 

* Bergh, 'Morpliologisches Jahrbuch,' Bd, x. p. 172 ; translated, Aun. 
& Mag. Nat. Hist. ser. 5, siv. 1884, p. 259. 

340 Rev. Canon Norman's Revision 

Fam. 9. Otinidae. 
Genus Otina, Gray. 

260. Otina otis, Turton. 

Var. Candida, Jeffreys. 

The variety from Sark {Dr. Lukis, Mus. Norm.). 


Fam. 10. Limnseidse. 

Genus 1. AxcYLUS, Geoflfroy. 

261. Ancylus fluviatilis, Miill. 

Var. capuloides (Jan), Porro. 
Var. gibbosusj Bourg. 

262. Ancylus lacustris (Linn.). 

Genus 2. Limn^a, Lamarck. 

263. Limncea stagnalis (Linn.). 

264. Limnaa jjalustris (Miill.). 

265. Limnoia truncatula (Miill.). 

266. Limncea glabra (Miill.). 

267. Limnwa auricularia (Linn.). 

268. Limnoia peregra (Miill.). 

Genus 3. Amphipeplea, Nilsson. 

269. Amphipeplea glutinosa (Miill.). 

This has been added to the L-ish fauna by ^Ir. C. Asliford, 
who has found it in the Newry Canal, near Knoebridge, Co. 
Down, and the River Brusna, King's County (Journ. Conch. 
ii. p. 6). 

270. AmpMpep)ha involuta, Thompson. 

Genus 4. PLAXOrvBis, Guettard. 

271. Planorbis corncus (Linn.). 

272. Planorbis contortus (Linn.). 

273. Planorbis carinafns, Miill. 

of British MoUusca. 341 

274. rianorhiti nmhUicatus^ 3Iull., = /*. complanatus, JetTr. 
(non Linn.). 

P. complanatus J L., is generally now regarded as P. nilidas^ 
and not the present species, wliich, however, has been called 
comphiuata by Stein, Dupuy, Moquin-Tandon, Locard, 
Bourguignat, <kc. 

275. Planorbis vortex (Linn.). 

276. Planorbis spirorhis (Linn.). 

[Planorbis dilatatuSy Gould. 

Planorbi.'i (Ulntatm, Gould, Invert. Mass. (1841), p. 210, \v^. 140; ibid." 
edit. Biniiev (1870), p. 49S, lig. 748 ; Rogers, .Joiiru. Conch, vol. i. 
(1874), p. 81. 

An accidentally introduced species, which appears to have 
established itself in the neighbourhood of Mancliester in the 
Bolton Canal at Pendleton and Galton {Thds. Rogers).'] 

277. Planorbis glaher^ Jeffreys. 

278. Planorbis albus, Miiller. 

279. Planorbis nautileus (Linn.). 

280. Planorbis complanatus (Linn.) = P. 7iitidus, Griiy= 11. 
fontanus, Lightfoot. 

Genus 5. Segmentina, Fleming. 

28L Segmentina nitida (Miill.) = Planorbis lineatus (Walker), 

Judged out of his own work, by comparing what is said of 
]\Iuller's Planorbis nitidus in vol. i. p. 80, and vol. v. p. 172, 
Jeffreys shows that that species is the present and not the last 
to which he referred it. 

Fam. IL Physidae. 
Genus \. Physa, Lamarck. 

282. Physa fontinalis (Linn.). 

Subgenus Aplexa, Fleming. 

283. Physa hypnorum {lArm.) . 

[To be continued.] 
Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 24 

;-i42 Itcv. Canon Norman on Ebalia mix. 

XL. — Ebalia nux : a Bephj to Mr. U. I. Pocock. 
By the Rev. Canon NORMAN. 

Returning from a nine weeks' drcdging-expedition in East 
Finmark, I find Mr. Pocock's paper on the above subject in 
the 'Annals' for July. I greatly dislike personal matters; 
but his remarks eannut be passed by, however much I regret 
that he should have necessitated my writing plainly. 

In the 'Annals' for last December Mr. Pocock published 
an account of the Crustacea procured in the trawlings of the 
' Flying Fox,' and the following notice of Ebalia nux is 
given : — 

^^ Ebalia nu.v, sp. n. 
"Ebalia ma; Norman, MS." 

Then follows description, after which comes : — 

" A number of specimens of this species were dredged by 
the ' Porcupine ' in the Mediterranean. Some of these speci- 
mens were presented to the British Museum by the Rev. 
A. M. Norman and were labelled '£". mi.v, Norm.' This 
name is included in the list of the species composing the 
' Museum Normanianum,' and is also in the list of the species 
of Ebalia given by Mr. Miers in his Report on the Bracliyura 
of the ' Challenger.' But no description of the species has ^-et 
been ])ublished. I have consequently taken this O]iportunity 
of characterizing it and have selected as types an adult male 
and ieniale specimen belonging to the scries dredged in the 
Mediterranean. In some of the small specimens of this 
series the larger tubercles on the gastric region of the ce})ha- 
lothorax are wholly absent 

" A single damaged male specimen was obtained by Mr. 
Green at a depth of i^l5 fathoms. This specimen differs 
from all the Mediterranean iornis that I have seen in having 
the legs almost wholly smooth." 

Immediately after this Mr. G. C. Bourne submitted to me 
for determination certain Crustacea which he had procured 
in trawlings by ll.^I.S. 'Research' oti' the south-west of 
Ireland. These were named, and the synonymy of some of 

Kc'V. Canon Xurman on Ebalia mix. .'M,"i 

the s}»ecios sent, with tlic atklition of notes which he was at 
liberty to use or not as lie thought best. At p. 315 of vol. i. 
of the ' Journal of the Marine liiological Association of the 
United Kingdom ' is the following notice : — 

'^Ebah'a Jiux, Norman, MS. 

"1880. Ehalia mix, Nomian, "Notes on the French Exploration of 

' I>e Travailleur ' in the IJav of Biscay," Ann. <& Ma^j. Nat. Hist. 

and lion. Ihit. Association, p. .'i^-r. 
" If^.'}. Lbalia nu.r (Norniun), Marion, Annales du Musde d'llist. Nat. 

de Marseille, vol. i. Mt5in. 2, p. 3i\. 
" 188.'{. Ehalia nu.r (Norman), A. Milne-Edwards, Recuoil de figures 

de Criistact5s niiuveaux ou pen connus, pi. v. 
" 1889. Ebalia niuv, Pocock, Ann. >S: Majr. Nat. Hist. ser. 6, vol. iv. 

p. 42G. 

" A single specimen was taken in 400 fathoms. The single 
specimen of the ' Flying Fox' was taken in 315 fathoms. 
Canon Norman ser.ds me the following notes on this 
.'^jjecies : — 'Mr. Poeoek seems to have been unaware that 
Ebalia mix had been admirably figured by Prof. A. Milne- 
Edwards. Tlie following is the distribution of tlie species 
as far as is known to me : — 

""Porcupine,' 1869, Stations 1, 3, 6, U, all off the west 
and south-west of Ireland, in 90 to 1630 fath. ; also Station 
46, lat. .09° 23' N., long. 7° 4' W., that is to the north-west 
of the Butt of Lewis, on the margin of the Ilolteuia ground, 
in 374 fath. 

" ' ' Porcupine,' 1870, Station 8, lat. 48° 13' N., long. 9° 11' 
W , 257 fatli. ; Station 10, off Cape Finisterre, 91 fath., 
Vigo Bay; Station 13, off Caj)e Mondego, coast of Portugal, 
220 fath. ; Station 26, otf south coast of Portugal, 364 fath. ; 
{ind in the ^lediterranean, off Cape de Gatt, 60 to 160 fath., 
and on the Adventure bank, i)2 fatii. 

<■<■ ' ' Travailleur ' Expedition, 1880. In this expedition 
Ebalia nux was taken many times in the Bay of Biscay off 
the Spanish coast. My notes taken on board give me 
July 17th, 666 metres ; July 23rd, 1107 to 1353 metres. 

""Travailleur/ 1881. in this year's expedition Prof. 
]\lilnc-Edwards re})orts it as again taken in the Bay of Biscay 
and also in the northern part of the Mediterranean, 300 

" * ' Flying Fox ' and ' Research ' trawdings off the south- 
west coast of Ireland. Profs. A. Milne-Edwards and Clarion 
courteously recognize my MS. name Ebalia nux; but if that 
is rejected it will stand as Ebalia nux, A Milne-Edwards.' " 

344 Rev. Canon Norman on Ebalia nux. 

I really had been under the impression, and I fancy that 
your readers will be of the same opinion, that I had dealt 
very tenderly with Mr. Pocoek. 1 merely gave a plain 
statement of facts, corrective of ]\Ir. Pocock's omissions, 
without further comment. Mr. Pocoek complains that I had 
" taken occasion to charge him by implication with lack of 
courtesy for not giving what I consider due acknowledgment 
to the name I applied to the above Crustacean." It happens 
that I took particular pains not to allege that lack of courtesy 
which his conscience now ]dainly tells him there was. Had 
he used a little care he could not have fallen into it. Natu- 
ralists living in the country, with nothing but their own or 
neighbouring small libraries to depend upon, may well in these 
days be excused if they are deficient in a knowledge of the 
literature of a subject on which they write ; but the case is 
different with an Assistant at the British Museum, who has a 
magnificent library at his elbow. The literature of deep-sea 
dredging is not extensive, and surely ought to have been 
carefully consulted before writing. Either Mr. Pocoek was 
not aware or was aware that Prof. Milne-Edwards had admi- 
rably figured Ehalia nux in illustrations which ought to have 
been the first work consulted on Crustacea when examining 
deep-sea forms of the Eastern North Atlantic. If he did not 
consult that work, he ought to have done so. If he did 
consult it, as he seems to imply in his last remarks that he 
had (lone, he had no excuse for writing ^'■Ebalia mix, n. sp.," 
instead of either ^^ Ebalia nux, Norman, M8.," or ^^Ebalia niuvj 
A. Milne-Edwards." Again, Mr. Pocoek states that he was 
indebted to Prof. Carus's ' Prodromus ' for the knowledge 
that " Ebalia nux, Norman," was " species nondum de- 
scripta ; " yet he possessed the same means of making the 
discovery which Prof. Carus had. 

But what specimens did Mr. Pocoek describe as Ebalia nux, 
n. sp. (/. e. Pocoek)? The 'Flying Fox' specimen was 
apparently too imperfect for descri[)tion, which was therefore 
drawn u]) from a series 1 had sent to tlie liritish ^luseum 
when my iriind ]\lr. Miers wished to examine tliis sj)ecies in 
connexiun with certain 'Challenger' forms. Whether this 
was a courteous act let others judge. 

The same carelessness in consultation of pajiers is evi- 
denced in Mr. Pocock's notes on Anamathia Carjientn-i and 
Jyi.yx'fjiiatJiuti Tliontsoni, of which he writes: — '' 1 am not 
aware that they have ere this gained the right to be iueUuied 
in a list of the fauna of the British area." \et these species 

Rev. Canon Nonuan un Ebalia mix. 345 

•were actually tirst figured in the ' Depths of the Sea' as from 
oflf the Butt of Lewi.^, that is as nuicii within the British area 
as the waters trawled by the ' Flying Fox,' and were again 
recorded by me as among the Crustacea procured in the 
' Knight Errant ' expedition. 

I must conclude with some general observations, regretting 
to occuj)y your pages on personal matters, but constrained to 
do so. 

MS. Natnes. — I regard the publication of these as highly 
objectionable, and it is well understood that authors are not 
obliged to recognize them. 1 have had at times scores, I 
think 1 may say hundreds, of MS. names in my collection, 
but never have printed such names unless compelled by cir- 
cumstances to do so. 

Correspondents. — Mr. Pocock lays to my charge that a 
letter which he wrote to me asking whether I had described 
Ebalia mix remained unanswered. I have no recollection on 
the subject, though I have a recollection of Mr. Pocock asking 
me some question, which I am under the impression I 
answered by postcard. If 1 left his inquiry unanswered 
I am very sorry. 1 never omitted to answer a letter in my 
life from willing want of courtesy, but I deeply regret to say 
that I have been obliged to leave many unanswered from the 
impossibility of finding time to reply to them. Last 
autumn, when Mr. Pocock must have written, I was quite 
unable to answer the numerous letters which were written 
to me. This is impressed on my mind by the remem- 
brance that my friend Prof. Jeffrey Bell wrote twice if 
not three times to ask me to allow him to see certain Echini 
which he desired to examine in connexion with his notes on 
the Echinoderms of the ' Flying Fox,' and that, though 
wishing to assist him as far as jjossible, I was unable to find 
time to send them until they were too late to be of service 
{vide ' Annals,' ser. 6, vol. iv. ]). 441, note). 

I am not a naturalist by profession. Science is the recrea- 
tion, not the business of my life, and has always to be kept 
subservient to duty. Often, especially in the late autumn 
and winter months, I can find little or no time for the 
pleasural)le pursuit of natural history. When possible I 
endeavour to answer letters at once ; but sometimes such an 
accumulation takes place that hope of making up arrears 
vanishes. For years, though usually working in one form or 
another not less than twelve hours a day, the time which I 
have had for natural history has been more taken up in 

346 Miss E. M. Sliarpe on 

affording help to others in tlicir studies than in pursuing my 
own work. For example, on returning home now from my 
holiday I find a large box full of letters and parcels from natu- 
ralists of Great Britain and many countries of Europe, and to 
answer all these letters and determine the specimens on which 
my opinion is wanted seems impossible. Collections mean- 
while made by me ten and fifteen years ago as well as in 
more recent years remain almost untouched, and hence also 
]\IS. names and greatest neglect with respect to public collec- 
tions referred to me for determination. 

In conclusion, I must ask my scientific friends to be so 
indulgent as 

First^ not to write to me to ask questions or submit speci- 
mens for examination unless they cannot do without assist- 

*S'eco«f//y, to be assured tliat if any letter addressed to me 
remains unanswered, it is not from discourtesy, but from sheer 
inability to find time to reply to it. 

XLI. — Descrij^tions of some new Species of African Butter- 
flies in tJie Collection of Captain (J. E. Shellei/. B}' E.MILY 
Mary JShakpe. 

Fam. Dauaidae. 

Genus Nebroda. 

Nehroda hhengtda^ sj). n. 

Nearest to N. echeria, Stoll [Amauris echeria, Kirby, Syn. 
Cat. Lepid. p. 8), but differing in the much greater extent of 
yellow on the hind wing. There is a row of unequal yellow 
si)ots on the hind marginal border extending to the submedian 
nervurc. The base of the hind wing is deep brown. 

The fore wiiig has a moderately large yellowish spot in 
the middle of the discoidal cell, with a second larger oval 
spot between the first and second median nervules. 

Between the radial or discoidal nervules there are two 
medium-sized yellowish spots near the apical portion. At 
the apex of the fore wing there is a row of small white spots 
extending to the hind margin, \\ ith four smaller white spots 
outside the first row of sjiots, | laeeil about the niiildle of the 

}icw Species of A ti'ic'Ui /iulferjficft, ,'547 

fore wiiii,'. Alonp; tlic co.--t;il inav^in tluMo arc two white 
spots. 'V\ic underside of the fore w\\\<j; is a lii^hter brown, 
having all the- spots plainly marked in white with the excep- 
tion of the two larger spots, whieh arc yellow. 

The hind wing is similar to the fore wing, having the 
yiUow basal area quite as dark as on the upperside, and the 
spots are white, while near to the precostal nervure there is 
one small white spot. 

Exp. H'l inches. 

I/o/k Matabelc Land. 

Fam. Lycaenidae. 
Genus Spalgls. 

Spalgi's latiinarginata, sp. n. 

Nearest to S. epius, "Wcstwood, but is much larger, and 
the general colour is of a creamy white. The hind margin 
has a border of light brown extending to the costa and 
colouring the wing at the base ; it is very wide near the apical 
portion of the fore wing. 

The hind wing has the subcostal nervure paler, with no 
border along the hind margin, but having a small black spot 
at the end of each nervule. 

The underside of the fore wing has a small black spot at 
the end of each nervule, and the fine lines of brown are more 
approximate than in S. epius, the lines being confined to a 
border along the hind margin. From the costa to the base 
of the wing are transverse lines of brown, less strongly 
marked and becoming more numerous at the base. A long 
transverse line of brown extends from about the middle of the 
fore wing to the middle of the inner margin, dividing the large 
white patch into two sections. The hind wing has the 
markings of the same fine character, but has more white 
between the lines than in S. epius. 

Exp. (J 1-3 inch. 

The female has the apex, costa, and hind margin of the 
fore wing broadly bordered with light greyish brown, widening 
a little more towards the base of the wing than in the male. 

On the hind wing there is a somewhat broader border of 
brown extending from the costa to the anal angle, the costal 
margin being white. 

The underside of the fore wing has a border of fine trans- 
verse lines from the costa to the hind margin, these lines being 

348 Miss E. M. Sliarpe on 

more numerous at the base. There is tlic same fine line 
down tlie middle of the wing as in the male. 

The hind wing has the base and costal margin suffused 
with greyisli brown, with a small black spot at the end of 
each nervule. 

Exp. ? 1-2 inch. 

Hub. Senegambia. 

Fam. HesperidsB. 

Genus Antigonus. 

Antigonus Jamesoni, sp. n. 

Nearest to A. indrani^ Moore, but differs in the general 
colour being a mucli ligliter and altogether of a warmer 
yellow. The whole of tlie fore wing is reddish buff, relieved 
with white semitransparent spots. There are three white 
transverse spots at the end of the costa, with three extra spots 
placed outside tlie costal spots near the apical portion of the 
fore wing in a half- circle. 

There is a large white spot edged with black in the dis- 
coidal cell, with a smaller one placed in the fork of the 
second and third median nervules. There are three large 
subcontluent white spots without lines of black, diminishing 
in size downwards, from the middle of tlie discoidal cell to the 
edge of the submedian nervure. 

The hind wing has the central portion white, with the 
submaro^inal border of the same colour as in the fore wing. 
The fringe is white, with a row of equidistant black spots ; 
this is followed by a broad subterminal band of buff, which 
in turn is succeeded by an uneven row of black spots, with a 
median spot of black between the costal and subcostal ner- 
vures. The colour at the base of the wing is dark brown. 

The underside is very much paler in colour, with all the 
spots of the uppcrside on both wings distinctly marked. 

Exp. 1'6 inch. 

Ilab. Umvuli River. 

Genus Leucociiitoxea. 
Leucochitonea umvulensis, sp. n. 
Similar to L. hicolorj Trimen {cf. Trimen, ' Rhopaloccra 
Africie Australis,' j). 307, pi. vi. fig. 1, 18G0), but differs in 
being much browner ami duller in colour. The nervules arc 
all ])lainly marked in black, with a very fine black marginal 

nero Species of African Butterflies. 349 

There are six semitraiisparent spots on the fore wing, three 
small ones at the end of the costal ncrvules near the apex, 
one large one in the discoidul cell, with another between the 
first and second mediaii ncrvules near the diseoidal spot ; a 
very small spot in the fork of the second and third median 
ncrvules. All the spots are pale yellow. 

The hind wing is slightly deeper in colour, with a very fine 
black line along the hind margin. At the anal angle there is 
a tuft of yellow hairs. 

The underside is paler in colour, with the light spots on the 
fore wing only slightly visible. 

Tiie hind wing has the veins plainly marked, especially 
the subcostal nervure, the costa being yellow. At the anal 
angle, in addition to the tuft of yellow hairs, there is a large 
black spot. 

Exp. 1*5 inch. 

llab. Umvuli River. 

Genus Proteides. 
Proteides Shelley i^ sp. n. 

Similar to P. erinnys^ Trinien, but is at once distinguished 
by the two large yellow spots on the fore wing ; one of these 
is in the middle of the diseoidal cell and the other is situated 
close to the cell between the first and second median nervules. 
There are some otiier spots near the submedian nervure, one 
between the second and third median nervules, and another 
near the fifth and fourth subcostal nervules near the apex of 
the fore wing. 

The fringe of the fore wing from the first median nervule 
to the posterior angle is yellow. 

The hind wing differs in that the fringe is yellow, with 
small tufts of brown hairs at the end of each nervule. There 
is one yellow spot near the base, with a narrow bar of yellow 
spots from the second subcostal nervure to the middle of the 
submedian nervure. 

The underside is similar to that of P. erinnys^ but the fore 
wing differs in the large patch of yellow along the inner 
margin, extending to the first median nervure. At the base 
there is a patch of dark brown, and near the apical portion is 
another brown patch relieved by two transverse lines of 
purplish grey. The hind margin has three distinct brown 
spots between the subcostal and radial nervures, the before- 
mentioned brown patch extending to the first median nervure, 
where it then becomes much lighter in colour as far as the 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol vi. 25 

350- Mr. H. E. Dresser on 

submedian nervure. Along the costa tliere are two streaks 
of grey alternating with brown. 

The hind wing is darker, with the streaks and patches 
grey. The hind margin has six brown spots, commencing 
from the first subcostal nervule to the first median nervule. 
Above this there is a submarginal border of grey. The yellow 
band of the upperside is indicated by a lighter brown band, 
having the outlines of pale yellow, the spot being the same in 
colour. There is a streak of grey from the base of the wing 
to the costal margin. 

Exp. 1-9 inch. 

Uab. Fantee {G. E. S.). 

XLII. — Notes on the Racquet-tailed Rollers. 
By H. E. Dresser. 

Having been lately engaged in working out the synonymy 
of the Rollers, I had occasion to examine all available speci- 
mens of the Racquet-tailed Rollers, which are still extremely 
rare in collections, there being, so far as I can ascertain, but 
four specimens in Great Britain, viz. two in the British 
Museum, one in Captain Shelley's collection (now purchased 
by the British Museum authorities), and one in the collection 
of Canon Tristram, which he has kindly lent to me for 
examination. The three former of these have all been labelled 
by Mr. Sharpe as being referable to Coracias spatulatuSj 
Trimen ; but on receipt of the specimen from Canon Tristram 
I at once saw that it was specifically distinct from the other 
three. In order to work out the question I compared them 
carefully with their nearest allies, Coracias ahyssinicus and 
C. caudatns, and may point out that all the Racquet-tailed 
Rollers differ from these in having the median wing-coverts 
cinnamon and in having all the tail-feathers conspicuously 
terminated witli black and blue, whereas in C. ahi/ssini'cus 
and C. caudatus all the rectriccs but the central and two 
lateral ones are pale blue throughout. The two adult birds 
in the British Museum, one from the Umvuli River, East 
Africa, and the other from Caconda, in "West Africa, have 
the throat and breast blue, exactly as in Coracuis ahi/ssi'm'cus ; 
whereas the third, from rantamcnka, East Africa, labelled as 
young, has the throat and breast somewhat striped witii pale 
blue, buff in general coloration on the sides, but otherwise 
pale turquoise-blue. The specimen from Canon Tristram, 
however, from Newala, East Africa, has the sides of the 

the Racquet-tailed Boilers. 351 

liead, throat, and breast pale brownish buff, broadly striped 
with white, and without any trace of blue, much as in Cora- 
cias uo'vius, but much paler. 

On referrinfj to Trimcn's original description of Coracias 
spatulatus (Proc. Zool. Soc. 1880, p. 31), I find that he states: 
" throat, breast, belly, thighs, and under wing- and tail- 
coverts pale bright verditer-blue, varied on the lower throat 
and breast by lih\cine cinnamon-brown webs, leaving the 
shaft-stripes of the blue ; cheeks and ear-coverts mixed lilac 
and verditer-blue ; sides of neck coloured like the back ; sides 
of breast dull sandy brownish, with bluish-white shaft- 
stripes." Thus Trimcn's C. spatulatus is very different from 
Canon Tristram's specimen, and also from the two adult birds 
in the British Museum, but somewhat resembles the third 
(young) specimen in tliat collection, whicli appears to me to 
be in all probability the young of the true C. spatulatus. 
On referring to Professor Barboza du Bocage's description of 
Coracias di'spar, from Caconda (Jorn. Sc. Lisb. xxviii. 
p. 227, 1880), I find that it agrees exactly with the two birds 
from Caconda and the Umvuli lliver, as he describes the 
underparts as blue (" subtus thalassinus ") ; and the species 
with the underparts blue, as in C. abi/ssim'cus, will stand 
therefore as Coracias dispar, Bocage. The bird in Canon 
Tristram's collection is so very distinct from both Coracias 
spatulatus and Coracias dispar that 1 cannot do otherwise 
than give it a name, and propose to call it Coracias Weigalli, 
and give the description of it as follows : — 

Pilco et nucha cuta dorso antico sordide olivaceis ; frontc, mento et 
superciliis albis ; dorso postico, scapularibus et secuudariis intimis 
dilute cinnamomeis ; aliis et cauda sicut in Coracio dispare colo- 
ratis ; capitis lateribus, gula et pectore toto pallide fusco-cervinis, 
conspicue albo striatis et indistiucte vinaceo tinctis ; abdomine 
imo, subcaudahbus et subalaribus pallide turcino-cajruleis ; rec- 
tricibus extimis valde elongatis et spatulatis. 

Long. tot. 13-0, culm. 1-25, alae 6-3, caudx 8*3, tarsi 0-78. 

It is unfortunate that I have not liad an opportunity of 
examining the type of Coracias spatulatus^ which is, I believe, 
in the museum at Cape Town ; and the material at hand is so 
very meagre that it is impossible at present to say much 
respecting the geographical range of these Racquet-tailed 
Rollers. Besides the specimens above referred to there are 
examples in the Lisbon Museum from West Africa which 
are doubtless all referable to C. dispar ; there are also several 
in the Berlin Museum obtained by Boehm at Kakoma, and 
it will be interesting to ascertain to which form these speci- 
mens belonff. 

352 Miscellaneous. 


Oil the Occurrence of Eublepharis macularius in Transcaspia. 
By G. A. BorxENGER. 

EuhJepharis macularius^ Blyth, has long been known as an inhabi- 
tant of North-western India, not uncommon in the Punjab and 
Sind. In 1885 I was able to record it from much further west, 
Dr. Sauvage having submitted to me a specimen obtained by M. de 
Saulcy in the ruins of Nineveh. This lizard now turns up in 
Southern Transcaspia. M. C. Eylandt has sent me a tail, collected 
by him under peculiar circumstances near Ashkabad, and which 
belongs to Eublepharis macularius. M. Eylandt had noticed a bird 
of prey flying off with a lizard which it had captured ; on approach- 
ing the spot whence the bird had risen, this gentleman found the 
detached tail of the lizard wriggling on the ground. As it differs 
considerably from the tails of any lizard previously observed in that 
district, the object was carefully preserved and submitted to me for 

Adclitional Notes on Peripatus Leuckarti. 
By J. J. Flexcher, M.A., B.Sc. 

Some account is given of forty-two specimens of Peripatus from 
three new localities in this colony — Mount Kosciusko, the Blue 
Mountains, and Dunoon, on the Richmond River — all collected since 
the last occasion on which the attention of the Society was drawn 
to this species. Apart fi'om the interest attaching to the occurrence 
of the specimens from Mount Kosciusko at high altitudes (5000- 
5700 feet), where for several months in the year the ground is 
covered with snow, the collection as a whole is remarkable for the 
interesting variations of colour and pattern which are presented, but 
chiefly for the unusual abundance (50 per cent.) of males, the 
characters of which were not found to be precisely in agreement 
with those of the only two male specimens hitherto recorded ; that 
is to say, round whitish papill* were found on some or all of the 
legs, with the exception of those of the first pair (not merely on the 
last pair, as in the specimens of Mr. Sedgwick and Mr. Dendy). and 
a similar state of things was found to obtain in five other males 
from otlicr localities. On the papilla? open the ducts of the crural 
glands, as shown by sections ; even when papillae are not visible the 
apertures of the ducts in well-preserved specimens are generally 
noticeable. Attention is also called to the presence of a pair of 
pores on the ventral surface between the genital aperture and the 
anus, but nearer to the latter, which may possibly be the openings 
of the ducts of accessory glands. The majority of tlio specimens 
(thirty-five) were obtained at Mount Kosciusko by Mr. R. Helms, 
on behalf of the Australian Museum. — Linn. Soc. of Xew South 
Wahs, Abstract of L'roceedings, 30th July, ISOO, p. vii. 

Ann &■ . \f(u, .Aut Hist S 6 Vd \T Pi XI 


o.WeBt L Sons deJ. ilth et imp. 





No. 35. NOVEMBER 1890. 

XLIII. — Report on the Corals from the Tizard and Macclesfield 
Banks, China Sea. By P. W. Bassett-Smith, Surgeon 

[Plates Xn.-XIV.] 

In April 1888, by order of Capt. Wharton, F.R.S., Hydro- 
grapher to the Navy, a short survey was made of these 
interesting coral-banks by H.]\[.S. ' Rambler,' in charge of 
Commander AV. U. Moore, R.N. Sectional lines were run 
across the margins of the banks, both from within and with- 
out, into moderately deep water, and dredging-operations were 
carried on, which resulted in obtaining a large collection of 
corals &c., which were brought to England for further exam- 
ination, and subsequently presented by the Lords Com- 
missioners of the Admiralty to the British Museum (Natural 
History). The corals were for the most part dredged up 
under my own personal superintendence, and on the return of 
the vessel to England I obtained permission from the Admi- 
ralty to study and arrange the collection there through the 
kindness of Dr. Giinther, F.R.S. In the original Report of 
the Survey several of the corals were incorrectly specified 
from want of books of reference. On my return home I was 
enabled to devote several months to their detailed study, but 
should not have ventured to publish my generic and specific 
A7171. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 26 

354 Mr. P. W. Bassett-Smith on 

determinations, if Dr. G. J. Hinde had not, at the sacrifice 
of mucli time, most kindly gone over the whole of the collec- 
tion and revised my work. Owing to various circumstances 
the present Report is limited to an enumeration of the different 
species which have been determined ; amongst them are many 
forms which in Dr. Hinde's opinion are apparently new, but 
a detailed description of these is delayed until they can be 
reexamined with the assistance of additional material, and 
until an opportunity can be found to figure them suitably. 
I have thought it desirable to subjoin some brief notes on the 
character of the reefs whence the corals were obtained. 

The Tizard Bank (PI. XII.) is situated in lat. 10^ N., 
long. 114° E., near the centre of the China Sea between the 
Philippines and the Malay Peninsula. Like many others 
in the same region it is irregularly circular in outline ; and 
it has an extreme length of 32 miles and a breadth of 10, 
and it is surrounded by deep water. 

But with such an extended margin the only portions of the 
bank which project above the surface of the sea consist of three 
small islets, each from half a mile to one mile in length, and 
two very small sand-kays of about one mile each. For the 
greater part of the circumference of the bank, that is for 50 
out of 67 miles, the rim is within 10 fathoms of the surface. 
On the north-east side there are two extensions of the bank, 

5 and 4^ miles in length respectively ; the first of these is 
nearly uncovered at low water, whilst the other is at a depth 
of 6 fathoms. 

The area of the lagoon inclosed within this bank is very 
extensive ; it has an average depth of 40 fathoms, with a few 
scattered elevations here and there, the eastern end being the 
most shallow portion. The bottom of the lagoon is covered 
by a fine foraminiferal sand, and the same material extends 
over the floor of the narrow channels which cut through the 
rim and connect the lagoon with the outer sea. At depths of 

6 to 10 fathoms long channels paved with this sand can be 
seen bounded on either side by walls of living coral. 

From the central portion of this sandy floor of the lagoon, 
at a depth of 45 fathoms, a living Astrtean coral belonging to 
an ajiparcntly new species of Favia was dredged up, tlius 
showing the existence of these reef-building forms at depths 
much greater than it has been supposed they could flourish 
in. I may here point out that the evidence obtainable by the 
lead alone regarding the presence of living corals is entirely 
misleading and almost worthless. For example, judging 
from the observations obtained by the lead, the greater part 
of the corals on the surface of the Macclesfield Bank appeared 

Corals from the China Sea. 355 

to be (lead ; but the tlretlge witli swabs attached brought up 
from tliis bank an abundance ot" living forms. 

Of tlie tliree islets on the Tizard Bank (see PL XII.), that 
named Sand-Kay is the smallest and the most recent ; though 
it has increased in size within the last twenty years, it is still 
only a quarter of a mile in lengtli. The surface is somewhat 
depressed in the centre ; it is entirely conijiosed of sand and 
small coral debris. Surrounding the island is a platform of 
coral-rock half a mile broad, covered generally with sand, but 
licre and there with patclies of growing coral which increase 
in number as the water becomes deeper, and they grow very 
luxuriantly amongst the breakers on the outer edge of the 
platform both next the sea and next the lagoon. Just below 
high-water mark there are parallel lines of hard solid rock 
formed by coral debris and sand cemented together, and a 
reef at a depth of 5 fathoms extends uninterruptedly to the 
"westward for a distance of 4 miles. 

Tiie islet of Nam-Yit is rather larger than Sand-Kay; its 
highest part is not more than 12 feet above high water, and 
in bad weather the waves, according to the natives, break all 
over it. It is well covered with small trees, and the surface- 
soil is therefore of a brown and earthy character ; beneath 
this is a conglomerate of sand and small coral debris. A well, 
6 feet deep, passed through loose sandy rock. 

The striking parallel lines of cement-rock are well marked 
on both sides of this island, more particularly on the south or 
weather side ; they have an apparent dip of about 60° from 
the centre, one layer superimposed on the other. This islet 
is likewise surrounded by an extensive shore-platform with 
isolated rocks at its edge, and at its northern end there are 
sand-banks forming horn-shaped prolongations, which partially 
inclose a small lagoon ; on the open side of this, facing the 
lagoon, there are many rocks just below the surface. 

Itu-Aha, the largest islet, is three quarters of a mile in 
length and covered with large trees of considerable age ; it is 
similarly surrounded by a shallow-water platform. Outside 
this, in 6 fathoms water, the number of living corals was 
found by the diver to be much fewer than elsewhere ; but 
from the reef, in 21 fathoms water, several massive specimens 
were obtained, and a rich variety of species was found on the 
lagoon side of the reef. 

A comparison of the sections (PI, XIII.) taken across diffe- 
rent portions of the Tizard Bank shows very great similarity in 
the form and slope of the bank throughout. Thus in all, 
with the exception of section C near Nam-Yit, there is a broad 
plateau sloping very gradually to a depth of 10-12 fathoms, 

356 ^Ir. p. W. Bassett-Smith on 

on which coral-growth is most luxuriant ; from the edge of this 
there is a more or less abrupt descent to a depth of about 30 
fathoms, followed by a gradual slope to 50 fathoms ; then there 
is an abrupt descent to 100-150 fathoms, and beyond this 
the average slope to deeper water is at an angle of about 30^, 
except in section F, near Itu-Aba, where it is somewhat less. 
In section C the slope of the plateau continues gradual to a 
depth of 30 fathoms, and in this respect is similar to the 
Macclesfield Bank. 

The Macclesfield Bank (PI. XIV.) is situated 300 miles to 
the north of the Tizard ; it is 76 miles in length and 36 broad. 
This bank is entirely submerged ; the shallowest portion of the 
rim is 9 fatlioms beneath tiie surface, and inside the bank the 
depth is from 40 to 50 fathoms. Dredging on this bank was 
carried on from a small steam-cutter, but at deptlis of 20 to 
45 fathoms there was considerable dithculty in moving the 
dredge with swabs attached. Living corals were found very 
abundantly to a depth of 30 fathoms, and some were obtained 
from a depth of 44 fathoms. 

It will be seen from the subjoined tabular list that 129 
species of Madrepore corals (Hydrocorallines and Alcyo- 
narians are not here included) have been determined from the 
Tizard and Macclesfield Banks ; of this number 99 species 
are from the Tizard and 26 from the Macclesfield Bank, 
whilst 4 only are common to both. Of the Madreporaria 
Aporosa there are 48 species, belonging to 23 genera ; of the 
Madreporaria Fungida 23 species, included in 9 genera ; and 
of the ]\Jadreporaria Perforata 5S species and 8 genera. 
The preponderance of the species of this latter division is 
principally due to the number of forms of the genus Madre- 
pora^ of which there are as many as 31 species. 

An analysis of the bathymetrical distribution of these corals 
shows that at depths of 5 fathoms and under there are 45 
species ; between 5 and 10 fatlioms 43 species ; between 10 
and 20 fathoms only 1 species ; between 20 and 30 fathoms 
30 species ; between 30 and 40 fathoms 13 species ; and 
between 40 and 50 fathoms 6 species. The rarity of species 
at depths between 10 and 20 fathoms may be accounted for 
by the fact that the shore-platform abruptly ceases at the 
upper limit of this zone, and tiiere is a nearly vertical descent 
of 10 or more fatlioms to a lower platform. 

A very noticeable fact is the number of species which have 
been found living at depths of over 30 fathoms, a depth until 
lately supposed to be tiie extreme limit at wliicli reef-building 
corals could exist. On these banks, however, we find 19 
species occurring at depths between 31 and 45 fathoms; but 

Corals from the China Sea. 


of these tlicrc are 7 species belonging to genera which may 
projiorly be considered deep-water corals rather than reet- 
builders ; these are DesmophyUnnij Flahelluin, C//at/tohelia, 
LithophyUia, Tridacophyllia^ and Balanopliyllia. The 
remaining 12 species of reef-corals living at these unusual 
depths belong to the following genera : — Stijlophora, 1 sp. ; 
Favia, 1 sp. at -45 fath. ; Pavonia^ 1 sp. ; Leptoseris, 1 sp. ; 
rhyllastraa, 1 sp. ; Psammocora, 1 sp. ; Montipora^ 3 spp. (one 
of these at 44 fath.) ; Phodanra, 1 sp. ; and Afveopora, 2 spp. 

It is also worthy of mention that tive new species of tlio 
genus Madrepora — a genus usually limited to depths of under 
10 fathoms — were found living at depths of 20 to 27 fathoms 
both on the Tizard and Macclesfield Banks. 

Of the 18 species found growing on the coral-head inside 
the lagoon 15 were not found elsewiicre, and tiie diver 
reported that the bottom looked ditferent. This is rather a 
remarkable fact, considering the size of the lagoon and the 
depth of water. 

Tabular List of Genera and Species of Corals obtained from the Tizard and 

Macclesfeld Banks. 

[T. = Tizard Bank. M. = Macclesfield Bank.] 

Genera and Species. 





























Madreporaria Aporosa. 

Stylophora, Sckw. 

dipitata, Pallas, sp 

pro:?trata, Kliutz 

pistillata, Esper, sp 

r* Ehrenbergi, E. Si- H. . , 

Guentheri, sp. n , 

Seriatopora, Lam. 

gracilis, Dana 

imbricata, sp. n 

compacta, .sp. n 

tenuis, sp. n 

armata, sp. n 

Pocillopora, Lam. 

elougata, Dana 

verrucosa, Ell. Sf Sol., sp. 

brevicornis, Lam 

, sp 

O-o. 5-10. 10-20 

Depth in Fathoms. 




20-30.' 30-40.1 40-50. 50-60 





Mr. P. W. Bassett- Smith on 

Tabular List of Genera &c. (continued). 



























































Genera aud Species. 

Flabellum, Lesson. 

Stokesi, E. ^ II. . . . . 

Desmophyllum, Ehreitberr/. 

, sp. ". . 

Cyathohelia, E. ^ II. 

axillaris, Ell. 4" Sol. . . 

Lithophyllia, E. ^- IL 
Iacr3'malis. E. ^- II. 

Depth in Fathoms. 


Tridacophyllia, Blainv. 

cervicornis, Moseley 

Galaxea, Okcn. 

nequalis, sp. n 

Symphyllia, E. ^- H. 


labyrinthica, sp. n 

Mussa, Ohen. 

multilobata, Dana 

sinuosa, Lam 

Meandrina, Ijam. 

.strigosa ?, Dana 

djedalea, Ell. ^- Sol., .'sp 

Leptoria, E. 4' II. 

phrvpfia, Ell. ^- Sol., sp 

Scaphophyllia, E. ^- H. 

cylindrica, E. ^- H. 

Ilydnophora, Eischer. 

niicrocona, Lam., sp 

rigida, Dana, sp 

Fa via, Ohen. 

denticulata (?), Ell. Sf Sol., sp. 

Okeui, E.^II. 

Ehrenbergi, viii\ sulcata, A7. 

pandanus, Dana, sp 

rotulosa, Ell. S)- Sol., sp 

» sp 

Goniastnca, E. ^- II. 

Bournoni, E. Si II. 

Prionastraa, E. S' II. 

obtiisata, E. ^- II. 

spiuosa, Kl. 

robusta, Dana, sp 

Plesiastra^a, E. S' II- 

UvN illei, E..^IL 

Cyphiistra^a, E. v.V II 

Brueggeiuanni, (iuilch . . . . 


5-10. ! 10-20. 20-30. 30-JO. 40-50. oO-O 






I I i 

Corals from the China Sea. 
Tabular List of Genera &c. (continued). 











Genera and Species. 

Leptostroea, E. ^.y J[. 

Ehreubergana ( ? ), E. 4' H. , 

solida, E. *^- //., sp 

Orbicella, Dana. 

annuligera, E. H^- H. 

— :> sp 

Eohinopora, Lain. 

rosulai'ia, Lam 

Madreporaiua Fungida. 

Siderastrsea, Blainv. 

(?), sp. n 

Fiingia, Lam. 

scutaria, Lam 

Pavonia, Lam. 


pretiosa, sp. n 

ramosa, sp. n 

clivosa, T 'err 

, sp 

; sp. n 

Cycloseris, E. S,- H. 

cyclolites, Lam., sp. ... 

tenuis, Dana, sp 

sinensis, E. if H. 

Freycineti, E. ^- H., sp. . 

distorta, Mich., sp 

Leptoseris, E. 8f H. 

striatus, MS. (?) 

, sp 

Phyllastraea, Dana. 

— - Okeni (?), E. 8) II., sp. . , 

tubifex, Dana 

Pachyseris, E. 4" H. 

levicoUis, Dana, sp 

Oxypora, Sav. Kent. 

contorta, Quelch 

Psammocora, Dana. 

planipora (?), E. 8f H. . . 

— 1 sp. : 


Gen. et sp. iud 

Depth in Fathoms. 

0-5. 5-10. ! 10-20. 20-30. 30-40. 40-50. 50 

















Mr. P. \V. Bassett-Smith on 

Tabular List of Qenera &c. (continued) . 

Genera and Species. 

Depth iu Fathoms. 




20-30. .30-40. 40-50. .50-6C 













































































Madreporaria Perforata. 

Balanophyllia, Searles Wood. 

parvula ?, Moseley 

scabrosa (?), Dana, sp. ... 

Dendrophyllia, Bkiinv. 

gravis, Brugg. MS. ? 

Montipora, Quog et Gaim. 

papillosa, Lam., sp 

foliosa, Pallas, sp 

proliiica, Brugg. MS. ? . . . 

lima (?), Lam., sp 

, sp 

Danje, E. ^ H. 

^ ^P 

porosa, sp. n 

. «P-. 

Turbinaria, Oken. 

stellulata, Blamv., sp. var. . 

Madrepora, Linn. 

robusta, Dana 

crebripora, Dana 

secunda, Dana 

scabrosa, Quelch 

horrida, Dana 

Ehrenbergi, E. S,- H. 

dendrum, sp. n 

compressa, sp. u 

, sp. n 

plantaginea, Lain 

valida, Dana 

paxilligera, Dana 

pyvamidalis, Kl 

seriata, Ehrenb., sp 

tenuis, Dana 

nasuta, Dana 

eflu?a, Dana 

globiceps, Dana , 

acervata, Dana 

aculeus, Dana 

corvmbosa. Lam 

pro.'^trata, Dana 

cvtherca (!■'). Dana 

cfflorescons, Dana 

spicit'era (var. abbreviata), 
















Corals from the China Sea. 

30 1 

Tabular List of Genera tt'C. (continued). 

Genera and Species. 







11 a. 


































h\ aciiitlius, Duna 

va.-^tula (!'), Qiielc/i 

riabellifonuis, U. i.y JL, var. 

labrosa, Dana 

fraj:ilis, sp. n 

Rambleri, sp. n 

llanibleii, var 

Pontes, Lam. 

ruucrouata, Duna 

conterta, Dana 

lutea, Quay et Gaim 

tenuis, Verr 

areuosa, Esper, sp 

lichen (?), Dana 

solida, Forsk., t^p 

crassa (?), Qnekh 

Ilhodaraea, E. ^- H. 

gracilis, E. ^- H. 

(?) Lagrenii?, E. ^- II. ... 

Alveopora, Quoi/ et Gaim. 

dsedalea, Forsk., sp 

retepora, Ell. ^- tSoL, sp. . . . 

Tizardi, sp. n 

Depth in Fathoms. 





5-10. ' 10-20. 













, , 

.. 1 35 


References to Genera and Species, 


Section Madrepokaria Atorosa, Ed. & H. 

Genus Stylophora, Scliwclgger. 

Stylophora digitata.^ Pallas, sp. 
Madrepora digitata, Pallas, Eleuch. Zooph. p. 326. 

Two fragmentary specimens. 

Tizard Bank. Depth from 3 feet to 7 fatli. 

Stylophora prostrata^ Klunz. 

1879. Stylophora p)-ostrata, Die Korallth. des rothen Meeres, Th. ii. 
p. (;2, pi. vii. fig. 8, pi. yiii. fig. 7. 

Two specimens were obtained. 

Tizard and Macclesfield Banks. Depth 26-27 fath. 

362 Mr. P. W. Bassett-Smlth on 

Stylophora pistillata, Esper, sp. 

1797. Madrepora pistillata, Esper, Madre. pi. Ix. 

A single fragment doubtfully belonging to this species. 
Tizard Bank, 7 fath. 

Stylophora (?) Ehrenhergi^ E. & H. 

1859. Stylophora Ehrenbergi, E. & H., Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3*s^r. t. xiii. 
p. 105. 

A small fragment was obtained which apparently belongs 
to this species. It is doubtful, however, whether the form 
can properly be retained in the genus Stylophora^ since there 
is apparently no coenenchyraa and in character the septa much 
resemble those of an Astrtean coral. 

Tizard Bank, 3 fath. 

Stylophora Guentheri^ sp. n. 

Corallum incrusting, growing in thin successive layers over 
foreign objects ; upper surface uneven, with nodose projec- 
tions. Base with wrinkled epitheca formed of delicate con- 
centric lines. The layers from 1 to 3"5 millim. in thickness. 
Calices circular, without regular arrangement, not projecting, 
but on a level with the general surface ; no dctinite lip deve- 
loped. The calices from "8 to 1 millim. in diameter, from "3 
to 1 millim. apart, usually four in 5 millim., rarely five in 
this distance. The septa delicate, six small as well as the 
six large can be recognized, the free edges markedly dentate. 
Columella styliform, prominent, reaching nearly to the level 
of the calice. Interspaces between the calices thickly beset 
with minute blunt spines. In places fine lines can be seen in 
the interspaces, marking polygonal outlines of the corallite. 
Occasionally there is a small papilla-like prominence on one 
side of a calice apparently connected with one of tlie large 
septa ; but this character does not appear to be general. 

This species is characterized by its incrusting mode of 
growth, the small size and insert character of the calices, and 
the strongly dentate septa. Two specimens were obtained, 
one (alive) from a depth of 32 fath., the other (dead) from a 
dej)th of 22 fathoms. 

Maccleslield Bank, China Seas, 22 and 32 fathoms. 

Corals from the China Sea. 363 

Ck'iius Sehiatopora, Lam. 

Seri'atopora graciUsy Dana. 

1848. Seriatopora calieudrum, var. gracilis, Dana; U. S. Explor. Expe- 
dition, Zoophyte.*, p. b'2'2, pi. xlix. fig. 4. 
1875. Seriatopora gracilis, Dana, Corals and Coral Islands, p. 3.34. 

There are three fragmentary .'Specimens wliich do not fully 
agree with Dana's description ; but the ditferenccs do not 
appear sufficient to justify placing them in a new species. 
They form bushy masses of very slender branches from 2*5 to 
8 niillim. in thickness in the lower part, the terminal branch- 
lets acutely pointed, slightly winged at their apices, from 2 to 
5 millini. long and about 1 millim. thick at the base. 
Branches round to subangular, divergently bifurcating in 
lower ])ortions of the colony and giving off antler-like spikes. 
Calices in five series, circular to oval, from '4 to '5 millim, in 
width, sometimes without prominent lips, at others the upper 
lip projecting ; distance from each other in rows variable, 
from '8 to '6 niillim. ; there are from five to six calices in a 
length of 5 millim. Septa not recognizable, columella visible 
but not prominent. Spaces between the rows abundantly 
covered with acute spines. 

From Dana''s figured type these specimens differ in the less 
upright and more divergent mode of growth and the slightly 
winged apices of the branchlets. They differ materially from 
the form referred by Quclch to this species ('Challenger' 
Report, vol. xvi. p. 58), which has calices of about twice the 
size mentioned by Dana. 

Macclesfield Bank, 20^ fath. 

Seriatopora imhricata, sp. n. 

Corallum forming fairly large bushy masses ; branches 
dichotomizing at intervals, occasionally a distance of 15 
millim. between the furcations, branches sometimes coalescing. 
The summit-branches furcating and giving off short, pointed, 
divergent apical spikes, not winged, about 2 millim. thick at 
their bases. Branches in lower portion about 4 millim. in 
thickness, distinctly subangular, the calices in five series on 
the angles. Calices transversely suboval, with their upper 
lips very prominent and strongly arching over the aperture, 
very spinous ; in the lower branches the upper lip hardly at 
all developed. The calices about "6 millim. in diameter, very 
closely arranged in the rows, so that there are seven in the 
space of 5 millim. The interspaces between the calices flat- 
tened, sometimes 1 millim. in width, closely covered with 

364 Mr. P. W. Bassett-Smlth on 

short stout spines, which arc in places disposed in longitudinal 
wavy lines. 

There is only a single specimen of this species ; it is 120 
millim. in height and 140 in widtli, but the lower portion of 
it was dead when dredged and the branches are hollowed out 
by boring-sponges and incrusted by Nullipores. 

In its mode of groAvth and in the prominent lip of the calices 
this form belongs to the same group as S. angulata, Kl., S. 
jjacifica, Brugg., and >S'. spinjsa, M.-Edw. It approaches 
nearest to 8. angulata, but the calices are much smaller and 
closer arranged in the rows than in this species, and the 
branches are less acuminate. 

There are in this specimen several instances of those pecu- 
liar abnormalities of growth which Ehrenberg compared to 
galls in plants. They assume the form of flattened hollow 
disks, with thin walls formed of the coral ; the margins of 
the disks are perforated. Imprisoned within each of these 
discoid cages is a small crab which cannot escape. 

From tlie Tizard Bank, at a depth of | fath. 

Seriatopora compacta, sp. n. 

Corallum growing in small clumps consisting of rounded 
or somewhat compressed branches about 6 millim. thick, which 
dichotomize at intervals of from 5 to 7 millim. and frequently 
coalesce, so that the coral has a fenestrate appearance. The 
summit branchlets are short, from 3 to 5 millim., conical, 
about 2 millim. thick at their bases, summits obtuse, 
occasionally winged, crowded with young calices. Calices 
closely arranged on branches ; the serial arrangement is not 
distinct, but there appear to be about nine rows on a branch ; 
the calices are from 2 to 3 millim. apart in the rows and 
about an equal distance laterally ; there are from five to six 
calices in a length of 5 millim. The calices are nearly 
circular, from "6 to '75 millim. in width, their margins 
scarcely at all prominent, but the upper lip is occasionally 
indicated by longer spines. The calices are deep and the 
large septa and the pits at the bottom can be distinguished. 
The narrow interspaces between the calicos are covered witii 
short spines. 

This species is of the type of S. crassa, Quelch, and S. 
transversa, Quelch, but ditfcrs from these forms in having 
less robust and closer arranged branches, whilst the calices 
are lar<>cr and closer tojrother. 

Only two imperfect cxanij)les of this species have been 
obtained ; the largest is 40 millim. in height by GO in width. 

Tizard Bank, of fath. 

Corah from (he China Sea. 3G5 

Seriatopora tenuis^ sp. n. 

Corallum forming small bushy masses of closely arranged 
branches, which in the lower portions are subpulmate, but 
above cylindrical ; they are tVoni 4 to 5 millini. in thickness, 
bifurcating at intervals of from 5 to 7 niillim. ; the a])ical 
branchlcts depressed, conical, winged, so as to show tlie rows 
of calices very distinctly; they are 4 to 5 millim. in length 
by 2*5 millim. thick at their bases. Calices nearly circular, 
•6 millim. in diameter, without projecting lip, from '2 to '4 
millim. apart in rows, or five calices in 5 millim. There are 
seven or eight rows on the branches, the rows about "4 millim. 
aj)art. Calices deep, showing a sharp thin edge of the axial 
septa, with occasionally a columellar tubercle slightly rising 
from the centre, the calicinal pits well shown. Intermediate 
space finely spinous. 

This species approaches closely to S. comj)acta, but the 
branches are more slender ; the calices are smaller, and they 
are in fewer rows. There is a single ivaxXy complete speci- 
men 40 millim. in height by 75 millim. in width. 

Tizard Bank, 6 fath. 

Seriatopora armata, sp. n. 

Corallum growing in low depressed clumps of delicate 
thickly- set branches, from 3 to 4 millim. in thickness, some- 
what com]n-essed in their lower portions, bifurcating at 
intervals of about 5 millim., and frequently coalescing. Near 
the summit the branches furcate more frequently and give off 
numerous short spike-like branchlets, conical, acute, winged, 
and from 3 to 5 millim. long by 1*5 millim. thick at their 
bases. Calices in five rows on the branches, oval, about '16 
millim. long by "6 wide, about 3 millim. apart in the rows ; 
margins well marked by stout spines but not exsert. There 
are five calices in 5 millim. and the rows are about '6 millim. 
apart. Calices showing the axial septa distinctly, in the 
centre a slight crestiform elevation (columella?). Areas 
between the calices with short spines which have sometimes 
a linear arrangement. 

There is only a single perfect example of this species, 
which is 35 millim. in height and about 90 wide across the 
summit. In its mode of growth and in the character of the 
calices this form approaches S. compacta and >S^. tenuis] but 
its branches are more delicate, the rows of calices are fewer, 
and the surface more spinous ; the numerous short apical 
branchlets is also a distinguishing feature. 

366 Mr. P. W. Bassett-Smith on 

Tizavd Bank, 7 fatli. On block of coral-rock in associa- 
tion with specimens of Madrepora, Favia, &c. 

Genus Pocillopora, Lam. 

Tlie examples of this species are fairly numerous ; with 
one exception, which was found in 26 fathoms, thej have all 
been obtained in depths under 10 fathoms. The specific deter- 
mination of these forms is extremely difficult ; tlie definitions 
given by Lamarck, Edwards and Haime, and other older 
authors are so general that it is impossible to know wliat tliey 
include ; and, on the other hand, the variations in the cha- 
racters of the corallites appear to be so slight in the different 
forms that they may almost be considered as forming a con- 
tinuous series separated only by slight modifications in their 
mode of growth. In the absence of authenticated specimens 
of known species the list given below can only be regarded 
as provisional. 

Pocillopora elongata, Dana. 

1848. Pocillopora elongata, Dana, Zoopliytes, p. 531, pi. oO. fior. 4. 

Three specimens from depths of 2-6f fath. 
Tizard Bank. 

Pocillopora verrucosa, Ell. & Sol., sp. 

1780. Madrepora verrucosa, Ell. & Sol. Nat. Ilij-t. Zooph. p. 172. 
1836. PociUojjora verrucosa, Lam. Hist, des Auim. sans VertLebr. ed. 2, 
t. ii. p. 443. 

There are several examples of this species, wliich appears 
to have flourished all over the reef. Depth 1-10 fathoms. 
Tizard and Macclesfield Banks. 

Pocillopora hrevicornis, Lam. 

1836. Pocillopora hrcvicornis, Lain. Hist, des Anim. sans Vertebr. t5d. 2, 

t. ii. p. 443. 
1848. Pocillopora hrevicoriiis, Dana, Zooph. p. 520, pi. xlix. fig. 8. 

Several examples from depths |-1 fath. ; one specimen 
6^ fath. 

Tizard Bank. 

Pocillopora, sp. 

A single specimen, which in its mode of growth resembles 
P. hrevicornis ; but the branches are considerably thicker and 
the corallites somewhat larger. 

Garvan Reef, Tizard Bank, 2 fath. 

Corah from the China Sea. 367 

Genus Flaiu:llum, Lesson. 

FlaheUum Stokesi, Ed. & Haime. 

1848. FlaheUum Stohei^i, E. & H. Ann. dos Sc. Nat. 3* s^r. t. ix. 
p. 278, pi. viii. tig. 12. 

One dead specimen, probably referable to this species. 
Tizard Bank, 40 falli. 

Genus Desmophyllum, Ehrenberg. 
Desmophylhim^ sp. 

A single small example of this genus taken alive ; it may 
be a young form of an undescribed species. The coral is 
attached by a short curved stem and a spreading base. The 
calice is elliptical in outline, 18 millim. long by 10 millim. 
wide, and about 19 millim. in height. There arc about forty 
septa ; ten of these arc subcqual and principal, reaching to 
the centre of the calice, where their inner, free, lateral margins 
slightly curve round ; the septa are thin and furnislied laterally 
with minute spines. Between each pair of the larger septa 
there are three smaller secondary septa which project but a 
short distance from the wall. The costfe of the larger septa 
project slightly as sharp-edged ribs on tlie exterior. 

MacclesHeld Bank, 32 fatli. 

Genus Cyathohelia, Ed. & II. 

Cyathohelia axillarisj Ell. & Sol. 

1786. Madrepora axillaris, Ell. & Sol. Nat. Hist. Zooph. p. 153, pi. xiii. 
fig. 5. 

A single specimen, living, was obtained from the Tizard 
Bank, depth 50 fath. 

Genus Lithophyllia, Ed. & H. 

LithophylUa laaymaUs, Ed. & H. 

1848. CaryophyUia lacrymalis, E. & H. Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3* s6r. t. x. 

p. 319, pi. viii. %. 1. 
1857. Lithophyllia lacrymalis, E. & H. Hist. Nat. des Corall. vol. ii. 

p. 292. 

A single specimen, dead, attached to a nodule of Litho- 

Macclesfield Bank, depth 44 fath. 

368 ^Ir. p. W. Bassctt-Sraith on 

Lithophyllia^ sp. 

A living specimen, but much broken. It has a wide 
surface of attachment ; the coral is short, subcircular, and 
widely expanded ; septa in four cycles, upper margins den- 
tate or lobate and finely crenulate, costte ecliinulatc. 

Tizard Bank, depth 26 fath. 

Genus Tkidacophyllia, Blainville. 

Tridacophyllia cervicornis, Moseley. 

1881. Tridacophyllia cei^vicornis, Moseley, Chall. Report, Zool. vol. ii. 
p. 183, pi. X. tigs. 2, a, b, c, B«. 

A single specimen, living, 11 millim. in height by 9 in 
width, growing attached by a spreading base and short 

From the Tizard Bank, depth 50 fathoms. 

This is the first time that a locality and depth have been 
recorded for this species, these not being known for the type 
form described by Moseley. 

Genus Galaxea, Oken. 
Galaxea cequalis, sp. n. 

Corallum forming extended masses with flattened or slightly 
convex surfaces. Calices very regular in height and distance 
from eacli other, circular, subcircular, or slightly compressed, 
so as to become subpolygoiial, from 3*5 to 5 millim. in 
diameter at the summit. From twenty to twenty-four septa 
in three cycles, the septa varying in size according to 
the cycle, thick at the peripheral margin, becoming thin 
towards the free internal margins, strongly exsert. Low 
down the septal margins unite and form a perforate pseudo- 
columella. Lateral surfaces of the septa with numerous 
minute spines. The costte formed by the peripheral margins 
of the septa, which can be distinguished individually. The 
calices are only from 1*5 to 2 millim. apart, and they project 
about 10 millim. above the platform of the coenenchyma. 
The vesicles of the cccnenchyma small, from 'O to '75 millim. 
ajiart; at intervals compact platforms appear to be formed 
which grow over the former surfaces. 

This species is allied to G. Esperi, Schweig., and G. 
Elli'sii, E. & IL, but is distinguished by the close arrange- 
ment of the corallites and their short extension above the 

Corals from (he China Sea. 369 

Only a single specimen was obtaincil, which is about 50 
niillim. in width at the sutninit and '45 millim. in thickness ; 
but tlie mass beh)w the summit-platform of coenench}'ma is 
apparently dead and extensively eaten into by sponges. 

p]ast lagoon, Tizard Bank, 6 fath. 

Genus Symimivllia, Edw. & Haime. 

Si/mphi/llia raclianSj Iv l^ H. 

lf*40. Si/mphi//litt radiaiis, E. it II. Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3* s6r. t. xi. 
p. 25"). 

A single specimen from the Garvan ileef, Tizard Bank, 
depth 2 fath. 

St/mphf/ltia labi/rinthica, sp. n. 

Corallum large, massive, rudely inverted, conical, with 
plane or slightly convex surface. Lateral and under surface 
with longitudinal striae, apparently not spinous, tiiis surface 
usually covered by attached organisms quite close to the up[)er 
margin. Upper surface of sinuous labyrinthine calicinal 
series, the walls com])letely amalgamated, with no traces of 
grooves between. Width of calices 13 to 15 millim., depth 
8 millim. There are usually two septa connecting the cali- 
cinal centres, sometimes traces of a third, sometimes only one 
is present. There are about fourteen large and small septa 
in the distance of 10 millim., the large septa with prominent 
spinous teeth, the smaller serrate or unequally jagged. 

There is but a single specimen, which is 7*5 centim. in 
height and 25 centim. across the surface. 

This species is nearest allied to S. agan'cia, E. & II., and 
to S. acuta, Quelch, but from these it is readily distinguished 
by the narrowness and less dej)th of the calicinal valleys. 
It has been compared with S. neijlecta, a MS. species in the 
British Museum, but its mode of growth and other features 
readily distinguish it from the type of this form. 

Tizard Bank, 5 fath. 

Genus MusSA, Oken. 

Mussa multilohata, Dana (non Ed. & H.). 
1848. Mussa muUilobata, Daua, Zoophytes, p. 181, pi. viii. fig. 2. 

A single specimen, 70 millim. in height and 170 millim. 
across the summit. 

Tizard Bank (section C)^ 5 fath. 
Ami. <£• il%. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 27 

370 Ml-. P. W. Bassett-Smith on 

Mussa sinuosa, Lamarck. 

1816. Caryophyllia sinuosa, Lam. Auim. .sans Vert. t5d. 1, t. ii. p. 229, 
6i. 2, t. ii. p. 3.57. 

A single specimen, probably a younq form ; it is 20 millim. 
in height by 60 in width above. 
Tizard Bank, 6 fath. 

Genus Meandrixa, Lamarck. 

Meandrina strigosa ?, Dana. 
1848. Meandrina striyosa, Dana, Zoophytes, p. 2.57, pi. xiv. fig. 4. 

A single specimen, cylindrical, truncate, gyri about 6 
millim. in width and S'5 millim. deep, about fifteen septa in 
10 millim. Referred doubtfully to this species, which, 
according to Quelch, can be seen to vary considerably in its 
characters when a large series of forms is examined. 

East of Nam-1 it, Tizard Bank, 2 fathoms. 

Meandrina dcedalea^ Ell. & Sol., sp. 

1786. Madrepora da-daha, Ell. & Sol. Nat. Hist. Zoophytes, p. lii.'i. 
pi. xlvi. fig. 1. 

Two specimens. Sand-Kay, Nam-Yit, Tizard Bank, 2-4 

Genus Leptoria, Ed. & H. 

Leptoria phrygia^ Ell. & Sol., sp. 

1786. Madrepora phryyia, Ell. &; Sol. Nat. Hist, Zoophytes, p. 1<>-. 
pi. xlviii. fig. 2. 

One specimen from the Tizard Reef, depth 6 fath. 

ScapojyhyUia ci/Iindrica, Ed. & IT. 

1849. ScapophyUia ey/i»drica, Edw. it Ilaime, Ann. dts Sci. Nat. S"" s^r. 
t. X. |)1. viii. fig. 8, and t. xi. p. 278. 

One specimen from lagoon, Tizard Bank, depth 6 tath. 

The s])ecimen is depressed, spreading, with irregular lobate 
slight elevations. The caliciiial valleys are mucli curved, 
4 millim. in width and about 2'5 millim. in depth; septa 
thin, with frilled edges. The so-called columella consists of 
irregular tooth-like projections from the free edges of tlie 

Corals from the China Sea. 371 

The description of this species states that it is cylindro- 
conical in form; but in wliat appears to be a genuine speci- 
men of it in the British Museum there is a spreading basal 
platform, with here and there elevations, some of which are 
subcylindrical and rise to a considerable height. In the 
present specimen the subcylindrical portions are not developed. 

Genus IIvdxoimioka, Fischer de Waldheim. 

Hydnophora vucrocona, Lam., sp. 

1816. Monticuhria microconos, Lam. Hist, des Anim. sans Veit. t. ii. 

p. 2ol, 2nd ed. (1836) p. 393. 
1786. Madrepora e.vesa, Ell. & Sol. (non Pallas), Zoophytes, p. 161, 

pi. xlix. fig. 3. 

A single specimen of this species from the east lagoon, 
Tizard Bank, China Seas, at a depth of G fath. 

Hydnophora rigida, Dana, sp. 

1846. Merulina rigida, Dana, Expl. Exp. Zoophytes, p. 276, pi. xvii. 
fig. 1. 

A single specimen from the east lagoon, Tizard Bank, at 
a depth of 6 fath. 

Genus Fa via, Oken. 

Favia denticulata?. Ell. & Sol., sp. 

1786, Madrepora denticuhta, Ell. & Sol. Nat. Hist. Zoophytes, p. 160, 
pi. xlix. fig. 1. 

A small specimen incrusting the base o£ a Madrepore. 
Tizard Bank, 7 fath. 

Favia Oheni^ Ed. & H. 

1857. Favia Okeni, Ed. & H. Hist. Nat. des Corall. t. ii. p. 430. 

A small specimen on the same block of rock with the pre- 
ceding species. 

Tizard Bank, 7 fath. 

Favia Ehrenheryi, Klunz,, var. sulcata, Klunz. 

Favia Ehrenberqi, K 
29, Taf. iii. fig. 8'(vai 

Tizard Bank, 5 fath. 

1879. Favia Ehrenbergi, Klunz. Die Korallth. desrothen Meeres, Th. iii. 
p. 29, Taf. iii. fig. 8 (var. sulcata). 


372 Mr. P. W. Bassett-Smith on 

Favia pandanus^ Dana, sp. 
1848. Astraa pandanus, Dana, Expl. Exp. Zooph. p. 222, pi. xi. fig. 2. 
Tizard Bank, 2 fath. 

Favia rotulosa, Ell. & Sol., sp. 
1786. Madrepora rotulosa, Ell. & Sol. Nat. Hist. Zooph. p. IGO, pi. Iv. 
Garvan Eeef, Tiznnl Bank, 2 fath. 

Favia, sp. 

A portion of a specimen 80 by 50 niillini. was dredoed up in 
a bag- full of foraminiferous sand from tlie centre of the lagoon, 
Tizard Bank, at a depth of 45 fathoms. There were sixteen 
bright green living polyps on it, each with twelve yellow 
tentacles. Calices circular or irregularly oval, about 8 millim. 
wide, furrow between them well marked, septa with prominent 

Tizard Bank, 45 fath. 

Genus GONIASTR^A, Ed. & H. 

Goniastrcea Boumoni, E. & H. 

1850. Goniastrcea liom-noni, E. & H. Aun. des Sci. Xat. 3* s^r. t. xii. 
p. 102. 

A single specimen, taken alive, from Itu-Aba, depth 2 fath. 
Tizard Reef. 

Genus Prionastr^a, Ed. & H. 

Prionnstrwa ohtusnta^ Ed. & II, 

1850. Prionastrfca obtusata, E. i*l' II. Aun. des Sci. Nat. 3'' st^r. t. xii. 
p. 130. 

One specimen only, taken alive. 
Garvan Reef, Tizard Bank, 2 fath. 

Prionastrcea spinosa, Klunzingcr. 

tfrffa spino.ia, Kluuz. Die Kornllciith. d 
i>, Taf. iv. fip. 7. 

One specimen only. Nam-Yit, Tizard Bank, ^ fath. 

1879. Prkmastraa spinosa, Kluuz. Die Kornllci.tli. dos rotli. Meere.s, 
Th. iii. p. 31), Taf. iv. fip. 7. 

Corals from the China Sea. 373 

Pn'onastrcpa rohustaj Dana, sp. 
1848. Astr<ea robusta, Dana, Expl. Exp. Zoopli. p. 248, pi. xiii. fig. 10. 
Tizard Reef, 2 fatli. 

Genus Plesiastrjsa, Ed. & H. 

Plesiastraa Urvillei, Ed. & H. 

1850. Plesiastraa Urvillei, Ivd. & II. Aun. des Sci. Nat. 3" s^r. t. x. 
pi. ix. tig. 2, and t. xii. p. 117. 

Tizard Bank, 6 fatli. 

Genus CYPHASTRiEA, Ed. & H. 

Cyphastroia Brueggemannij Quelcli. 
CyptiuMnea Brucyyemanni, Quelch, Cliall. Report, Reef-Corals, p. 106. 
Tizard Bank, 5 fatli. 

Genus Leptastr^a, Ed. & 11. 

Leptastrwa Ehrenhergana'^, Ed. & H. 

1850. Leptastrcea Ehrenheryanu, E. & H. Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3° s6r, 
t. xii. p. 120. 

A small incrusting lobed specimen, which approaches close 
to the above species ; but it does not exhibit the deformed 
corallites, which are stated to be usually present. From L. 
transversa^ Kl., it differs in the character of the columella. 

Tizard ]3ank, 7 fath. 

LejJtastrcBa solida, Ed. & II., sp. 

1850. Bart/astr(sa solida, Ed. & H. Ann. des. Sci. Nat. 3'' sdr. t. xii. 
p. 144. 

Tizard Bank, 6 fath. 

Genus Orbicella, Dana. 

Orhicella annuligera^ Ed. & H., sp. 

1880. Astrcea annuliyera, E. & II. Ann. des Sci. Nat. 3° ser. t. xii. 
p. 103. 

Tizard Bank, 5-10 fatli. 

374 Mr. C. O. Waterhouse on 

OrhiceUa, sp. 

A small incrusting specimen on mass of coral with Madre- 
pore and other species of corals. 
Tizard Bank, 7 fath. 


Echhiopora rosularia, Lam. 

181 G. EcJmiopora rosidaria, Lam. Hist, des Anim. sans Vertebr. ^d. 2, 
t. ii. p. 397. 

Lagoon, Tizard Bank, 6 fath. 

[To be coutiuued.] 

XLIV. — Descriptions of neio Species of Pedaria, v:ith Obser- 
vations on allied Scarabaiidai. By Chakles O. Watek- 

Pedaria tiibercxdigera^ sp. ii. 

Eloiigato-obloiiga, ingro-fiisca, parum iiitida, clypeo levitcr cinar- 
giiiato ; thorace cout'crtim sat fortiter puuctato, antice tumiditate 
ovali sat elevata parcius subtiliter punctulata uitida instructo ; 
clytris thorace paullo latioribus, convexis, ad apicem arcuatim 
angustatis, sat fortiter punctato-striatis, interstitiis creberrime 
fortiter punctatis. 

Long. 9 milhm. 

Hah. Senegambia [Bocande). 

Dark smoky brown, with a slight purple-bronze shade. 
The head is evenly and closely punctured, the punctures 
small but very distinct, usually separated from each other by 
a diameter of a puncture; the clypeus has a very i\t\\ punc- 
tures ; the anterior margin is distinctly but not very deeply 
emarginate, the angles of the emargination rounded ; and 
between this emargination and the jiosterior angle of the head 
there is a distinct angulation. The thorax is transverse, 
parallel-sided, with a slight sinuosity before the anterior 
angles, convex, closely |)unctured ; the jninctures at the sides 
are moderately large, separated from each other by about one 
quarter the diameter of a puncture ; but towards the disk the 
])unctures become a little smaller and the intervals propor- 
tionately greater ; halfway towards the side about twenty- 

nciv Species o/*Pedaiia. 375 

five punctures would form a line from tlic front to the poste- 
rior marijin. 'I'iie elytra at the base are not broader than the 
thorax, but arc grailually witiened to the middle and then 
again narrowed to the apex; the stria^ are strong; the inter- 
stices are cIohcIj, strongly, and irregularly punctured (except 
perhaps the sixth), the intervals between the punctures very- 
narrow and inclined to form small tubercles. 

Pedaria Taijlori, sj). n. 

Klongato-oblouga, nij;ro-fusca, parum nitida ; clypeo leviter emar- 
ginato ; thorace coiifertim fortiter punctato, antiee medio leviter 
tuberoso, lateribus ante medium et ad basin leviter sinuatis ; 
elytris thorace paullo latioribus, sat fortiter pimctato-striatis, 
interstitiis fortiter seriatim punctatis. 

Long. 8 millim. 

^ Hah. :Mombas, Rabai Hills [Bev. W. E. Taylor) ; Lake 
Nyassa ( Tlirhrall) . 

Very similar to P. tuhercuUgeraj but a little less convex. 
The head has the punctuation stronger and the punctures are 
less numerous ; about seventeen may be counted in a line 
from the vertex to the commencement of the clypeus, whereas 
in P. tuherculii/era about twenty-four might be counted ; the 
line dividing the clypeus from the forehead is very indistinct, 
and the punctures on the clypeus are nearly as strong and 
close as on the forehead ; the outer angles of the anterior 
emargination are very slightly dentiform. The thorax is very 
similar, but is a trifle narrower at the base, and the sides 
have a more distinct indentation immediately before the pos- 
terior angles ; the punctuation is stronger and more uniform, 
with very narrow intervals ; at halfway towards the side 
about seventeen punctures may be counted in a line from the 
front to the posterior margin ; the swelling at the front mar- 
gin is very distinct, but not quite as much raised as in P. 
tuberculigera. The elytra are distinctly more rounded at tiie 
apex ; the stri» are equally strong, but have the punctures a 
little moie separated (about one and a half diameters of a 
puncture) ; the punctures on the interstices are strong, 
arranged in lines, slightly irregular on the second, third, and 
fifth interstices, regular on the fourth and sixth. 

The specimen from Lake Nyassa has the punctures on the 
thorax a trifle larger, and the swelling in front is much less 
marked. This is probably the female. 

A specimen from S.E. Africa, Arusha {F. J. Jackaou, 
Efq.), differs from P. Tayluri in having the tubercle on the 

376 Mr. C. O. Waterhouse on 

front of the tliorax smaller and more shining, but not less 
elevated. The elytra have the interstices more regularly 
punctured in double lines, the second and fifth interstices 
having one or two additional punctures between the lines near 
the base. 

Another specimen received with the above from Arusha, 
and agreeing with it in having the interstices of tlie elytra 
punctured in lines, differs very much in the form and punctu- 
ation of the thorax and in the almost entire absence of the 
anterior swelling. It seems unlikely that this should be the 
female of the specimen with the tubercle with which it was 
received, as the specimen from Xyassa above referred to as 
the probable female of P. Taylori has the punctuation of the 
thorax very similar to tliat of tlie male. 1 propose to name 
this specimen provisionally P. Jacksoni. The following is a 
full description : — 

Pedaria Jacksoni, sp. n. 

Elongato-obionga, convexa, nigro-fusea, subpurpurascens, sat nitida : 
thorace crcberrime fortiter pimctato, antice medio Icvitcr gibboso 
subtilius puDctulato ; clytris fortiter striatis, interstitiis plauis, 
nitidis, fortiter biseriatim punctatis, iuterstitio suturali solum 
crebre punctato. 

Long. 7j millim. 

IJoh. Avusha {F. J. Jackson^ Esq.). 

The head is closely and rather strongly punctured, the 
punctures very near together, but not confluent ; at the 
division between the forehead and clypeus the punctures are 
very feeble, but are stronger again on the clypeus itself; the 
angles of the anterior enuirgination are slightly dentiform. 
The thorax has the sides gently arcuate, so that there is not 
such a suddenly oblique inflexion at the anterior angles as in 
the above-described species; the sinuosity at the middle is very 
slight. The ])unctuation is strong, but the punctures are not 
quite so large as in the foregoing species, crowded at the sides, 
distinctly scjiaratcd from each other on the disk, fine on the 
anterior swelling, which is ver}' slight ; halfway towards the 
side about nineteen ]nincturcs may be counted in a line from 
the front to the posterior margin, the } unctures being separated 
from each other at this part by about one half the diameter of 
a ])UHcturc. The elytra have the stria' strongly marked ; the 
interstices shining, each with a regular line of strong punc- 
tures on each side; the sutural intorstiee, however, has three 
rather irregular lines of junctures; in the second interstice 
there are a very few t^tray punctures. 

neio Species of Pedarin. 377 

This species is nearest to one which I iiave determined to 
be r. picea, from Natal, but ditiVrs in iiaving the punctures 
on tlie tliorax less close and in having a finely punctured area 
in front. 

Pedaria nigra^ Castelnan. 
This species is figured by Castelnau (Hist. Nat. ii. pi. v 

ot" P. nigra, and the same locality is given in Dejean's Cata- 
logue opposite P. apliodioiiJes. In the * Munich Catalogue ' 
moreover P. cylindrica, Fahr., is placed as a synonym ot" P. 
nigra, tlie locality Port Natal being correctly given. I con- 
sider this species quite distinct from P. nigra, from which it 
differs in having an elongate shining tubercle at the base of 
the thorax, as described by Fahraeus. 

Pedaria criberrinia, sp. n. 

Elongato-oblonga, uigro-fusca, parmu nitida ; thorace confertim 
fortiter punctato, disco medio leviter transvert;ini impresso, 
lateribus medio leviter sinuatis, ad basin oblique introrsum 
directis ; clytris fortiter punctato-striatis, interstitiis fortiter 
pimctatis, punctis in interstitiis quarto ct sexto biserlatim positis. 

Long. 7 miilim. 

Hab. Senegambia, Old Calabar. 

The head has the punctuation as in P. TagJori] the clypeus 
has the angles of the emargination slightly dentiform. The 
thorax is rather parallel-sided, but obliquely narrowed at the 
extreme base ; the punctuation is strong and crowded, the 
punctures near the front being a little smaller than at the 
base ; at halfway towards the side about twenty punctures 
might be counted in a line from the front to the posterior 
margin ; in tlie middle of the front margin there is a slight 
swelling (with a light transverse impression behind it), but 
no distinct tubercle ; the punctures on the swelling are smaller 
and more separated. The elytra have the apex obtuse. 
Owing to the coarse punctuation, the stride (although strong) 
are not so conspicuous as in P. Taylori ; in the second, third, 
and fifth interstices there are three lines of punctures, but 
owing to the large size of the punctures they are quite 
irregular, as there is not space for three punctures side by 
side. In the fourth and sixth interstices there are two lines 

;j78 My. C. O. Waterhouse on 

of punctures, regular at tlie middle but crowded at the base 
and apex. 

The specimen from Old Calabar has tlie front part of the 
thorax less parallel, slightly narrowed in front, 

Pedaria aUernans, sp. n. 

Elongato-oblonga, nigro-fusca, subnitida ; thorace crebre minus 
fortiter pimctato, leviter convexo, antice non tuberoso ; elytris 
subtilius punctato-striatis, iuterstitiis quarto et sexto biseriatim 
punctatis, reli(juis irrcgulariter punctatis ; carina subhumerali 
brevi, altera laterali crcnulatis instructis. 

Long, 8 millim. 

Hal. S, Africa {Dr. Hnuth). 

Although the ])unctu;ition in this species is very distinct, 
it is nevertheless considi-rubly finer tlian in any species with 
which I am acquainted. The head has the angles of the 
anterior emargination distinctly dentiform, and the side 
between this angle and the posterior angle is slightly 
bisinuate. The thorax is slightly constricted at the base and 
has a very slight sinuosity at the middle of the side. The 
punctuation (when compared with other species) is rather fine, 
nearly the same all over ; halfway towards the side about 
twenty-five punctures might be counted in a line from the 
front to the posterior margin, the intervals between the punc- 
tures being a trifle less than the diameter of a puncture ; the 
])unctures, however, often touch each other in a longitudinal 
direction. There is no swelling or tubercle in front. The 
elytra have the strife rather fine; the sutural interstice is 
more closely and rather more strongly punctured than the 
others. The fourth and sixth interstices have each two 
regular lines of punctures, the sixth having other punctures 
at the base. Below the shoulder there is a slightly elevated 
costa, marked with five or six distinct shining tubercles ; and 
on the nintli inteistice there is a longer series of similar 

Pedaria puncticoUis, sp. n. 

Elongato-oblonga, nigro-fusca. parumnitida ; thorace convexo. baud 
tubcrculato, croboninic fortiter ])imctato ; olvtris striatis, intor- 
stitiis ])rinioot sccundo irrcgulariter punctatis, roliquis biseriatim 
punctatis ; carina brcvi subhumerali. altera latortdi tuberculis 
parvis instructis. 

Long. (>4 millim. 

Huh. S. AtVicii, Xyns3a ? 

neio Species <»/" Pedaria. 379 

The head is evenly ami rather strongly punctured, witii 
much less distinct j»unctuation on the clypeus ; the clypeus 
has the angles ot" the eniargination distinctly but slightly 
dentiform ; hallway between this angle and the posterior 
angle there is a very slight sinuosity. The thorax is evenly 
convex, without any swelling in front, a little constricted at 
the base, areuately narrowed at the anterior angles, evenly 
and strongly punctured; at halt'way towards tlie side about 
seventeen jmnctures may be counted in a line from the front 
to the posterior margin ; the ])unctures are deep, separated 
from each other by about one half the diameter of a puncture. 
The elytra have the strife rather fine, with the punctures in 
them not very close together ; the first interstice is rather 
closely punctured, the second is irregidarly punctured for the 
basal half and then (like the other interstices) has two lines ; 
these punctures are rather small, and leave a rather wide 
smooth space in the middle of the interstice ; below the 
shoulder there is a line of about five small shining tubercles, 
and on the ninth interstice a longer line of more distant 
tubercles ; these tubercles are visible when viewing the insect 
from above. 


I have just had an opportunity of examining the type of 
Aphengium seminudum , Bates (Biol. Centr.-Amer., Coleopt. 
ii. 2, p. 42), and it appears to have been placed in this genus 
by an oversight. In characterizing the genus Harold says, 
*' Tarsorum posticorum articulus primus sequenti longitudinc 
multo longior ; pygidium rectum. Segmenta abdominaiia 
connexa" (Col. Hette, iii. p. 54). A. seminudum has the 
abdominal segments free ; the pygidium is completely turned 
under, so that its apex is directed forwards, and Mr. Bates 
observes, " The short and broad, compressed and subtrian- 
gular tarsal joints are a remarkable distinguishing feature. 
The anterior cavity of the j)rosternum is exceedingly deep." 
These characters appear to me to conform more with Bdelyrus, 
Harold (Col. Hefte, v. p. 97), of which Harold says : " Clypeo 
antice angustato et breviter bidentato. Prosternuni antice 
profundissirae foveolatum. Segmenta abdominaiia suturis 
distinctis. Pygidium contractum et abdoniini appositum. 
Tarsi postici dilatati, compressi, articulis latitudine sensini 
decrescentibus." The clypeus has a projection in the 
middle, and in fresh s])ecimens this is slightly bidentate ; 
this seems to agree with Harold's character. 

.^80 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell's Notes on Slugs. 

Uroxys Rodriguezi, de Bovre. 

This species is described by M. Preudhomme de Borre in 
tlic Ann. d. 1. Soc, ent. de Belgique, 1886, p. 107, and he 
nienfions that it is the ^^Uroxys dilaticollis, Deyrolle," a 
manuscript name. In tlie Briti,sh Museum collection there is 
a specimen bearing this manuscript name, and it agrees well 
with the description of U. Iiodriguezi. It appears to me, 
however, that it is a Chceridium having a short, punctured 
mesosternum and short anterior coxa3. 

XLV. — Notes on Slugs ^ chiefly in the Collection at the British 
Museum. By T. D, A. Cockerell. 

[Continued from p. 288.] 

III. The Genus Liuacella, Blainville. 

While working on the slugs at the British Museum I came 
across the type specimens of Lvmacella lactiformis, Blain- 
ville. The two examples are in a bottle with the label 
"Limacella lactescens" and another label, ajiparently written 
by Dr. Heynemann, "Original zu Fig. 1. Taf. 7. Fer. Hist. 
Nat." They are true Philomycus, presenting no generic 
ditlerence from the well-known species of that genus. 
Heynemann (1884) has referred them to Ai-ion, but he could 
not have examined them sufficiently, and was no doubt misled 
by the figure in Man. de Mai. (1827), pi. xli. That they are 
really Blainville's types need not be doubted, as they agree 
witli his figures in outline, and his original description, 
notwithstanding that he misunderstood the characters of the 
slug, is sufficient to show that he had not an Arion before 
him. He refers to the absence of a shell and the gonital 
orifice at the base of the right tentacle. The outline of the 
figure, and especially the anterior ])ortion of the mantle, 
suggests at once a Philomycus. The supposed -.-l^'/oy^-like 
mantle indicated in the figures is really due to an outline of 
some of the internal organs, visible on account of the trans- 
parency of the slug. IMie figures in Journ. de Phys., 
November 1817, show how the mistake began, fig. 4 having 
even a sort of spiral coil in the middle of the anterior part of 
the mantle. The figure of L. tlfortiana in Man. Mai. is the 
same outline, but ai)parently patched up tVoni an Arion ater, 

^\y. T. D. A. Cockerell's .Vo/m on S/iirjs. 381 

with altogctljcr fictitious riigie on the back. Forussac's figure 
is alter one of in Journ. de Phys., and is fairly recog- 

Altogetlier I think it must be held that Blainville described 
and figured his genus Limnril/a sntllciently for recognition, 
and as it antedates P/u'/oinj/cns Ijy three years, the name must 
be used. JjiinncrNu, Brard, 1815, need not he considered, as 
it is identical with Linia.v, Linne, 1707. U'he synonymy of 
Limace^Ja, Bl., will accordingly stand : — 

LniACELLA, Blainville. 

1817. LimaoeUa, Rlainville, "Mt5in. sur qiii>lq. Moll. Piilin." Journ. de 

Phys. Dec. 1S17, p. 44:5 (text), and Nov. 1817, fig.s. 4, ',. 
18i*0. Pliilomijcus, liatinesque, Ann. of Xat. p. 10. 

1820. Eumi'lus, Rafinesque, Ann. of Nat. p. 10. 

1824. ^f('t//^i)nafiu^n, v. Ilass. Bull. Univ. Sci. iii. p. 82. 
1842. I/icilaria, Bens. Ann. & -Mag. Nat. Hist. ix. p. 48G. 

1842. Tebennopliofus, Biuney, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. iv. p. 171. 
1804. PalUfcra, Morse, Journ. Portl. Soc. i. 8, fig. 5, pi. iii. fig. 6. 

It does not .seem necessary to recognize more than one genus 
here, thougli v. Ihering (Nachr. d. in. Ges. 1889) recognizes 
three — Philonii/cuft, PalUfera, and Meghimatium. Pallifera 
may be conveniently retained as a subgenus. 

The species of Limacella are as follows : — 

LimaceUa lactiformis, Blainv. 

1817. LimaceUfi lactiformis:, Blainv. Journ. de Phys. Dec. p. 444. 

1821. LimaceUiis hicfescens, Ft^russac, Hist. Nat. Moll. pi. vii. fig. 1. 

1825, Limacella elfortiana, Blainv. Man. de Mai. et de Conch, p. 4G4. 

This appears to be distinct from any species since recog- 
nized. The British Museum types may be briefly described 
as follows: — 42 raillim. long; respiratory orifice 7 raillim. 
from anterior border of mantle. Sole, lat. 7 millim. Entirely 
greyish white ; mantle pellucid, semitransparent, finely 
graimlose. Sole slightly ochreous, unicolorous. A distinct 
groove round the edge of the foot. Liver pale chocolate. 

Gray in 1855 (Cat. Pulm. p. 158) has referred this species 
to Philomyciis. 

Limacella carolinensis (Bosc). 

Limax carolinensis, F6r. Hist. 77, pi. vi. fig. 3. 

There are two specimens of this species in the British 
Museum from Virginia [Dr. J. W//ma)i), agreeing excellently 

382 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell'.s Notes on Shiga. 

with Fdrussac's figure. This slug is cylindrical, curved, and 
narroio (in alcohol) ; sole narrow ; ground-colour and colour 
of sole pale yellow, back thickly marbled with brown-grey, 
and with tioo longitudinal series of dark egg-shaped spots. 
Jaw bright-coloured, not ribbed. (Description from Brit. 
Mus. specimens.) 

Dr. Gray (Brit. Mus. Cat.) also describes L. caroUnensis. 

Limacella nebulosa. 

? Emneliis nehulo^us, Raf. Ann. of Nat. 1820. 

Tebennophorus caroUnensis, liinney, Terr. Moll. U. S. vol. ii. p. 20. 

This and the last have hitherto been included together 
under the one name caroUnensis, and it is not without mis- 
givings that I venture to separate them here *. Yet, from the 
specimens which I have examined, there would certainly 
seem to be a specific distinction between the northern and 
southern forms referred to caroUnensis in the Eastern United 
States and Canada. The British Museum contains specimens 
of nebulosa as follows : — 

(1) From Mr. W. G. Binncy, labelled T. caroUnensis. — 

Ochreous, marbled with black above, the marblings 
rather inclined to be in three longitudinal series. 
Sole unicolorous. 

(2) W. Canada {Dr. Maclagan). — Pale yellow, marbled 
above with brownish grey, the markings being a 
broadish dorsal and narrower lateral brownish-grey 
bands, with irregular spots over the rest, except sides 
near foot. Sole unicoloi-ous. 

(3) Amhurstburgh, Canada West {J)r. 0. W. Maclagan). 

— Like the last, but mottling grey and more diffuse; 
two narrow dorsal and narrowish lateral bands, rather 
obscurely indicated in grey. Grey mottling thicker. 
Ground-colour pale yellowish. 

Comparing caroUnensis with nehulosa, we note : — 

(rt) The Virginia caroUnensis. — Sole narrow, yellowish, 
pale, without transverse strife; body smoothish. 

(/>) nehulosa, no. 1 above. — Sole broad, brown, with strong 
transverse stria? ; body rugose. 

* Mr. W. G. Biuney AViites {in lift. Sept. 9, 1S5K)) :— '• I am rather 
sceptical about there being two species .... as you say . . . . — there is 
ii big species ol" TeheyinopJinnts confounded with caroli)u'nsi}i, but hfl\ ing a 
ribbed jaw." 

Mr. r. 1). A. Cockercir.s AW.s- on .SVm/^^ 383 

Or, taking measurements : — 

(a) The Virji^inia caroUnensis. — Long. 3.j iniUiin., sole, 

lat. 3 inilliui. 

(b) nehuhsa, no. 1 above. — Long. 35 mlUini., sole, lat. 

7^ millim. 

(c) nebulosa, no. 2 above. — Long. 36 millim., sole, lat. 

S millim. 

Rafinescjue described five supposed species belonging to 
Philonn/cHs and Euwelus in 1S20 as qnadriluSj oxurus^ flexiio- 
hin's, fuscusj and b'vidus. They will probably prove to be 
varieties of nebulosa or caroUnensis^ but they have not yet 
been identified. 

Limacella aurata (Tate). 
A little-known species from Nicaragua. 

Limacella crosseana (Strebel). 
Mexico. Seems near to L. caroUnensis. 

Limacella costaricensis (Morcli). 
Costa Rica. 

Limacella Sallei (Cr. & Fisch.). 
Mexico, State of Vera Cruz. 

Limacella dorsalis (Binney). 

PhilomyLus (hrsalis, Binney, Bost. Journ. Nat. Hist. 1842, iv. 174. 
Pallifera dorsalif, Morse, Journ. Portl. Soc. 1804. 

N.E. United States. Jaw ribbed. 

Limacella Wetherhyi (W. G. Binney) . 

Pallifera Wetherhyi, W. G. Binney, Ann. Lye. of Nat. Hist, of New 
Ybrk, 1874, xi. 31, pi. ii. figs. \, 2. 

Kentucky. Jaw ribbed. 

384 Mr. 'J\ I). A. Cockerell's Notes on Slugs. 

TAinacella nemphilU (W. G. Binnej). 

Tehennophorvn HrmphiUi, "\V. G. Jiinnev, Man. Anier. Land-Shells, 
188.J, p. 247 ; Third Suppl. Terr. Moll.'l'. S. 1890, pi. vi. fig. a. 

Georgia and North Carolina. Jaw ribbed. 

Limacella australis (Bergh). 
Calm, Sandwich Island.?. Jaw ribbed. 

Limacella confusa, sp. no v. 

Limacella bilineata (Kef. et auctt. plur. (non Bens.) sp., as Philomycus, 

Very close to L. nebulosa, at least externally. Long. 34 
niillim., sole, lat. 6 millim., respiratory orifice 6 millini. from 
anterior border. Head and sole pale yellow, unicolorous ; 
sole finely transversely wrinkled all over. Mantle rather 
rugose, ground-colour pale yellowish, clouded with brown- 
grey dorsally, with also numerous dorsal dark spots, tending 
to form oblique lines running centrally backwards. Sides 
with broad black bauds and dark marbling below them. Jaw 
not ribbed. 

The above description is from a specimen in tlie British 
Museum labelled " Challenger coll., May 1875, Yokohama, 
Japan." It is the so-called hilineatus\ it is like v. Martens's 
figure of that species copied by Tryon. W. Keferstein (Mai. 
Blatt. 18G6) figures L. striata and L. confiisa (as P. bili'neatus), 
the latter from Yokohama, witli the anatomy. The anatomical 
characters of confusa offer differences from those of the 
American nelulosa, so that, apart from their geographical 
ranges being distinct, they need not be confused. 

Limacella formosensis^ subsp. nov. 

Length 33 millim. ^ sole 4 millim. broad; resjiiratory orifice 
5 millim. from anterior border of mantle. Elongate-cylin- 
drical, slightly tapering, dark coftee-colour ; sole unicolorous, 
transversely thickly but finely granulose-wrinkled ; back 
with an ill-developed, median, narrow black band, and better- 
developed, narrow, black lateral bands in the situation of the 
upper edge of the bands of L. confusa ; area between the bands 
(subdorsal) slightly dark-niarbled. Sides below lateral bands 
dark-marbled, with a slight tendency towards the formation 
of a lower second lateral band. Face with two longitudinal 
grooves. Back grantilose. 

Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell's Notes on Slugs. 385 

Described from two alcoholic specimens in the British 
^Museum, collected in Formosa and presented by Matthew 

I was at first inclined to regard this as a geographical race 
of confusa { = lnJincataj auctt., non Bens.) (which lias been 
recorded from Formosa*], and as I have not examined the 
jaw, I cannot yet be certain wiiother it belongs with that species 
or true hilincata. However, hiHaeata is found in the Cliusan 
Islands ; so it becomes highly probable that the Formosa form 
lias a ribbed jaw and is allied thereto. 

L. formosensis difters externally from confiisa in its colour 
and markings, but resembles it in its tubcrculose sole. L. 
formosensis compared with the Cliusan hiUneata does not 
seem specifically different so far as external characters go. 

Limacella campestris (Godw.-Aust.) . 

Limacella hiUiieata, subsp. 

P/iilomifcu.'i (Inci/liiria) campestris, Godw.-Aust. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. 
xlv. pt. 2, p. 315, pi. viii. fig. 3 (1876). 

Ochraceous yellow, with an obscure dorsal and lateral pale 
brown bands, narrow and more or less interrupted. Sole 
finely laterally transversely wrinkled. Length 23 millim., 
respiratory orifice 4 millim. from anterior border of mantle ; 
sole 4 millim. broad. 

Shape of slug cylindrical, tapering posteriorly. Jaw pale, 

Differs from confusa in its non-tuberculose sole and 
different markings and its ribbed jaw. 

Described from five specimens in the British Museum from 
Dukhun (^CoJ. Sijhes). 

Although Godwin-Austen gives but a short description 
and rather indifferent figure of his type of campestris from 
Kholabari, and says nothing about the jaw, I think there can 
be no reason for considering our Dukhun form distinct 
from campestris^ since, so far as we know, there is not any 
im])ortant difference between them. Should the type of cam- 
pestris be found later on not to have a ribbed jaw, it will be 
time to propose a new subspecific name for the slugs described 
above. The discovery of a group of Limacella with ribbed jaw 
in Asia is very interesting and tends to endorse the opinion 
that this is not a generic character. 

* See Heyneinann, * Die nackten Landpulinonaten des Erdbodens,' 
1885, p. 66. 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 28 

386 Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell's Notes on Slugs. 

Limacella hilineata (Bens.). 

Incilaria bUmeata, "NV. II. Benson, Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. 1842, ix. 
p. 486. 

Length 26 millim., sole 4 millim. broad. Respiratory 
orifice 4 millim. from anterior border of mantle. Colour 
reddish brown. Back with obscure grey marbling, sides with 
a broadish black band. Sole finely transversely striate- 
grooved. Mantle rugose. Jaw dark, strongly curved, with 
about sixteen ribs. 

L. hilineata differs from L. confiisa in its non-tuberculose 
sole, the lines on the top of the neck diverging between the 
eye-peduncles, the ground-colour, partly in the markings, and 
in the jaw. 

But for its ribbed jaw it might be thought specifically 
identical with confusa. 

Described from a specimen in the British Museum marked 
" Chusun [apparently so written, but presumably meant for 
Clmsan], on garden-fences ; ash, with dark lines lengthwise." 

Benson's type was a similar specimen from Chusan. 

Limacella monticola (Godw.-Aust.). 

Philomyms monticolus, Godw.-Aust. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xlv. p. 31.5 

From Godwin-Austen's short description this would appear 
to be a quite distinct species. 

Limacella chinensisj sp. nov. 

Length 17 millim., respiratory orifice 2^ millim. from 
anterior border of mantle ; sole 2 millim. broad. Colour pale 
grey, sole ochreous anteriorly. Three pale brown bands on 
mantle — one dorsal, faint; lateral ones rather stronger ; all 
narrow. Some slight marbling round respiratory orifice. 
Sole with lateral, transverse, grooved striae. 

A small cylindrical species, tapering posteriorly. Smoother 
and more delicate than L. cotij'usa. 

Described from a specimen in the British Museum, collected 
]300 miles up the Yang-tse Kiver, China (Consul Swinhoe'3 

A])parently a distinct little species, but more material is 
very desirable. Judging from the published accoimt oi' picta, 
it resembles that species. 

Mr. T. D. A. Cockerell's Notes on Slujs. 387 

Limacella striata (Elass. 1824). 

I fab. Java. 

See Bull. Soc. Nat. iii. p. 82, 1824, and also Feriissac, 
Ilist. Moll. ii. p. OG', pi. 8 E. fig. 1 (as strigatum), and W. 
Keferstein, Mai. Biiitt. xiii. p. 64, pi. 1. figs. 1-4 (1866). 

Limacella picta (Stol.). 
Meghimatium pictum, Stol. Journ. As. Soc. Beng. xlii. pt. 2, p. 30. 
Uab. Island of Penang. 

Limacella reticulata (Hass., Fer.). 
A doubtful species. 

Limacella cylindracea (Fdr.). 
Moghimatiuni cylindraceum, F6r. Hist. Moll. pi. 8 F. figa. 8, 9. 

A very doubtful species. In the figure the mark where 
the respiratory orifice should be looks more like an injury. 

IV. Descriptive Notes on Various Species. 

Under this head I will note a few species belonging to 
genera which will not be specially reviewed in the present 
series of papers. 

"^r?on" aterrimuSf Gray. 
Arion atemtnus, Gray, Cat. Pulm. 188o, p. 55. 

Length 36 millim. ; mantle, length 22 milllira. ; respira- 
tory orifice 8 millim. from anterior border of mantle ; sole 
11 millim. broad. Entirely black, mantle granulose, tuber- 
culate anteriorly, oval, produced and bluntly angled behind ; 
body smoothish, with linear grooves from mantle to foot, 
about 2 millim., more or less, apart. Body not keeled. Tail 
flattened, mucus-pore inconspicuous or none. Sole apparently 
undifferentiated into parts. Edge of foot sulcate. 

This description is from an alcoholic example in the 
British Museum marked '"'■Limax (Arion) allerian [sic], S. 
Africa." There can hardly be a doubt that it is Gray's A. 
aterrimuSf although the description in Cat. Pulm. is so very 


388 ]\Ir. T. I). A. Cockerell's Notes on Slugs. 

It is interesting to be able to redescribe this slug, as it has 
been a lost species, not recognized by subsequent authors. 
It is surely not an Avion, and it may represent a new genus, 
unless it belongs to Morch's Oopelta, with which it seems to 
agree externally so far as generic characters go. But until 
tlie jaw and lingual dentition of" A. aterrimus are known it 
will be impossible to be certain of its proper position. 

Ariunculus Moreleti (Hesse) . 

Length 13 millim., breadth 2^ millim. Head dark brown. 
Mantle dark brown, faintly mettled witli black lateral bands, 
bordered above by pale bands, and continuous with those on 
body ; respiratory orifice a little anterior to middle. Body 
pale grey at sides, with dark lateral bands and dark sub- 
dorsal bands, four in all, leaving pale dorsal and subdorsal 
narrow bands between them. Sole broad and grey. 

Described from a specimen kindly sent to me by ^ir. J. II. 
Ponsonby, collected at Tangier some years ago. It difiers a 
little from the original description, but is evidently the same 

Pollonera has recently placed this species in Geomalacus, 
subg. Letonrneuxia. 

Testacella aXbida. 

1885. Testacella haliotidea, v. seutnhan (pars), Taylor and Koebuck. 

Joiirn. of Conch, iv. Apiil, p. 320. {Hah. Gibraltar.) 
1885. TeMacella haliotidea, v. scutalian, .siibv. albida, Cockerell, Sci. 

Goss. October, p. 2:^5. {Hah. Gibraltar.) 

1887. Testacella, sp., Ponsonby, Jouru. of Cuuch. v. July, p. 105. {JIab. 

1888. Testacella, probably haliotidea, Taylor, Journ. of Conch, v. July, 
p. 34(). {Hah. Gibraltar.) 

1888. Testacella, sp., I'oUouera, Boll. Mus. Zoul. An. Comp. Torino, 
p. 0, figs. 10, 11. {Hah. Olot, Spain.) 

The dried type of T. albida, collected by the Eev. J. W. 
Horsley at Gibraltar, is as follows : — 

Length 15^ millim.; sole 3 millim. broad; dorsal longi- 
tudinal grooves about 2f millim. ajiart, oblique grooves well 
marked. Sole separated from body by a groove and with 
transverse grooves at intervals, well marked at sides. 
Nucleus of the shell gone (broken or eroded). Shell pale 
horn, groMth-ridges strong. Length of shell 4 millim. 

The other white Testacella recorded from Spain (by Pollo- 
nera) is placed here, although the Gibraltar shell is narrower 
anteriorly than PoUonera's figure. It is not very likely that 

Mr. T. D. A. Cockevell's Notes on Slugs. 389 

these white specimens are more tluui u varietal form of halio- 
tidea or some allied species ; but as they do not agree exactly 
Avitli anything known to me I place them provisionally as a 
species, T. albida. Moquin-'i'andon's T. haliotidea, var. 
albinos, docs not aj)j)car to be identical with the Spanish 

The type specimen of albida is now in the British Museum. 

Vaginula olivacea (Stearns). 
Veronicella olivacea, Stearns, Proc. Bost. Soc. Nat. Hist. 1871. 

Length 45 raillim., breadth 18 milllm,, sole 5^ millim. 

Finely granulate above, blunt-squarisli behind. Above 
dull ochrey, indistinctly and miimtely marbled with grey ; a 
pale dorsal line is slightly indicated on posterior half. Supe- 
rior tentacles (eye-peduncles) bluish grey ; inferior tentacles 
pale ochrey, concolorous with head and underside of body. 
Jaw brown ; I counted about eighteen ribs without removing 
it from the animal. 

Described from a specimen sent to me by Mr. W. G. 
Binney, collected in Nicaragua. The Californian locality 
quoted for this species is surely rather doubtful ; probably the 
specimen found was accidentally introduced. Is it not possible 
that olivacea and occidentalis (Guild.) are different forms of 
the same species '? 

Ilyalimax (Jarava) atidamanicus, Godw.-Aust. 

A specimen in the British Museum, which appears to be 
typical, is labelled " Andaman Is., Di\ J. Anderson." It 
has the mantle strongly convex; the colour is yellowish 
white, without markings ; foot slightly orange-tinged. 

Hyalimax andamanicus, var. puncfulatus, var. nov. 

Yellowish white ; foot slightly orange-tinged. Minute 
grey specks on mantle and grey streaks on hind part of body. 

Hab. Andaman Islands {Dr. J. Anderson; Brit. Mus., in 
bottle with type). 

The mantle of this specimen is flattish, so that the outline 
of the slug is greatly depressed compared with tiie typical 
one. The jaw does not seem quite like that figured by God- 
win-Austen for the type : but I vi^as not able to sufficiently 
examine it. It seemed to me that it had some sort of central 

390 Mr. E. A. Smith on Species of 

projection. It is possible that jmnctulatus may be a distinct 
species ; but there is not yet sufficient evidence for classing 
it as such. 

Chlamydephorus Gibbonsij W. G. Binn. 

Length 47 millim., orifice 7| millim. from posterior extre- 
mity. Sole not differentiated into parts, smoothish, 5 millim. 
broad. Tentacles (eye- peduncles) pale bluish gruy. Colour 
pale yellowish, becoming dark grey on back, with more or 
less of a pale dorsal line of ground-colour. Reticulations 
polygonal, with the interstices minutely subdivided. Sole 
slightly transversely grooved, ^lantle none. 

Described from a specimen in the British Museum from 
Cape Colony {F. P. M. Weak). 

Apera^ the name proposed by Ileynemann for this genus, 
will probably have to be used. Chlamijdopltorus (llarl.) was 
proposed for a genus of jMammalia as early as 1825. 

[To be continued.] 

3 Fairfax Road, Bedford Park, Chiswick, W., 
September 16, l«yO. 

XLVI. — A List of the Species of Achatma. from South Africa j 
with the Descrijotion of a neto Species. By Edgar A. 

In the endeavour to identify the new form hereafter described 
it was necessary to find out what .species were already known 
from the region where it was discovered. In doing this it 
a])pcared that it would be useful to get together a list of all 
the forms known to occur in the southern ])ortion of the 
African continent. This I have done, arbitrarily limiting the 
area on the north at the 20th parallel. 

Already as many as eighteen sj)ecies have been described, 
and doubtless this number eventually will be increased con- 
siderably when this region, and esjiecially the mountainous 
parts, has been more completely exjjlored. 

A number of the Achatimr from various parts of Africa 
seem to ditl'er only very slightly from allied forms, and it 
may fairly be anticipated that tlie separation of species will 
become more and more dithcult through the discovery of 
intermediate forms in parts hitherto unexplored. 

Achatina^om SoxUh Africa. 391 

1. Achatina semidecussata, Menke. 

Achatina semideciissata, Menke, Philippi, Abbill. vol. ii. p. 213, pi. i. 
fig. 1 ; Pfeiflfer, Couch. -Cab. ed. 2, p. 3ii(i, pi. xxvii. figs. 2, 3. 

Hah, Natal [Menke and Brit. Mas.). 

2. Achatina ve^tita, PfeifFer. 
Achafiaa re$tita, Pfeiffer, Novit. Conch, vol. i. p. 3o, pi. ix. figs. 8, 0. 
Ilah. Port Natal [Pfr.) j near Delagoa Bay {Brit. Mas.). 

3. Achatina grannlafa, Pfeiffer. 
Achatina granulata, Pfeitfor, Mon. Hel. vol. iii. p. 484:. 

Ilab. Natal {Pfr. and Brit, ^fus.) ; Cape {Semper). 
A. semigranosa, Pfeiffer (Mon. Hel. vol. vi. p. 216), I 
regard merely as the young of A. granulata. 

4. Achatina varicosa, Pfeiffer. 

Achatina varicosa, Pfeiffer, ^Eal. Bliitt. 1801, p. 73, pi. ii. figs. 7, 8 ; 
Novit. Conch, vol. iii. p. 490, pi. cvi. figs. 1, 2. 

Hah. Enon, north of Port Elizabeth {Pfr.). 

5. Achatina hisculptaj Smith. 
Achatina bisculpta, Smith, Quart. Journ. Conch, vol. i. p. 349. 

Hab. South Africa. 

This species, also A. albopicta, A. zebroides, A. dimidiata, 
A. simplex, and A. transvaalensis, ])ublished in 1878, are 
omitted from the ' Zoological liec^rd of that and subsequent 

6. Achatina damarensis, Pfeiffer.* 

Achatina dammarensis, Pfeiffer, Malak. Bliitt. 1870, vol. xvii. p. 31 ; 
Novit. Conch, vol. iv. p. 2, pi. cix. figs. 3, 4. 

Hah. Damara Land {Pfr.). 

7. Achatina Crawfordi, Morelet. 
Achatina Crawfordi, Morelet, Journ. de Conch. 1889, p. 8, pi. i. fig. 3. 
Hah. Near Port Elizabeth, Cape Colony {Morelet) . 

* All the species, with the exception of this and the two following, 
are in the British Museum. 

392 Mr. E. A. Smith on Species of 

8. Achat ina Smith ii, Craven. 
Achatina Smithii, Craven, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1880, p. 617, pL Ivii. fig. 1. 

Hah. Leydenburg-, Transvaal {Craven). 

I had the honour of having a second species of this genus 
associated with my name last year by ^Ir. G. B. Sowerby 
(Proc. Zool. Soc, 1889, p. 579, pi. Ivi. fig. 3). It is a small 
form, but belongs to the true Achatince. The name being 
preoccupied I propose to substitute that of A. Sou:erhyi. 
Achatina Sowerhyana, PfcifFer, is a species of Glandina. 

9. Achatina transvaalensis^ Smith. 
Achatina transvaalensis, Smith, Quart. Journ. Conch, vol. i. p. 3oL 

Hab, Eastern slope of the Drakensberg^ at Leydenburg 
Gold-fields, Transvaal (Smith) ; not rare at Leydenburg 

10. Achatina natalensis^ PfeifFer, 

Achatina nafalensis^ Pfeiffer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 18o4, p. 20-4 ; Moiiog. 
Hel. vol. iv. p. 602. 

Hah. Port Natal {Pfr. and Brit. Mus.); near Delagoa 
Bay {Brit. Mus.). 

11. Achatina simplex, Smith. 
Achatina simplex, Smith, Quart. Joiun. Couch, vol. i. p. 3.50. 

Hah. Port Natal. 

12. Achatina Burnupi, sp. n. 

Hah. The Drakensberg, north of Natal, at 5000 to 6000 

13. Achatina dimidiata, Smith. 

Achatina dimidutta, Smith, Quart. Joui'n, Conch, vol. i. p. 348. 

Hah. Eastern slope of the Drakensberg, at Leydenburg 
Gold-fiekls, Transvaal {Smith) ; not rare at Leydenberg 

14. Achatina zehra (Chemnitz). 

Achatina zettra (Chemnitz), Reeve, Conch. Icon. vol. v. pi. vii. h'g. 23 ; 
Pfoirter, Couch.-Cab. ed. 2, pi. ii. lig. 3. 

Hah. George Dic^trict, Cape Colony, and Natal {Krams) j 
CaflVaria {Reeve). 

Acliatina^-om South Africa. 393 

A. ohesa, Pfeiffer, said to be from "West Africa," is 
probably only a stunted form of this species. 

15. Achatina aurora^ Pfeiffer. 

Achattna aurora, Pfeiffer, Proc. Zool. Soc. 1854, p. 294 ; Monog. Hel. 
vol. iv. p. 002. 

Ilab. Port Natal {Pf-.). 

16. Achatina plant i, Pfeiffer. 

Achatina plant i, Pfeiffer, Novitat. Couch, vol. ii. p. 1()0, pi. .\liii. 
figs.], 2. 

Ilab. Cape Natal {Pfr.). 

17. Achatina ustulata, Lamarck. 

Achatina ustulata, Lamarck, Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. xii. fig. 40 ; Ferus- 
sac, Hist. Nat. Moll. pi. cxxv. figs. 1, 2. 

Uab. George District, Cape Colony (Kraitss). 

18. Achatina Kraussi, Reeve. 

Achatina Kraiissi, Reeve, Conch. Icon. pi. vi. fig. 21 ; Pfeiffer, Conch.- 
Cab. ed. 2, p. 329, pi. xxiii. fig. 2 ; Krauss, Sudafr. Moll. p. 81. 

Ilab. On the right bank of the Koega River, near Algoa 
Bay {Krauss). 

This species, according to Krauss, is not found in Natal, 
as stated by Reeve. 

19. Achatina immaculata, Lamarck. 

Athatina immaculata, Lamarck, Ferussac, Hist. Nat. Moll. pi. cxxvii. ; 
Pfeiffer, Mon. Ilel. vol. iv. p. 600. 

Hab. Cape Delagoa {Pfr.) ; Port Natal and Zulu country 
{Brit. Mus.). 

Description of the New Species. 
Achatina Burnupi. 

Testa elongato-ovata, sixbtenuis, epidcrmide nitida, flavo-olivacca 
induta, hie illic strigis saturatioiibus ornata, prope suturam flava, 
et circa medium aiifr. ultimi zona obscura cincta ; anfractus 8, 
leviter couvexi, superiorcs granulati, ultimus elongatus, lasvis, 
lineis incrementi paulo obliquis striatus, antice vix descendens ; 
apertura inverse auritbrmis, intus pallide ca^rulescens, opalescens, 
longit. totius ^ sequans ; columella rectiuscula, antice oblique 
truncata, callo tenui albido iuduta. 

Longit. 71 millim., diam. 39 ; apertura 35 longa, 18 lata. 

394 Dr. 0. Burger on the 

This is a rather slender species, in general proportions some- 
what resembling Reeve's representation of BuUmus Thomp- 
soni (Concli. Icon. pi. xxiv. fig. 158). It is moderately thin 
and clotlied with a yellowish-olive glossy epidermis, exhibiting 
at short intervals oblique streaks of a darker tint and close to 
the suture becoming decidedly yellow, so that the upper edge 
of the last whorl appears to be bordered with that colour. 
The three uppermost volutions^ which have lost the epi- 
dermis, are pale brown. All the whorls excepting the last 
are sculptured with spiral and oblique striai, forming a rather 
fine granulation. The body-whorl is rather long and orna- 
mented only with lines of growth which are well marked and 
slightly puckered at the suture. A faint band is noticeable 
just above the middle, and several other transverse lines 
parallel with it are also observable on close inspection. 

This species resembles A. simplex, Smith, in the absence 
of colour-markings and in the size of the apical whoils, but 
differs entirely in its more elongate form. This is particu- 
larly apparent in the body-whorl and aperture. 

The above description is based on a single specimen recently 
presented to the British Museum by Colonel J. II. Bowker. It 
was collected on the Urakensberg, north of Natal, at an eleva- 
tion of 5000 to 6000 feet, by Mr. Henry E. Burnup, after 
whom I have named the species. 

XLVII. — Summary of Besearches into the Anatomy and His- 
tology of Nemertines, icith Contributions to their Classifi- 
cation. ' By Dr. Otto Bukger *. 

Nemertines used to be commonly classed with the Platy- 
hclminthes, and thus brought into the closest relationship 
with the Turbellaria ; only a small number of authors, among 
whom von Siebold t must be mentioned, placed them at an 
early period among the Annelids. ^M^Intosh, however, was 
one of those who held this view, to which he gives expression 
in prefixing to the whole of his monograph the title ' The 
British Annelids. — Part I. Nemerteans.' Yet it is only 
within the last ten years that the views with regard to the 
proper position of the group have undergone a more extensive 

• Translated from the 'Zoitschril't fiir wissenschaftliclie Zoologie, 
Bd. L. llelte 1 aud 2, June 18110, pp. -'4^200; whole paper, ibiti pp. 1- 
277, ■with ten plates and twelve woodcuts in the text. 

t V. Siebold, ' Lebrbuch der verpleicbeuden Anatoniie," 184S. 

Anatomy and Histology of Nemer tines. 395 

change, owing to the recognition of a metaraeric arrangement 
in certain organs in the middle and posterior portion of the 
body in some more highly organized Nemertines. 

To Hubrecht must be ascribed the honour of having 
demonstrated the existence of septa in tlie region of the intes- 
tinal ca?ca, instead of the uniform development of the gela- 
tinous matrix, the parenchyma, in which all the organs are 
imbedded. This indefatigable investigator of Nemertine 
anatomy was likewise unremitting in his insistence on the 
constant relations shown in the arrangement of intestinal 
c£eca, septa, blood-vascular loops, and, lastly, even of the 

I'he immediate object of all this was finally to sever the 
connexion between the Nemertines and the Turbellarians, 
and to enrol them among the Annulata. According to the 
old-established classification the Nemertines were completely 
merged in the 'J\irbellarians, of which they were merely 
recognized as suborders. 

Hubrecht, however, did not stop at this, but sought to 
establish relations between Nemertines and Vertebrates. In 
this direction I cannot follow him. Far-reaching specula- 
tions are permissible and justifiable only after an exhaustive 
gtudy of the embryology of the form in question ; and in this 
respect my work is completely wanting. 

Yet it has seemed to me that it may be interesting to com- 
pare the various systems of organs, as we have learnt to know 
them in the forms we have examined, with those of the 
Kemertine genera not treated of in these pages, casting at the 
game time a passing glance in the direction of the Turbel- 
larians and the Annelids. 

Kemertines one and all possess a ciliated ectoderm. This 
either carries the whole of the gland-cells of the integument, 
and in this case rests on an almost structureless layer of 
connective-tissue, a so-called basement-membrane, or a portion 
of the gland-cells sink into the connective tissue, and we get 
a cutis, which is often rich in muscle-fibres. The first of 
these conditions is met with in all forms having a stylet in 
the proboscis, the Enopla, as also in Carinella, and, according 
to Hubrecht, in Carinina^ Carinoma, and probably, too, in 
Cephalothrix. We find that a double layer of gland-cells, 
on the other hand, is characteristic of Eiqyolia, CerehratuluSj 
and Langia ; but, from the works of M'lntosh and Hubrecht, 
we may conclude that it is present in Valencinia, Li'neus, and 
Borlasia also. 

The development of a cutis is manifestly followed by 
highly important changes, as exemplified in the appearance 

396 Dr. 0. Burger on the 

of an outer longitudinal muscular layer, of the subepithelial 
muscle-layers, and the formation of a muscular tissue at the 
cephalic extremity, wliere, in the case of Cari'nella, we found 
a parenchyma, which persists in the Enopla also. Moreover, 
we find these forms provided with cephalic glands, not present 
in Carinella, and probably likewise absent in its allies. A 
cephalic gland is characteristic also of the Enopla ; and with 
regard to this group we may make the same observation as in 
the case of that to which EiqwUa^ Cerehratidus^ &c. belong, 
viz. that the cephalic gland remains small in forms which, 
judged by the development of their nervous system, sense- 
organs, and cephalic grooves, must be regarded as the 
higher, such as Dreimnoplwrus and AmphiporuSj as also 
Cerebratulus and Langia ; but that in Tetrastemma^ Prosade- 
noporusy and Geonemertes, on the contrary, as in the more 
primitive Eupollay it has undergone a colossal development. 

The musculature of the body-wall is precisely similar in 
structure in the case of the first group, in which I unhesi- 
tatingly include Carinella^ Carimna^ and Carinoma — I would 
prefer not to come to any decision as to the position of Cepha- 
lothrix, although I am inclined to assign it to the first group 
• — and in that of the third, which embraces the P^nopla, and 
consists of a circular, a diagonal, and a longitudinal layer. 
In the second group, which includes the remaining forms 
unprovided with a stylet in the proboscis ( Valencinia, Expolia, 
Lineus, Borlasia, Cerehratulus, and Langia) j\*q find that the 
musculature of the body-wall consists of a longitudinal, 
diagonal, circular, and longitudinal layer. The entirely 
different position of the diagonal muscular layer in Group 11. 
as compared with Groups I. and III. is most remarkable. 

We have recognized the inner circular muscle-layer of 
Group I. as not belonging to the musculature of the body- 
wall, and have homologized it with the dorso-ventral system 
Avhich appears in the metamerized forms of Groups II. and 
III., and which we have derived from the circular layer in 

None of the groups is without a system of radial muscles, 
the tracts of which split up the layers of the body-wall, 
dividing them into compartments. 

In its ciliated epithelium, the manifold gland-cells thereof, 
and the development of the deeper system of gland-cells lying 
beneath the basement-membrane, the integument of the 
Ncmertines exhibits an immistakable resemblance to that of 
the Turbcllarians. 

The musculature of the body-wall of the Ehabdoccela * 

* V. Graff, 'Monographie dcr Turbellarien. — I. Kbabdixwlida,' 1881?. 

Anatomy and Histology of Nemertines. 397 

displays a marked conformity with tliat of Groups T. ami II. 
in that it likewise consists of circular and longitudinal layers 
of fibres, in addition to whith, in the case of many Rhabdo- 
ccela, we also have a diagonal layer, lying between the two 
former. ^luch more complicated is the musculature of the 
body-wall in the Polyclads, in which, according to Lang"^, as 
many as six layers may be present, arranged in the following 
order : — circular, longitudinal, diagonal, circular, diagonal, 
longitudinal. In this case also it is at once evident that only 
the internal layer of diagonal fibres has to disappear in order 
that we may get the arrangement of the muscle-layers found 
in Group II., and in Cerehratulus in particular. 

I have alluded to the fact that the integument, and 
es])ecially the ectoderm, is composed of fibrillar and gland- 
cells, exactly like the hypodermis of the Annelids, among 
which I should like to see the Gephyreans included. It 
remains to be added that the ectoderm of Nemcrtines is clothed 
by a cuticle, which may be provided with cilia in places. As 
a general rule a cutis is not present in the Annelids ; yet in 
the case of Sipunculus nudus, for example, this has recently 
been described by Andreaj f, who states that it contains 
pigment-masses and gland-cells. The phenomena presented 
by the hypodermis of tlie Annelids and the ectoderm of the 
Nemcrtines at the time of sexual maturity are very remark- 
able ; in both cases the naked gland-cells swell up to a large 
size, almost entirely filling up the epidermis around the genital 
apertures (clitellum of the Earthworms, porophore of the 
Capitellida,') %. The musculature of the body-wall of the 
Annelids is allied to that of Groups I. and ILL, since it con- 
sists of a circular and a longitudinal layer. If we neglect 
the fact that the diagonal layer, which is stated by Andreae 
to lie in Sipunculus between these two muscle-layers, does 
not entirely agree in structure with that of the Nemcrtines, 
the musculature of the body-wall of a Carinella or a Drepa- 
nopkorus would be essentially the same as that of the 

In all Nemcrtines the parenchyma is developed to its 
utmost extent, and the organs are consequently imbedded in 
a gelatinous tissue. In the case of Groups II. and III. this 
tissue is arranged in septa in the region of the mid-gut, and 

* Lang, " Die Polycladen des Golfs von Xeapel " (Fauna und Flora des 
Golfs Ton Neapel), Monograpliie, xi. 1884. 

t J. Andreas, " Beitrage zuv Anatomic und Histologie des Sijjunculus 
nudus,^' Zeitschrift fiir wiss. Zoologie, Bd. xxxvi. 

X Eisig, " Monograpbie der Capitelliden des Golfs von JN'eapel,'' Fauna 
und Flora des Golfs vun Neapel, xvi. 1887. 

398 Dr. O. Burger on the 

at the same time a cleft appears on each side between intes- 
tine and parenchyma {Cerehratulus marginatus and Drepano- 
phorus serraticoUis) . This cleft is interrupted at the points 
at w'liich the extremities of the intestinal cseca come in contact 
with the septa, and also where those plates which include the 
genital sacs and the dorso-ventral muscle-bands touch the 
axial portion of the intestine. This cleft was pronounced bj 
Salenskj *, who determined its existence in Monopora vivi- 
jmra and Exipolia aurita^ to be a ccelom. Salensky finds 
tliat it is bounded by a somatic and splanchnic membrane. 

The Turbellaria are devoid of cavities of this kind lying 
between tlie tissue of the body and the intestine. On the 
other hand, muscular septa are present, and in this respect 
the elongated Gunda segmentata f is especially worthy of 
notice, since in it the lateral unbranched intestinal cseca are 
regularly separated from one another in this way. In the 
other direction, however, the pronounced metameric arrange- 
ment of the septa in Nemcrtines leads us to the Annelids, and 
to the Hirudinese in particular, in which, while a body-cavity 
is non-existent, muscular septa are developed. 

The alimentary canal of the Xemertines exhibits two 
divisions, which are both histologically and morphologically 
well marked off from one another : these are, the fore-gut, 
■which is devoid of caeca in all forms, but is lined by a richly 
glandular epithelium, and the mid-gut, which in the two last 
groups is provided with metamerically arranged paired 
evaginations, but is without glands. The intestinal caeca 
decrease gradually in size towards the posterior extremity of 
the animal, and finally we get a little short piece of intestine, 
straight and without glands, which we are able to distinguish 
as rectum, but which nevertheless in the character of its 
epithelial lining does not difter from the mid-gut. It is 
therefore doubtful whether, without referring to embryology, 
we are entitled to speak about a proctodeum in the case of 
the Ncmertines. The mouth is always ventral in Groups I. 
and II., behind or beneath the ganglia, and opens into an 
expanded, bell-shaped, pharyngeal cavity — in the case of 
Group III. in front of the ganglia — which in its turn opens 
into a narrow oesophagus. The mouth does not always open 
independently to the exterior, but more often unites with the 
aperture of the proboscis- sheath. In Monogonopora and also 
in Prosadenoporus the oesophagus opens into the proboscis- 

• Salensky, " Zur EntwiclveluTigsgeschichte v. Borlasia vivt'para," Biol. 
Centralbl. ii. Jahrp. 

t A. Lang, " l)er Bau von Gimda ffffmentata," Mitth. a. d. Zo*^!. 
Station zii Neapel, Bd. iii. 1881. 

Anatomy and Histology of Nemer tines. 399 

sheath — in tlic latter case at some distance from its exterior 
aperture. Tlie same thins; very probably occurs in Genne- 
mertes pahiensisj only in this case the opening of the alimentary 
canal is carried right to the anterior extremity, so that, as a 
matter of fact, the apertures of mouth and proboscis coincide. 
In Malacohdella, however, the proboscis-sheath oj)ens into a 
peculiar cavity, which is provided with villi, and must be 
regarded as a veritable jiharynx. Von Kennel ^ would have 
us believe that the cavity of the proboscis-sheath 0]:)ens into 
the mouth in Geonemertes palaensis also ; but it appeal's to 
me, according to the figure which the author gives, that the 
condition is precisely the same as in Monogonopora and 
ProsadenoporuSj that is to say that the oesophagus opens into 
the most anterior portion of the cavity of the proboscis-sheath. 
The aniis, which is never absent, is always terminal. 

Von Graff t, too, asserts that the proboscis-sheath in Geo- 
nemertes chalicophora opens into the mouth. But on referring 
to Taf. xxvi. fig. 7, of the work in question, we see quite 
clearly that the oeso])hagus opens into the proboscis-sheath at 
a considerable distance from the external aperture of the 
latter; it curves distinctly upioards, and the opening of the 
proboscis — of the mouth according to von Graff — is almost 
exactly terminal in this form, whereas it should be ventral if 
it were the mouth-opening. In all respects the structure 
presents the appearance of a prolongation of the proboscis- 

In the intestine of the Nemertine we have the type of that 
of the Annelid. If, however, we attempt a comparison with 
the intestinal tract of a Turbellarian, even though we select 
Gunda segmentata for the purpose — a form distinguished by 
the possession of a straight unbranched intestine, which is 
provided with a regular series of caecal evaginations and opens 
into a mouth placed at the extreme anterior end of the body 
— we nevertheless unavoidably fail ; for the intestine of our 
Turbellarian, however far it may have diverged in develop- 
ment from the radially-branched organ of the Polyclad, in the 
direction of that of the Nemertine, is devoid of an anus. 

According to Hubrecht \ and Max Miiller § the proboscis 

* Von Kennel, "Beitrage zvir Kenntnis der Nemertinen," Arbeiten aus 
dem Zool. Inst, zu Wiirzburg, Bd. iv. 1877. 

t Von Graff, "Geonemertes chalicophora, eine neue Land-nemertme," 
Morphol. Jahrb. Bd. v. 1879. 

X Hubrecht, 'Report of the Scientific Results of the Voyage of 
II.M.S. ' Challenger,' 1873-1870,' Zool. vol. xix. Nemertea, 1887. 

§ Max Miiller, * Obseryatioues Anatomicpe de Vermibus quibusdam 
maritimis,' Berolini, 18.52. 

400 Dr. O. Burger on the 

in the first two groups is provided with nematocysts (we were 
able to determine the presence of rhabdites only), in the 
third, with the exception of the parasitic Malacohdella^ it is 
armed with stylets. The proboscis varies in structure in 
Groups I. and J I., and even in the arrangement of the layers 
of its wall we find important variations between a Eupolia 
and a CerebraiuJus. The proboscis of Carinella is composed 
of a circular and a strong longitudinal muscle-layer, while 
that of Eupolia shows the opposite arrangement of a longi- 
tudinal and a circular layer. In Cerehratulus, again, we find 
that the proboscis repeats the structure of the musculature of 
the body-wall, and we get a longitudinal, a circular, and a 
longitudinal muscle-layer. In Carinella the nerves of the 
proboscis adjoin the circular muscle-layer, but in the case of 
Eupolia the longitudinal layer, and in this the nerve-tissue 
exhibits a condition which, so far as my own experience goes, 
is only repeated in the proboscis of the Enopla, viz. that tlie 
nerve-massis not adjacent to a circular muscle-layer, asit other- 
wise is in all our species, be they those of Carinella^ Eupolia, 
Cerebratulus, Drepanophoriis, (Sic, wherever we find that the 
nerve-mass has a constant position, whether in the form of a 
nerve or of a nerve-sheath. In the proboscis of Cerehratulus 
the nervous plexus, derived from the expansion of the two 
nerve-cords, adjoins the circular muscle-layer on the inner 
side. The proboscis of the Enopla exhibits a precisely 
similar structure, consisting of circular, longitudinal, and 
circular layers. The nerve-cords are imbedded in the longi- 
tudinal muscle-layer, dividing it into two sheets. The aper- 
ture of the ])roboscis-sheath, however, is not, as has often been 
assumed to be the case, teiminal in position ; on the contrary, 
it is in all forms subterminal and ventral. This is clearly 
expressed even in Carinella, where the tip of the head pro- 
jects beyond the aperture of the proboscis-sheath. Another 
organ, however, the cephalic gland, does open terminally to 
the exterior. 

A comparison has been suggested between the proboscis of 
Nemertines and the so-called proboscis of the Turbellaria 
Proboscidea, a terminally })laced retractile and extensile 
sense-organ. Yves Delages * and Salensky f are among the 
more recent advocates of this theory. In opposition to this 
we may repeat once more that the aperture by which the 
Nemertine proboscis is extruded is by no means terminal, 

* Yves Delnpros, " Etudes Inytologiques sur les Pitiuiures Rhabdocoeles 
Acoeles,'' Arch, de Zool. experiuu'iU. et goiit^r. S(5r. 2, t. iv. 18Sl). 

t Saleusky, "Ban u. Metamorphose d. rihdiums," Zeits^hr. fiir wiss. 
Zoologie, Bd. xliii. 1886. 

Anatojnt/ a)i<1 Histology of Kemertinea. 401 

but that the spot wliere tlie proboscis of Oonvohda Scliuhiiy 
for example, is ]ilacecl, is occupied by the cephalic gland in 

In addition to this, the relation in which the mouth and tlie 
opening of the proboscis- sheath stand to one another, particu- 
larly as exemplified in Malacobdella^ appears to me to be in- 
structive, and to point to the tact that we must regard the pro- 
boscis as a species of pharyngeal ajiparatus — as a pharynx, 
which is now no longer enclosed in tlic pharyngeal pouch as a 
division of the oesophagus, but possesses a cavity of its own. 
The structure of the pharynx, too, is precisely similar to that of 
the Nemertine proboscis, consisting as it does of circular and 
longitudinal muscle-layers, besides radial muscles. (In the 
case of Prostliiostomum sipunculus we have the following 
arrangement : — longitudinal and circular layers, radial 
muscles, longitudinal and circular layers.) The pharynx, too, 
possesses gland-cells, or, at any rate, the prolongations of 
such cells open through its walls. The pharynx is also 
supplied with nerves, in the form of a nerve-sheath. The 
pharyngeal apparatus of the Annelids, which is styled a 
proboscis, is furnished with papillfe and with jaws, and is a 
structure which, especially in the case of the Eunicidty, where 
it lies in a chamber separated from the gullet, forcibly reminds 
us of the Nemertine proboscis, though owing to its position, 
ventral to the intestine, a direct comparison between the two 
is impossible. 

We find that the cavity of the proboscis-sheath in Nemer- 
tines increases in extent from the first group to the last. It 
has been regarded as equivalent to a body-cavity, and as such 
its development from the blastococle proves it to be a remnant 
of the primitive segmentation-cavity. Hubrecht* accordingly 
terms this space an archicoele. The cavity of the proboscis- 
sheath contains free nucleated bodies, resembling blood- 
corpuscles ; it possesses an endothelium-like lining, as is the 
case with the blood-vessels, in connexion with which it is 
supposed to have arisen. 

The cavity of the proboscis-sheath may be still further 
increased by sac-like metamerically arranged evaginations. • 

The Turbellaria naturally afford us no points of comparison 
with reference to the cavity of the proboscis-sheath. 

But what about the Annelids ? I venture to put forward 
the following hypothesis : — While in Annelids all the organs 
lie in a body-cavity, in Nemertines such a cavity has only 
been developed to a limited extent, embracing the proboscis 

* Hubrecht, "Contribution to the Embryology of the Nemcrtea," 
Q. J. M. S. vol. xxvi. 

Ann. cC- Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 29 

402 Dr. O. Burger on the 

and a section of the dorsal blood-vessel. This constitutes the 
" rhynchocoelom," the wall of which similarly repeats the 
structure of the body- wall, that is, of the muscular portion 
thereof. The free corpuscles in the rhynchocoelora are to be 
compared with those of the perivisceral fluid. 

We find therefore that the body of the more higlily 
organized Nemertines possesses two cavities, which we may 
regard as constituting a body-cavity — the rliynchoccelom, or 
cavity of the proboscis-sheath, and the cleft between the intes- 
tine and the parencliyma. It must not be supposed that both 
these spaces are of equal value. The cellular lining of the cleft, 
"which is in the highest degree similar to that of the genital sacs, 
renders it extremely probable that this cavity is a schizocoel. 
The rliynchoccelom, on the contrary, is a persistent segmen- 
tation-cavity (blastocoele) . I must leave it to embryology to 
say whether one or other of these cavities is homologous 
with the body-cavity of the Annelids. 

The blood-vascular system attains its highest development 
in Groups I. and II. as far as regards the elaboration of the 
vessels ; in these groups we find, in addition to two or three 
longitudinal trunks, which are united together in the head 
and in the caudal extremity, an oesophageal blood-vascular 
plexus, and behind this another surrounding the cavity of the 
proboscis-sheath. Besides this we generally get in the second 
group sinus-like blood-spaces for the cephalic pits. In the 
three longitudinal vessels of the third group, which are united 
to one another by a series of metamerically arranged trans- 
verse loops, we have the nearest appi-oach to the blood- 
vascular system of the higher Annelids. A blood-vascular 
system is wanting in the Turbellaria. 

A water-vascular system is probably present in all Xemer- 
tines, with the exception of the terrestrial forms and the 
genus FrosadenoporKS, in which I was not able to determine 
it. That of Group I. is stated to open directly into the 
blood-vessel. Be that as it may, it sends out ciecal tubes 
which enter and pierce the wall of the vessel. Most Nemer- 
tines possess only a single pair of nopliridial pores ; but in 
many forms, including Valencinia, EupoUay Ainphiporus 
lactij/oreus, S:c., it is stated by Oudemans * that there are a 
large number. 

The similarity between the excretory system of the Nemer- 
tines and that of the Turbellarians is unmistakable, especially 
if it sliould be more generally found, as Silliman t claims for 

• Oudemans, "The Cireulatury and Nephridial Apparatus of the 
Nemerteii," Q. J. M. S. vol. xix. n. s. I880. 

t Silliman, " Beobathtun>; •iber.Susswnsjtrtuibellarion Nordamerikas," 
Zoitschr. t'liv wis,-;. Ztiologio, IVl. xli. ISS.*). 

Anatomy and Ih'stologif of Xe me r tines. 40.3 

Tetrastemma aqnarum dulcium, that tlic excretory vessels ot" 
Nemertines are provided with Hame-cells. 

Yet we are by no means debarred from a comparison with 
the Annelids, even as regards the nephridial system, if we 
bethink ourselves of La/j/ce conckilega, that remarkable Tere- 
bellid in which four nephridia arc united together on each 
side by a longitudinal vessel. In this connexion it is of the 
utmost importance to ascertain whether the forms possessing 
a number of excretory channels exhibit a metameric arrange- 
ment of the nephridiopores. Iii all probability the peculiar 
line of development followed by the excretory apparatus of 
the Annelids has been influenced by the large size of the 
body-cavity found in these forms. 

As regards the nervous system, if we start from the lowest 
forms of the first group and continue our investigations 
through the other two, we meet with unmistakable evidence 
of a progressive development ; and this not only in the primi- 
tive or more complicated composition of the nervous system 
itself, but also in its varying position, which passes from the 
epithelial, as described by Hubrecht for the nervous system of 
Carinina, through the intermuscular stage, until finally we 
find the nervous system lying entirely within the muscle- 
layers (infra-muscular). According to Hubrecht the most 
widely different stages in the progressive passage of the 
nervous system from the exterior towards the interior of the 
body is found in representatives of Group I. What is in all 
probability to a certain extent a resting-stage is reached when 
we find the nervous system situated outside the circular 
muscle-layer, but lying immediately upon it. I gather from 
the works of M'Intosh, Hubrecht, and Oudemans, that this 
occurs in all forms belonging to Group II. But a transition 
from this position to the infra-muscular one found in the 
Enopla is not known in this group. In order to trace this 
transition we have, indeed, to go back to Group I., and, 
according to the description and figure given by Hubrecht *, 
we find it in Garinoma and Cephalothrix. It is therefore 
from these forms, judging by the position of the lateral nerve- 
cords, that the Enopla are to be derived; but the genera of 
the second group can only have sprung from a form in which 
the lateral cords are still outside the circular muscle-layer. 
We may therefore represent the aflinities thus : — 

* Hubrecht, op. cU. tab. xi. 


404 Dr. O. Burger 07i the 


Carinoma. C'ephalothrix. 

Enopla, Group II. 

The central nervous .«?ystem is divided into a brain and 
lateral cords. In addition to the swollen anterior portion of 
the lateral cords, which forms the ventral ganglia, the braip 
always shows traces of a pair of dorsal ganglia, which, in the 
highest forms, far exceed tlie ventral ganglia in size, while 
the degree to which they are developed appears to depend to 
a certain extent on the development of the lateral organs. 
This is proved by the most primitive forms, in which both 
lateral organs and dorsal ganglia are of simple structure and 
small size. In the higher forms, however, in which the 
lateral ])its are reduced in size, as we have found to be the 
case in Prosadenoporus^ the dorsal ganglia by no means 
undergo a corresponding reduction. The ganglia of the 
brain are united by a dorsal commissure, which passes above 
the rhynchodajum in Carinella and above the rhynchocoelom 
in Cerebraiulus and Drepariophoriis. A ventral commissure 
passes below the rhynchocceloni and in the Enopla lies upon 
the fore-gut. The position of the brain is consequently by 
no means absolutely constant even in this respect. Many 
Neniei tines have been shown to possess an anal commissure 
connecting the two nerve-cords. The central nervous system 
possesses a variously constituted sheath of ganglion-cells, 
which differ exceedingly in form, according to the particular 
region of the brain, and are eminently characteristic of the 
various regions. The brain and lateral nerve-cords of certain 
representatives of Oroup II. {Cerehratu/ua and Laiujia) 
possess neurochord-colls and branched neurochords, which 
traverse the central substance of the lateral cords. Ixepresen- 
tativcs of Group III. [Drcj^anophorus and Prosadenojwrus) 

Anatomt/ and Histology of Nemertines. 40o 

possess only one pan- of ncurochord-cclls, wliicli belong to 
the brain, and only a single ])air of ujibranchcd neurochords, 
which run through the brain and the lateral eords. 

The entire mass of the central nervous system is enveloped 
in a neurilemma. The fibrillar central substance of the 
lateral cords in all cases, and throughout Group II. that of 
the brain as well, is also enclosed in an inner neurilemma 
and sharply marked off from the coat of ganglion-cells. 

The perij)heral nervous system is represented by nerves 
and nerve-sheaths. Nerves supply the cephalic extremity, 
the eyes, and the lateral pits. A pair of nerves, which arise 
from the ventral ganglion, runs back to the oesophagus ; a 
])rccisely analogous pair, springing from the ventral com- 
missure, sup])lics the ])roboscis in Groups I. and II. In 
(jroup HI. the proboscis is innervated by means of numerous 
stems, arising from the brain. In some species of the first 
group, and in all those of the third, the lateral organs are 
united by nerves to the dorsal ganglia. In all the groups 
the lateral cords give off nerves, which are arranged meta- 
merically in Groups II. and III. In Carinina the nerve- 
sheath assumes an epithelial position, in accordance witii the 
situation of the lateral cords ; in the other genera of this 
group the sheath is subepithelial. In Group II. the nerve- 
sheath is generally situated outside the circular muscle-layer, 
but it may occur within it, as in Langia and Cerehratulus. 
In Group III. nerve-sheaths are not found. The nerve- 
sheaths are characterized by the presence of a median dorsal 
nerve, which runs through them in the longitudinal axis of 
the body. This nerve also persists in Group III., only in 
this case it maintains an intermuscular position, above the 
circular muscle-layer. A second and smaller nerve of this 
kind, lying within the circular muscle-layer, is characteristic 
of the first two groups only. 

In close connexion with the nervous system come the 
sense-organs — the subepithelial eyes (the pigment-cups of 
which are directed outwards), the lateral organs, the accessory 
lateral grooves lined with columnar epithelium {Drepaao- 
phorus), and the terminal cephalic grooves {Cerehratulus). 

The lateral organs arc placed in the same position as the 
brain, and in a portion of the genera belonging to the first 
group and in all those of the second and third they fuse with 
the dorsal ganglion, behind which they always lie. In the 
Enopla they occupy an independent position, being connected 
with the upper ganglion by nerves only, and generally lying 
to the side of it, though they may occupy a position in front 
of it, towards the cephalic extremity. As special formations 

406 Dr. 0. Biirger on the 

of the body-wall we have the lateral indentations known as 
cephalic pits in the majority of the representatives of Group II.; 
these supply the place of a canal in bringing the lateral organs 
into communication with the outer world. We have yet to 
mention the existence of a pair of lateral organs in the neigh- 
bourhood of the nephridio-pores of Carinella. 

While the Nemertines, owing to their plexus-like epithelial 
and subepithelial nervous layers, give grounds even for a 
reference to the Coelenterates (a vista opened up by Hubrecht) , 
nevertheless the central nervous system shows so high a 
degree of development, in the stoutness of its central sub- 
stance, of its ganglionic coat (so widely and so sharply 
differentiated from it), and of the twofold membranous and 
fibrillar elements of its sheath, that it equals the Annelids in 
this respect. The appearance of a second sheath surrounding 
the central substance is of especial importance. An inner 
neurilemma of this kind, which interposes itself between the 
coat of ganglion-cells and the fibrillar substance, has been 
identified and described by Hermann * in Ilirudo also. The 
tissue, however, which has been styled by many authors an 
inner neurilemma, docs not correspond to the inner neuri- 
lemma of I^emertines. For the term has been applied to the 
finely fibrillar elements of the sheath of the ganglion-cells 
(Nanscn f), or to a membranous sheath which surrounds the 
nervous elements, ganglion-cells, and central substance of the 
ventral cord of certain Annelids, and which, as an inner neuri- 
lemma, has been contrasted with an outer one, which envelops 
an intei mediate mass lying between the two membranes 
(Leydigt, Andreaj§). 

In other respects the connexions which can be made out 
between the brain of Nemertines and that of Annelids are 
many in number. 1 may instance in particular the fact which 
has lately been more and more insisted upon, viz. that the 
ganglionic coat consists almost exclusively of unipolar 
ganglion-cells, and lastly, but by no means least, the occur- 
rence in Nemertines also of ncurocliord-cells and neurochords. 

A\ liethcr we are justified in placing the brain of Nemer- 
tines absolutely on a level with that of Annelids appears to 
me to be a question which must be postponed for the present 
on inibryological grounds. Salensky arrives at the following 

* Ileuuanii, ' l>as (,'ontraliiorveiisysteui voii Ilirudo medicinalis.' 
Miiiulicn, \f<'ti^. 

t Naiiseii, *' Aiiatoniie u. Hi.<tologie des Nervensystems der Myzo- 
st'iuu'ii," .Jeuai>(lu' Zritsrlir. 1887. 

\ F. I.iydiji, ' Tafi 111 zur vtrgl. Aiiad iiiit-," Tiibin;ri'n, 18(-»4, i. tip. J). 

§ J. Andrea', " Hfilm^e zur Aiiad iiiir uud JIit^t(>l(ij.Mc dot; ^ijninru/nr 
uu(/ui>," Zeitsrlir. I'vir ^\i!^t;. Zidlojrir, Hd. xxxvi. 

Anatomy and Histology of Nemer tines. 407 

conclusions : — Tlie cerebral ganglia of Nemertines and 
Annelids are homologous ; tiie ventral commissure of the 
Nemertine brain corresponds to that which connects the two 
halves ot" the Annelid brain ; the dorsal commissure of 
Nemertines is a structure sui generis and has no homologue 
in the case of the Annelids ; the oesophageal commissure of 
the Annelids corresponds to the lateral nerves of Nemertines. 

The author draws the last inference from the fact that the 
Nemertine brain, which arises as an ectodermal thickening on 
each side of the proboscis-invagination, is prolonged poste- 
riorly into the lateral cords. Nevertheless it is not proved 
that this brain is exactly the homologue of that of the 
Annelids, which always includes a portion of the larval apical 
])late ; whereas in the Filidiuni, on the contrary, the apical 
plate is thrown off. In any case I am inclined to compare 
the lateral cords of Nemertines with the ventral cord of the 
Annelids (the arrangement of the nerves which pass off from 
the cords makes the comparison justifiable), without further 
discussing the question whether the Nemertine brain is to be 
regarded merely as an expansion of the lateral cords, or as a 
special formation in the same sense as the brain of the 

The grounds on which we might institute a comparison 
with the central nervous system of Turbellarians appear to 
me to be of so general a nature that they must recede into 
the background when contrasted with the resemblances 
between the Nemertine and the Annelid nervous systems. 

The eyes of Nemertines, on the other hand, may be shortly 
characterized as Turbellarian eyes. 

An agreement in the mode of origin of the lateral organs 
of Nemertines and the ciliated pits of certain Ehabdocoela 
(Microstoma?) has already been pointed out by Dewoletzky *, 
who was also successful in proving the occurrence of similar 
structures in the case of the Annelids. To this end the author 
instances Lov^n's larva which is provided with ciliated pits, 
the larva of Sipu7iculus, and also Ctenodrilus^ in which 
v. Kennel t found cephalic pits, corresponding as it were to 
the lateral organs of Nemertines. The similarity between 
the lateral organs of Nemertines and the ciliated organs of 
the Capitellidffi has been demonstrated by Eisig also. 

I will not attempt to find the homologues of the second 
pair of lateral organs of the species of Carinella in the 

• Dewoletzky, " Das Seitenorgan der Nemertinen," Arbeiten aus dem 
zool. Inst, zu Wien, Bd. vii. 1880. 

t V. Kennel, " Ueber Ctenodrilus pnrdulis,'" Arbeiten aus dem zool. 
Institut zu Wiirzburg, Bd. v. 1882. 

408 On the Anatomy and Histology of Nemer tines. 

Annelids— though in tliem only, and not in the Turbellaria, 
would it be possible to discover them. I will merely draw 
attention to the fact that with the appearance of this second 
pair we find that a lateral line appears in the Nemertines as 
the bearer of sense-organs, precisely as we find it in the 

The genital products are either formed directly in the 
])arenchyma, in which case a membrane forms round them, 
constituting a sac, or else they arise in the walls of sacs which 
alternate with the intestinal cajca. Before maturity is reached 
a duct is formed, one from each sac. In the non-raetame- 
rized forms the first of these methods appears to prevail 
( Carinella) ^ in the metamerized forms the latter (Cerebratulus, 
I)repanophorus) . Moreover in these forms, as in Prosadeno- 
porus, Geonemertes^ and many others, several genital sacs are 
situated between a single pair of intestinal cceca, and we con- 
sequently find several genital pores in one metamere. 
Nemertines are not all of separate sexes : the terrestrial and 
allied forms, e. g. the Prosadenoporids, are hermaphrodite. 
Hermaphrodite forms are also found among the Tetra- 
stemmids, which are closely allied to the Prosadenoporids. 
Prosorhochmus and Monopora are stated to be viviparous. 

The extraordinarily complicated genital organs of the 
Turbellaria exclude any comparison with those of Nemer- 

But even as regards the genital organs of the Polychaite 
Annelids, it is only in their simplicity that those of the 
Nemertines agree. 

Shortly stated, the conclusion we deduce from the con- 
siderations which we have discussed in the above pages 
amounts to this: — That in many respects the organization of 
Nemertines exhibits an affinity with that of the Turbellaria, 
but that on the whole this is put into the shade by the general 
Annelid-like structure of the animals which we have been 

If we merely observe the living fiat Nemertine crawling 
in its mucus, and compare it with a PolycliKte or an Oligo- 
chajte, the metamerism of which is exhibited externally by 
means of rings and the arrangement of bundles of setw, we 
find but little dilHculty in persuading ourselves to follow our 
predecessors in the field of natural history and in agreeing 
Avith the place they assigned to these worms in their classifi- 
cations — so long, that is, as we ai-e compelled to work with 
the same appliances as they had. To-day, however, when 
methods and microscopy have overcome untold dilHeulties 

On the Fate of the Quadrate in Mammals. 409 

■which they had to contend against^ we may judge an indi- 
vidual by its external appearance in the last resort only ; we 
determine its systematic position far rather from its internal 
organization, as displayed to us by means of anatomy and 
histology, and above all from its embryology. 

The latter lead us to the conclusion that Nemertines liavc 
probably been derived from Turbellarian-likc forms, but that 
after following a line of development over which the Aimelids 
had already passed, they diverged from it again in a direction 
of their own. 

Ctuttingen, Sept. 188'J. 

XLVIII. — On the Fate of the Quadrate in Mammals. 
By R. Bkoom, M.B., CM., B.Sc. 

One of the most troublesome points in the study of tlie 
descent of the Mammalia is the explanation of the changes 
which have taken place in the structure of the lower jaw and 
in its mode of articulation with the skull. In Amphibians 
and Keptiles the lower jaw is invariably made up of a number 
of pieces and articulates with the skull by means of the 
quadrate. In Mammals the jaw is apparently a single bone 
articulating with the squamosal. What we have therefore to 
explain is. What has become of the quadrate and how has 
the jaw become simplified ? In the present paper I shall 
only deal with the fate of the quadrate. 

Hitherto the majority of comparative anatomists, chiefly 
from the study of the early condition of the visceral arches, 
have agreed in finding the homologue of the quadrate in one 
or other of the auditory ossicles. Gegenbaur, KoUiker, 
Wiedersheim, and Ileichert find its representative in the incus, 
while Huxley looks upon the malleus as its equivalent. 
Parker, who has done more than any one else to elucidate the 
development of the skull, after for many years holding the 
same view as Huxley, ultimately came to regard the incus as 
the Mammalian quadrate. 

That the quadrate of the Amphibian or Reptilian ancestors 
of the Mammals should gradually move back from the arti- 
culation of the jaw and degenerate into one of the auditory 
ossicles is improbable ; and there is little doubt but that the 
view has been founded on a misinterpretation of the morpho- 

410 Mr. R. Broom on the 

logical value of the malleus and incus. The researches of 
Peters *, Dollo f, Baiir|, and Gadow § place it beyond doubt 
that the ]\Iammalian auditory ossicles are together homolo- 
gous with the Reptilian columella auris and extra-columella, 
and that the malleus and incus can never have taken any part 
in the articulation of the jaw. 

An entirely different view of the fate of the quadrate has 
recently been revived by Albrecht ||, and has been supported 
by Dollo, Copell, and Baur. According to this view the 
quadrate is represented by the zygomatic portion of the 
squamosal. It is highly probable that the Mammalian 
squamosal represents more than one element ; but the palteon- 
tological evidence which would find in it the quadrate is 
unsatisfactory, the zygomatic portion being most probably 
homologous with the quadrato-jugal. 

Gadow and Seeley ** advocate the view of Cuvier and 
Owen, that the quadrate is represented by the tympanic bone. 
Thisj however, involves a gradual shifting back of the quad- 
rate from the articulation, which, though conceivable, is not 
borne out by positive evidence eitlier from palaeontology, 
embryology, or comparative anatomy. 

The Mammalia and Rcjjtilia seem to have had a common 
origin in a group of highly developed Amphibians, of which 
no remains have as yet come to light, but of which Pareia- 
sauriis is the nearest ally as yet known. In these ancestral 
forms there was in all probability but a feebly developed 
flattened quadrate, probably ossified and articulating with the 
quadrato-jugal, squamosal, and pterygoid. In Pareiasaiirus 
kSeeleytt says the quadrate bone "would appear to have been 

* W. Peters, " Uebf>r die Gehorlmockelclien und ihre Verliiiltniss zu 
don ersten Zungeiibogen boi Sphcnodon jnindatus," Moiiatsber. d. k. 
preuss. Akad. d. Wiss., Berlin, 1874. 

t L. Dollo, "On the Malleus of the Lacertilia, &c.,'' Quart. Joiiru. 
Micr. Sc. 188;i. 

X G. Bniir, " On the Quadrate in the j\lamnialia," Quart. Jouru. Micr. 
Sc. 18e7. 

§ IL CTadow, "On the Moditications of the First and Second Visceral 
Arches, iS:c.," Thil. Trans, vol. clxxi.v , 1888. 

II P. Albrecht, ' Sur la valeur uiorphologique de rarticulation mandi- 
bulaire, &c.,' ]?ruxelles, 1883. 

^ E. D. Cope, ''The Kelations between the Theroniorphous Peptiles 
and the Monotreme Mammalia,"' Vnc. Anier. Assoc. Adv. Soi. vol. xxxiii. 

** H. G. Seelev, "On the Anomodont Ileptiliaand their Allies," Phil. 
Trans, vol. clxxx.,* 1889. 

tt II. O. Seeley, " On P«rem.«fl»/r//.v /;(>«/>/V/<7K< (Owen), and the Signifi- 
cance ot its Atiinitirs to Aniphibiinis, Kepliles. and Mauinials.' Phil. 
Trans, vol. clxxix.. 1888. 

Fate of the Quadrate in Mammals. 411 

a very short flattened bone -svitli a ball-like articular surface 
on the palatal aspect of the heail." 

In the l\c])tilian branch of descendants tiie quadrate gradu- 
ally became more jiowerfuUy developed to give a firmer arti- 
culation to a snap))ing jaw. Still, in the primitive reptiles 
we find the quadrate but feebly developed. In Dicynodon 
we find it as a conijiaratively small bone so feebly articulated 
with the descending jjrocess of the squamosal and the ptery- 
goid that it is lost from many of the British ]\Iuseum speci- 
mens. Even in Ichthyosaurus^ which is well advanced along 
the Reptilian line, we still find a small quadrate. 

In the Mammalian line of descent, with the development of 
flexible muscular lips and cheeks a looser articulation of the 
jaw became advantageous. The short flattened quadrate with 
the rounded articular surface was doubtless gradually trans- 
formed into a flattened bony plate, giving great freedom of 
movement to the condyle of the jaw. In process of time 
nature found an equally firm and more elastic medium of 
articulation in an unossifled quadrate, which remains in the 
i^lammals of to-day as the. Interarttcular Cartilage. 

The condition of aftairs in the skull of a monstrosity I 
recently described"^ would seem to favour this view as against 
the other theories advanced. In this specimen there is no 
trace of a lower jaw, and the only part of the first visceral 
arch to be detected is an irregular piece of bone about half 
the size of the malleus, representing the fused palatines and 
pterygoids. The zygomatic portion of the squamosal, though 
altered in shape somewhat, is unusually well developed, while 
the tympanies are present as a ]jowerful arch of bone stretching 
from one side of the skull to the other. It is difficult to 
believe that either squamosal or tympanic can represent ])art 
of an arch whose development is in its other parts so completely 

Should the present theory be confirmed by further research, 
the Interarticular Cartilage might appropriately be called the 
" Quadrate Cartilage." 

• " On the Condition of the Auditory Ossicles of a Synotic Cvclopian 
Lamb," Trans. Nat. Hist. Sec. Glasg. 1888-89. 

412 Mr. G. A. Boulciift'cr on the Distinctive 

XLIX. — On the Distinctive Cranial Charojcters of theTcjuanoid 
Lizards allied to Iguana. By G. A. BoULENGER. 

Shortly after the publication of the second volume of the 
British Museum ' Catalogue of Lizards ' Prof. Cope proposed 
an arrangement of the genera of Iguanina, i. e. of the genera 
closely allied to Iguana^ " without abdominal ribs or free 
dermal margins of the digits, with the nostrils on the line of 
the canthus rostralis and not below it, and which possess the 
compressed form and other characteristics indicating an arbo- 
real rather than a terrestrial habit of life " *. This arrange- 
ment is certainly no advance on that which I had previously 
followed, the only important innovation being the union of 
the genera Metopoceros and Cyclura under the latter name. 
His reasons for doing so are given in the following words : — 
" If the presence of the second row of femoral pores is not 
constant in C cornuta, then the genus Metopoceros cannot be 
distinguished from Cyclura. Mr. Boulenger relies on the 
rather greater number of denticles in the lateral teeth in C. 
cornuta^ but my specimens show a tendency to the tridentate 
form of C. nuhila. The character is, I think, even if constant, 
insufficient for generic distinction." Although agreeing now 
with Prof. Cope as to the value of the latter character, to 
which I attached too much importance, I yet wish to uphold 
the distinction of the genera Cyclura and Metopoceros on the 
ground of the cranial structure. Although closely allied to 
Cyclura, Metopoceros is, in some respects, equally related 
to Iguana, whilst the skull of Cyclura stands nearer to that 
of Ctenosaura than to that of Metopoceros, 

On this occasion 1 propose to indicate the distinctive cranial 
and dental characters of the genera more nearly related to 


1. Amhlyrhynchus, Bell. — All the teeth trilobate. Prie- 
laxillary not extending as far as the posterior border of the 
asal ibssai ; the length of the latter nearly equals their dis- 
tance from the orbits. Prfefrontal not entering the nasal 
fossa. Postfronto-s(|uamosal arch short, not longer than the 
orbit ; postfrontal as long as deep. 'l'rans]ialatine in contact 
with palatine. Basisphcnoid short and constricted 
behind the basipterygoid processes. 

* Proc. Auier. IMiil. Sue. xxiii. It'SO, y. LV>1. 

Cranial Characters of Ljuanoid f.izards. 413 

2. Conolophus, Fit/,.*— All the teeth trilobate. Pn\3- 
niaxillaiy not extciKlinj:; as tar as the posterior border of the 
nasal fossae ; the lenj^th of the latter nearly equals their 
distance from tlie orbits. Prefrontal not entering the nasal 
fossa. Postfronto-sqnaniosal arch longer than the orbit; 
postfrontal longer than dccji. Transpalatinc in contact with 
palatine. Basisjihenoid short and nnich constricted behind 
the basiptcrygoid processes, as in the preceding. 

3. Brachylophis, Wagl. — All the teeth tricuspid. PrjK- 
niaxillary not extending as far as the posterior border of the 
nasal fossa3 ; the length of the latter equals their distance 
from the orbit. Prefrontal not entering the nasal fossa. 
Postfronto-squaniosal arch short, not longer than the orbit ; 
postfrontal as long as deep. Transpalatinc not in contact 
with palatine, l^asisjiiienoid as in Cydura^ rather elongate 
and much constricted behind the basiptcrygoid processes. 

4. Iguana, Laur. — Lateral teeth with numerous denticles. 
Premaxillary not extending as far as the posterior border of 
the nasal fossa? ; the length of the latter nearly equals their 
distance from tlie orbits. Prefrontal not entering the nasal 
fossa. Postfronto-squamosal arch slender, short, not longer 
than the orbit ; postfrontal as long as deep. Transpalatine 
in contact with palatine. Basisphenoid short and but slightly 
constricted behind the basiptcrygoid processes. 

5. Metopocerosj Wagl. — Lateral teeth with four to seven 
cusps. Premaxillary not extending as far as the posterior 
border of the nasal fosse ; the length of the latter much 
greater than their distance from the orbits. Prefrontal entering 
the nasal fossa. Postfronto-squamosal arch wide, a little 
longer than the orbit ; postfrontal longer than deep. Trans- 
palatine not in contact with palatine. Basisphenoid inter- 
mediate between Iguana and Cyclura. 

6. Cyclura, Harl. — Lateral teeth with three to six cusps. 
Premaxillary extending as far as the posterior border of the 
nasal fosse ; the length of the latter not more than their 
distance from the orbits. Prefrontal not entering the nasal 
fossa. Postfronto-squamosal arch long and wide, intermediate 
between Metopoceros and Ctenosaura ; postfrontal longer thart 
deep. Transpalatine not in contact with palatine. Basi- 

* The cranial characters are taken from the figure gi\en by Steiu- 
dachner, Fe.itfchr. zool.-hot. Ges. Wien, 1876, pi. v. 

414 Dr. W. B. Betiham on the 

sphenoid rather elongate and much constricted behind the 
basipterygoid processes, intermediate between Metopoceros and 

7. Ctenosmcra, Wiegm. — Lateral teeth with three or four 
cusps. Prajmaxillary extending as far as the ])osterior border 
of the nasal fossae ; the length of the latter less than their 
distance from the orbits. Prsefrontal not entering the nasal 
fossa. Postfronto-squamosal arch slender, at least as long as 
the orbit ; postfrontal longer than deep. Transpalatine not 
in contact with palatine. Basisphenoid elongate and mucli 
constricted behind the basipterygoid processes. 

The skull of Cyclura is figured by Briihl, ' Zootoraie,' 
pi. cxliv., as that of Iguana tuberculata. An excellent figure 
of the skull of Metopoceros is giv^en by Cuvier, Oss. Foss. v. 
pt. 2, pi. xvi. figs. 23-26. In the figure published by Giin- 
ther. Trans. Zool. Soc. xi. pi. xliv., the parietal foramen is 
represented, through an error of the artist in the drawing of 
the sutures, as in the frontal bone, whilst, as in other Iguanas, 
it is situated between frontal and parietal. The three possible 
positions of the parietal foramen are to be found in the family 
Iguanidee, viz. between frontal and parietal (nearly all the 
genera), in the frontal {Basih'scus, Corythophanes) , or in the 
parietal {ChamcBleolis, Anolis). Xiphocercus and Xorops, 
though so closely allied to Anolis , have the foramen between 
frontal and parietal. 

L. — The Genera Trigaster and Benhamia. By W. 
Blaxland Benham, D.Sc, Assistant to the Jodrell Pro- 
fessor of Zoology, University College, London. 

In 1886 I described an earthworm from the island of St. 
Thomas, "West Indies, its most remarkable peculiarity (at 
that stage of our knowledge of earthworms) being the posses- 
sion of three separate gizzards ; to this worm I gave the name 
Trigaster Lanhestcri*. Its other characters ally it to Acan- 
thoarilus, e. g. the two pairs of cylindrical and convoluted 
prostates and the condition of the ncphridia. 

In 1889 Dr. Micliaclscn, of Hamburg, described a worm, 
under the name of Benhamia 7-oseaf, which in some respects 

• Quart. Joiini. Mit-r. Soi. xxvii. 

t Jiifirb. d. Ilambm-fi;. wis.'*. Aiistalit'u. vi. 

Genera Trigaster and Benlianiia. 41 o 

agrees with Trujaster Lankesteri^ but differs in sevei-al of the 
characteristic features of the hitter, one being the possession 
of two gizzards and another the extent of the clitelluni. Dr. 
Michaelsen, however, suggested the suppression of the uauie 
Trigaster in favour of Bcn/tdniia, on the ground that the 
former generic name no longer holds good for his new species 
on account of its signiticanco. 

In my recent article, " An Attempt to Classify Earth- 
worms ' (Quart. Journ. Micr. Sci. xxxii.), I have included 
his species under the older name IVt'jister ; this I did 
believing that, although the name had no longer a literal 
significance for the new species, I was justified in retaining 
the prior name. Dr. Michaelsen has published descriptions 
of other species of the same genus, and after communication 
with him and with Dr. Rosa, of Turin, and a careful perusal 
of his papers, 1 am led to regard the species of Benhamia 
as distinct from Trigaster. The two genera are not 
synonymous, as would appear from his article, but are 
distinct though very closely allied forms ; and perhaps they 
should both be rei^arded as subu'enera of Acantkodrllas. At 
present, however, I would consider them as distinct. 

The following characters are common to the three genera, 
together with Deinodrilus (Beddard) : — 

(1) Nephridia in form of a network. 

(2) Two pairs of coiled cylindrical prostates in somites 

xvii. and xix. 

(3) Two pairs of spermathecae. 

Deinodrilus differs from the rest in possessing twelve setiB 
per somite and in its short clitellum (xiv. to xvi.). 

Acanthodrilus has a single gizzard and behind it paired 
calciferous glands. 

The anterior nephridia form a compact mass or pepto-neph 
communicating (? always) with the pharynx. 

The spermathecffi lie in somites vii. and viii. 

The two sperm-ducts of each side are separate till near the 

Trigaster : — 

1. The clitellum is extremely long, occupying somites xiii. 

to xl. 

2. There are three separate gizzards, in somites vii., viii., 

and ix. 

3. There are no calciferous glands. 

416 On the Genera Tiiffastcr and Bcnhamia. 


4. The two pairs of spcrmatliecse lie in viii. and ix., are 

globular, have no appendix or swellings or diver- 
ticula near the external apertures, which are placed 
posteriorly, i. e. between viii., ix. and ix./x. 

5. No penial sctas. 

6. No dorsal pores. 

Benhamia : — 

1. The clitellum occupies at most eight somites, varying, 

however, in extent and limits (xiii. to xix. or xiv. 
to xxi.). 

2. There are only two gizzards. 

3. Calciferous glands are present. 

4. The spermathccre are rather ovoid than globular and 

have appendices or diverticula to their narrowed 
ducts, which open externally on the anterior boun- 
daries of their somites, viz. vii./viii. and viii./ix. 

5. Penial setai in special sacs are present in relation to the 

G. Dorsal pores are present, at any rate in some of the 

Both genera, however, agree in having all the eight setaj 
in each somite close together on the ventral surface, in having 
a pit or fossa, at the bottom of which the prostates and sjjcrmi- 
ducal pores open externally, and in these two characters they 
differ from Acanthodrilus. 

The genus Trigaster includes at present only one species, 
T. Lankesteri^ Bcnham, 1886, from St. Thomas, West 

The genus Benhamia includes the following species, all 
being from West Africa, with the exception of the last, 
the locality of which is unknown, and is merely a matter of 
speculation : — 

1. B. rosea, Miehaclscn, 1889. 

2. B. Stuhlmanni, Michaolson, 1890. 

3. B. ajjimsj Michaelsen, 1890. 

4. B. Schleffelii, llorst, 1884. 

5. B. Biittikoferi, Ilorst, 1884. 

6. B. Beddardi, Ilorst, 1888. 

7. B. scioana, Rosa, 1888. 

8. B. Godpfroyi\ Michaolson, 1890. 

Dr. R. IJ. Tniquair im ic new S/feciesofGyvnaxnthn-i. 417 

Tlic species 4, T), G. 7 wire originally described unlor the 
genus Ac'iiitliodn'lns (see my article in Quart. Journ. Micr. 
Sci. xxxii.), L)ur iiave been transferred on account of their 
possessing two gizzards and a genital fossa. 

October 17, 18W. 

LI. — On a neio Species o/'Gyracanthus. 
By R. H. Traquair, M.D., F.R.S. 

In their recently published ' Catalogue of British Fossil 
Vertebrata ' Messrs. ISniith Woodward and Sherborne state con- 
cerning the spine from Burdiehouse figured by llibbert (Trans. 
Roy. Soc. Edinb. xiii. pi. xi. fig. 1), and referred by Agassiz 
to his Gf/racant/tus fbnnosus, that it " is of doubtful species." 
This spine is in the collection of the ^luscum of Science and 
Art, and I had long been of opinion that neither it nor any 
other specimen of Gyracanthus from the Calciferous Sand- 
stone series could be referred to the same species as that from 
the Coal-measures Ji(jured by Agassiz as such (Poiss. Foss. 
t. iii. tab. v. figs. 2-6), and which, on the other hand, must 
also include his G. formosus. Lately a considerable number 
of Gyracanthus spines have occurred in the " Dunuet" shale 
at Straiton, which clearly belong to the same species as those 
from Burdiehouse, and enable one to have a still better idea 
of its characters and configuration. 

Those spines resemble G. formosus (inch tuberculatus) in 
the nature of their ornament, and though most of the 15urdie- 
liousc specimens are eroded and worn, that figured by llibbert 
has the tuberculation of the ridges in places exceedingly well 
marked. But from G. formosus the species differs in having 
the basal or inserted portion very small, and again in the 
usual want of that lateral curvature which is so constant a 
feature in all examples of that species which have attained 
any size. The antero-posterior curvature is usually present, 
but only in one specimen out of many have 1 observed any 
pronounced lateral flexure. Like G. formosus they are fre- 
quently worn at the tips, and all are bilaterally unsym- 

As there is no doubt that we have here a species which 
has not hitherto been named or defined, I propose for it the 
name of Gyracanthus rectus. 

Not uncomr/ion in the Calciferous Sandstone series of the 
east of Scotland. Besides Burdiehouse and Straiton, the 
following localities may be noted : — Burntisland, Pittenweem, 
St. Andrews. 

Ann. & May. N, Hist. Ser. G. Vol. vi. 30 

418 Bihliographical Notice. 


A Monograph of the Uorny Sponffes. By Robert von LEyDENFEtD. 
London : published for the Royal Society by Triibncr and Co., 
1889, 4to. Pp. 036, pis. 50. 

Dk. von Leni'ENFeld, after qualifying himself as an authority on 
spongfes by studying them uuder the supervision of Prof. F. E. 
Schulze, went to Australia and Xew Zealand, and spent some years 
in making a collection of these organisms. In the seas bordering 
these countries sponges with horny skidetons largely predominate, 
and this fact induced the author to devote special attention to these 
particular forms, with the primary idea of preparing a catalogue of 
those inhabiting the Australian seas ; but finding that these 
embraced a large proportion of the entire group known to science, 
the project was extended so as to include the description of them as 
a whole, and with this view the collections were brought to England 
and worked out by the author in the British Natural-History 
Museum ; and the large collection of these forms belonging to the 
Museum, many of them new, were at the same time studied and 
described in the present work, which has been published under the 
allspices of the Royal Society. 

In the introductory part is a bibliographic list of publications 
relating to sponges generally, both fossil and recent, which contains 
1641 entries. This list is in the main similar to that previously 
published by the author in 1886 in the ' Proceedings of the Zoolo- 
gical Society,' and thus revised it may be considered as a fairly 
complete list up to January 1888 of the literature which treats of 
this class. 

The main body of the work is divided into two portions — an 
analytical, devoted to the systematic description of all the known 
horny sponges, which professes to give the plain empirical facts 
relating to the anatomy, physiology, and classification of each genus, 
without any reference to phylogeny or other hy])othesis ; and a 
synthetical part, which treats of the anatomy of sponges generally, 
and discusses their phylogeny, systematic position, and classification. 
The author regards the cienus as the most important unit, and 
endeavours to include in the characters of each a complete resume 
of the comparative niorphology and physiology of all the species 
embraced within it. The particular characters are thus summa- 
rized : — (1) Historical Introduction, (2) Shape and Size, (;3) Colour, 
(4) Surface, (5) Rigidity, (6) Canal System, (7) Skeleton, (8) His- 
tology and Physiology, (9) Affinities of the Genus, (10) Statistics 
of the Species, (11) Key to the Species and Varieties, and (^llM 

The author frankly acknowledges that sponges which possess the 
common characteristic of a horny .skeleton cannot be considered as 
foiniing a natural order, since certain groups are more nearly related 
to other sponges which have not horny skeletons than to each other. 
Four main groups of horny sponges are distinguished ; three of 
these arc considered to be related to as manv distinct families of 

Bihlivgraph ical Notice. 4 1 D 

siliceous sponges of the order Cornacuspongiae, Vosraaer, aud these 
are placed in the artijidal onliT Monoceratina, characterized by a 
soft ground-substance or mesoderm, with a supporting skeleton of 
spt)ngiu tibres, without proper spicules, but in some instances with 
dcsh-spicules (raicrosclera), and with pyrit'orm or sac-shaped ciliated 
chambers ; in other words, they are siliceous Cornacuspongite, but 
without skeletal or projMjr spicules in the supporting skeleton, 
though in some instances still retaining minute tlosh-spicules of 
the same types as in the more t\-pical siliceous sponges. The fourth 
main group of horny sponges is a relatively small one ; and it is 
considered as a natural order, allied to the siliceous Hexactinellida, 
and from this it is named Hexaceratina. 

Tlie first family of the artificial order Monoceratina, the Aulenidie, 
includes but two genera, Aulena and Ili/attella, and in the former 
of these the skeletal fibres are not only charged with sand-grains, so 
common in the fibres of horny sponges, but they possess true echi- 
nating siliceous spicules similar to those of the siliceous Desmaci- 
dt»nidie : and the author acknowledges that the genus is placed with 
horny s^wuges not because it properly belongs to this group, but 
because it furnishes an interesting aud important link between the 
ty})ical horny sponges and typical siliceous Desmacidonidaj. 

The second family of the Monoceratina, the Spongida, is the 
largest of the three groups, and, as defined by the author, contains 
seventeen genera. The sponges of this family arc not clathriform ; 
they have small spherical or pear-shaped ciliated chambers, -02 to 
•05 millim. wide ; the ground-substance or mesoderm is granular 
in varying degrees, and the horny fibres of the reticulating skeleton 
may be solid or pithed, and, of course, destitute of proper spicules. 
These s^xjnges are regarded as very closely related to the siliceous 
Chalinids, and in fact merely their modified descendants, which have 
lost the ancestral spicules whilst retaining their external form and 
appearancj for a protective purpose. It is significant to find that 
the mere relation of the size of the ciliated chambers is adopted by 
the author as a distinguishing feature, and in certain genera also 
the dimensions of the fibres and the skeletal meshwork are regarded 
as good generic characters. 

"Within this family are embraced the sponges of commerce, 
belonging to the genera Empongia, Broun, and Hipiiospowjia, 
Schulze. These genera are very closely allied and connected by 
numerous transitional forms which run into each other at every 
point, so that it is an almost impossible task to establish satisfactory 
species or varieties ; but in spite of this the author finds it necessary 
to make nine new forms in Easpongi't, bringing the number in this 
genus to thirty-one, and six new in Uipposporujia, which now 
numbers twenty-seven species and varieties. 

A full account is given of the peculiar filamentous bodies so 
abundant in the genus flircinia, which have been the subject of verj' 
varied opinions amongst spongologists, some considering tliem to be 
parasitic organisms, others that they have been produced by the 
sponge itself. Lendenfeld formerly held that they were foreign 
organisms, Oscillarians. which multiplied in the sponge and became 

420 Bibliographical Notice. 

invested by a coating of epongin ; but this view is given up as 
untenable, and, -with Scliulze, he now confesses himself unable to 
satisfactorily explain their origin; but it seems certain that, though 
not produced by the sponge, these filaments are in some way neces- 
sary to its existence, and may thus be compared with the zooxan- 
thellie or yellow cells frequently found in low forms of marine life. 
Curiously enough these filaments are, in the authors opinion, inva- 
riably associated with this genus of sponges and with no other, and 
they arc as abundant in the Australian as in the Mediterranean 

The sponges included in the Spoiigclida\ or third main group of 
the Monoceratina, have a reticulate or dendritic skeleton of solid 
horny fibres without proper spicules, but containing foreign bodies 
and occasionally entirely replaced by large sand-grains ; sometimes 
rod- or S-shaped flesh-spicules are present. The ground-substance 
or mesoderm is transparent, and the ciliated chambers are large and 
sac-shaped and do not possess special efferent canals. This group 
is more nearly allied to the siliceous Heterorhaphidic of liidley and 
Dendy, and includes only five genera, two of which, Si<jmitUUu and 
Haastia, are new ; the latter is soraowliat remarkable in having a 
layer of minute oval siliceous bodies sheathing the fibre. The 
generic term Spongelia, Nardo, is pi-eferred by the author to that of 
Di/sidea, Johnston, on the ground of priority, and our Engli^!h 
authors who reiain Johnston's name are blamed for their ignorance 
of Nardo's works; but Dr. Lendenfeld does not seem to bo aware 
that Nardo's term was unaccompanied by any description whatever, 
and is therefore invalid. As stated by Oscar Schmidt, the names 
given by Nardo must remain as shadows merely, since this author 
did not live to carry out his intention of describing the forms them- 
selves ; and though it pleased Oscar Schmi<lt to adopt some of them 
subsequently, Spongdia included, this would by no means be suffi- 
cient to displace the properly constituted term Dtjsidea proposed by 
Johnston before O. Schmidt published anything respecting the 
bodiless term Sjmm/clia. Dr. Lendenfeld has another reason for 
preferring Spongelia, equally as valid as its assumed priority, viz. 
*' because Schulze, who for the first time defined the genus in a 
really scientific manner, used tliat name." 

In the remaining ])rincipal division of lAUulenreid's system, that 
of the order llexaeeratina, the sponges may have skeletons of pithed 
horny fibres, or of horny spicules, or they may be without skeletons 
at all. They ai"c fiunished with large sac shaped ciliated chambers, 
with sinqjle canals. These sponges me regarded as forming a 
natural group, most closely allied to the siliceous Hexactinellida ; 
but, judging from the distingiiishing features of the three families 
whicii constitute the group, it is diflieult to perceive in what way 
they arc related to each other or to the Hexactinellida. Thus in 
the leading family, the l)arwinellida\ there are fibres and horny 
spicules, the next family of the Aplysidte has fibres only in the 
skeleton, whilst in tlie third family of the llalisareida" tliere are 
neither fibres nov spicules. 

Peihaps the must peculiar horny sjH)ng( s are those ineluded in 

Bihli'ofjntphical Notice. 421 

Darwinelh, ¥. Miillor, which possess a skoleton maiuly of homy 
spicules detached from each other and irregularly scattered in the 
mesoderm of the sponge. Only two species are as yet known : in 
the tirst described, D. aiirtit, the spicules have from three to eight 
rays ; some of them resemble the four-rayed or Calthrops spicules 
of siliceous Tctractiiicllid sponges, whilst others approach in form 
the six-rayed spicules of Hexactinellids. In the other 8j)ccies, D. 
(lustrdlii'iisis. Carter, the large majority of the spicules have only 
three rays in one plane, and thus singularly resemble in form the 
three-rayed spicules so common in C'alcisponges, The author con- 
cludes that these varied forms of horny spicules in DarivinelJa are 
directly derived from the siliceous spicules of the Ilexactinellida in 
which the silica has been replaced by spongin ; but there seems 
very little warrant for supposing that spicules so far removed from 
the Hexactiuellid type as the Calthrops and three-rayed forms can 
ever have been derived from normal six-rayed Hexactinellid 
spicules ; if they have been derived from siliceous sponges at all, 
they arc more nearly related in form to retractiucllid spicules. 

Yet further, Dr. Lendenl'eld states that the substitution of spongin 
for silica in these horny spicules has been brought about to meet) 
the " exigencies of changed circumstances icsulting from a migra- 
tion from the siliciferous depths of the ocean to shallower water, 
■where the amount of silica contained in solution in the water is not 
so great "' ! It may be asked if there is any reason for believing 
that the water of the ocean at great depths contains more silica than 
in shallower areas ? Judging from the abundance of recent siliceous 
sponges in shallow and moderate depths, and from their enormous 
development under similar conditions in past ages, there is no ground 
whatever for supposing that the spicules of siliceous sponges would 
be at all likely to undergo substitution of spongin for silica through 
a comparative scarcity of this mineral in shallow water. 

The author justifies the inclusion in Horny Sj)onges of such 
genera as HaJisarca and Bajulus, in which there is no horny skele- 
ton whatever, on the ground that tliey are rudimentary horny 
sponges ; on the other hand, Schulzc considers these forms as rudi- 
mentary Hexactinellids ! 

A total number of 248 distinct species and varieties are described 
in this work, of which no fewer than 258, or 74 percent , are found 
in the Australian seas, whilst 179 species are limited to this region. 
Horny sponges are distinctively inhabitants of shallow water, the 
greater number occurring at depths between 20 and 50 metres, and 
the greatest depth at which they have been met with is 750 metres. 
They also flourish most in warm seas. 

In the synthetical part of the volume the general results deduced 
from the empirical descriiitious are discussed in a series of chapters 
in which the structure, classification, and systematic positions of 
sponges generally are treated. We can here only touch upon a few 
salient points, and one of these is the statement that the canal- 
system is the most important organ in sponges, and that it should 
principally be taken into account in classifying them. But is it not 
the fact that an essentially similar caual-sysiem is present in many 

42^ Bibliographical Notice. 

sponges which are fundamentally different in the nature of their 
skeleton and in other respects, so that it would be quite impossible 
to classify them on this principle ? 

The discovery by Prof. C, Stewart of the rudimentary sense- 
organs or palpocils in sponges is referred to ; but Dr. Lendenfeld 
claims that he was the to describe these organs in sponges, and 
that he _has discovered various modifications of a nervous system in 
horny as well as in calcispunges. An unimportant objection is made 
to the terra " palpocil " tor these organs ; but the new one proposed 
seems hardlj* necessary. The stratification or layers noticeable in 
the horny fibres of sponges is attributed to the variable character 
of the spongin produced by the spongoblasts or fibre-cells at different 
intervals owing to changes in outer circumstances, and the produc- 
tion of pith in the fibres of the Hexaceratina is considered to be due 
to the action of cells which eat out the fibres and change the spongin 
into pith ; but this theory has been called in question by Pokjaeff, 
who considers the pith to be an original constituent of the fibres. 

Regarding the physiology of sponges, the somewhat humiliating 
confession is made that we do not yet know the kind of food which 
is taken by them, nor how it is absorbed, nor the particular way in 
which the functions of secretion and respiration are carried on ; and, 
further, but little is as yet definitely known of the embryolo:.ry of 
horny sponges. As to the phylogeny of horn)- sponges, the author 
concludes that they have originated from four distinct phyla, which 
have been developed independentlj* of each other from as many 
different groups of siliceous sponges. The system of the huruy 
sponges set forth in this work is stated to be entirely new and fun- 
damentally different from any previously propounded. The two 
concluding chapters deal with the phylogeny and systematic position 
of sponges generally, and the inevitable ancestral tree is produced 
— we are told for the first time — showing the relationship of the 
different families of the class. The author considers that the phylo- 
genetic affinities of sponges are now established on a satisfactory 
footing, and the merit of this is modestly ascribed to four recent 
writers of the ' Challenger ' Eeports on these organisms and to the 
author himself. 

Apart from hypothetical subjects, no doubt can be entertained of 
the value of this ^Monograph, as giving us for the first time full, 
detailed, and accurate descriptions of the minute anatomy and other 
structural characters of the group of horny sponges, so that in future 
there should be no serious difficulty in determining any member of 
it. Serious exception may be taken, however, to the arbitrary way 
in which, in many instances, the generic and specific names given 
by previous authors to many of these sponges have been disregarded 
and set siside by Dr. Lendenfeld in favour of new terms proposed by 
himself. It is indeed asserted that the sense in which the terms 
"variety," ''species," and ''genus" are used is the result of the 
author's own original researches and independent of any authority, 
and further that it is impossible to give a definition of his o«n 
peculiar meaning of them ; but such a jdea will not excuse the 
autocratic way in which new names are proposed by which jirevioi 

MisceUaneous. 423 

ones are t'ither rejected or infreniously relegated to siicli a subordi- 
nate position that tiny are likely to bf altogether lost sight of. 

The work is illustrated by a few woodcuts in the text and fifty- 
plates ; some of these are from photographs of dry or si)irit speci- 
mens, others, representing the minute structures &c., have been 
drawn by the author. These latter in many instances are some- 
what crude in appearance ; but their lack of artistic merit may 
perhaps be compensated by greater accuracy of detail. Dr. von 
Lendenleld may be congratulated on his good fortune in obtaining 
the assistance of the Koyal Society to bring out such an important 
and, judging from the price set upon it, expensive publication. 


On tJie Discovery of a Jurassic Fish-Fai(7ia in the Haivl-eshury Beds 
of New South Wales. By A. Smith Woodward*. 

A LARGE collection of fossil fishes from the Hawkesbury-Wiana- 
matta series of Talbralgar, New South Wales, has been forwarded 
to the author for examination by Messrs. C. S. "Wilkinson and R. 
Etheridge, Jim,, of the Geological Survey of New South Wales. 
The final results will appear in a forthcoming memoir to be published 
by that Survey ; but the investigation has already proceeded so far 
as to justify the announcement of the discovery of a typically Jurassic 
fish-fauna in Australia. Fine examples of the Palsconiscid genus 
Coccolqns occur, and this has previously been met with only in the 
Lower Lias of Dorsetshire, the Purbeck Beds of Wiltshire, and the 
Lithographic Stone of Bavaria. A new fish allied to Semionotus, 
but with thinner, much imbricating scales, is also conspicuous ; and 
another new form, allied to the Dapedioids, is remarkable from the 
presence of typical rhombic ganoid scales in the front half of the 
trunk and deeply overlapping cycloid scales over the whole of the 
caudal region. A Leptolejns-like fish, with a persistent notochord, 
seems to represent a third unknown generic type. Of Leftolepis 
itself there are many hundreds of individuals in a fine state of 
preservation. The fishes occur in a hard, ferruginous, fissile matrix 
associated with well-preserved remains of plants. 

The Fossil Fishes of the HawTceshury Series at Gosford, Neiu South 
Wales. By A. Smith Woodward f. 

Some years ago an early Mesozoic fish-fiiuna was discovered in a 
bed of dark grey shale in the Hawkesbury Formation at Gosford, 
New South Wales, and the collection was forwarded to the author 
for determination. The present memoir comprises the results of 

* Abstract of paper read befoie Section C, British Association, Leeds, 

t Abstract of no. 4 of the ' Palaeontological Memoirs of the Geological 
Survey of New South Whales,' Sydney, 1890. 

424 Miscellaneous. 

the invcsfcigatiou, and is illustrated by ten quarto plates. An inde- 
terminable Selachian fish and an imperfectly-preserved Dipnoan are 
not of much interest ; but the latter seems to indicate a wq'^ genus 
and species, Goafordia truncata, characterized by its very small 
head, laterally compressed body, and minute striated scales. The 
Pahconiscid genus MiiriolepU'Mi more completely defined than vras 
possible in the original description ; and the fish is compared with 
the so-called Thrissonotus Colei from the Lower Lias of Lvrae Regis. 
A new species, Myriohins latiis, with larger scales than the type, is 
also added. A new genus and species of ]'alar;oniscid<T, Apateohpia 
austrctUs, is remarkable for the extreme tenuitj' of the squamation, 
Avhich is usually destroyed, except on the upper caudal lobe. The 
family of Catopterida^ is instituted for the reception of C'atopterus 
and Dict)jopy(je, and placed near the Pala^oniscida; on account of the 
fact that the endoskeletal supports of the median fins are fewer in 
number than the apposed rays. Catoptems is not known in the 
Hawkesbury Beds, but of Dicf)jopi/r/e there are three new species, 
JJ. symmetrica, I), ilhistrans, and J), robusta. Close to the Cato- 
pterida3 is placed the family of Pelonorhynchid;e, in which the same 
non-correspondence of the median fin-su])ports and dermal ravs is 
conspicuous. Two new species of Beloiiorhi/)i(hus—B.f/i;/as and B. 
gracilis — are described at length, and add much to previous know- 
ledge of the genus. Of the typically Triassic fish, Semionotas, there 
are imperfect indications of two species, named S. aiistrulis and -S'. 
tenuis, A new genus, intermediate between Stmionotus and Dapedins, 
is termed Fristisomiis, having the three species P. gracilis, latus, and 
crasxus, and much new information is added concerning the exo- 
skeleton of the allied genius Cleithrohpis, of which an outline-resto- 
ration is given. The Pholidophoridic are represented by a small 
species of Fholidophorus, appropriately named P. gregarins ; while a 
small, short, and stout fish with three series of deep flank-scales is 
described as Peltoplenras (?) duhius. Genera of the LeptoJeins type 
are entirely wanting ; and, as a whole, the fauna under considera- 
tion seems to be most nearly paralleled by that of the Keuper of 

Is Asterias tenuispinis, Lamlc, a ''British" Sj^ecics? 

There is in the Britisii ^luseum collection an example of Asft rias 
tenuisjrinis, Lamk., which is, with a query, stated to have come from 
Lyme Ilegis ; it was presented to the Trustees in 1^56 by the late 
Lord Enniskillen. The only writer who, to my knowledge, has 
reported the English coast as one of the habitats of this species is 
Dr. Gray (Syuop. Starf. 1866, p. 1), but as he did not always (cf. 
Ann. & Mag. Nat. Hist. ISlrl, vi. ]). IT'.O distinguish between this 
species and A. glacialis, which is undoubtedly British, his evidence 
is not unimpeachable. Can any naturalist acquainted with the 
British fauna tell me that he has found this species on our shores? 
From its known area of distribution one might well have done so. 

E. Jeffrey Bell. 

British Museum (Natural History), 
Cromwell l\ond, S.W. 

Ann. <& Mag. Nat. Eist. S. 6. Vol. VI Tl.XIL 

^B "* 

S ..^ '^•j "-^ 



Ai Apru. tJu Ctirreno hct-c fur-utiLr in. irrr^ncx.. Specmtn N°f7.J^^ SECTION B 

and, mostly nHal ^fixxu^iuyn so-en^dv U xr.nti - w»?7 /rfl 

stronger, and frobahfy in the dwectwi c-" ih* -nvuU 'hJ'j 

Tidal. raiLgt vunes- ^.jm, 2 to S f(Ufl.. ^^ a,*V^ 

// 11 

» ""' J ,- ■ 

^ «2. - - - u c:".'.' "sjis 

37 ^- ,' ■ joc ** «0 ab 

33 . ^^ y.-^' 

1 1 Under 10 Fathoms. 

II .,1 

►F 1 1 Island. 


Lony U<- Zl 10' B 

Lonjf M*21 2i'E 

&s obtained by 

n on this plan. 

* r t t K.S«.m,l., 






No. 36. DECEMBER 1890. 

LI I. — Natural History Notes from H.M.Indian Marine Survey 
Steamer ^ Investigator , Commander R, F. Jloskyn, B.N., 
commanding. — No. 20. On some undescribed Shore-Fishes 
from the Bay of Bengal, By A. AlcOCK, M.B., Surgeon 
I. M. S., Surgeon-Naturalist to the Survey. 


§ 1. Introduction and Sketch of the Habitat. 
§ 2. Descriptions of New Species. 

§ 1. Introduction and Sketch of the Habitat. 

Between the 11th November, 1889, and the 25th March, 
1890, the ' Investigator ' trawled, on occasion, in shallow 
water off the south-east coast of Ceylon (/32 fathoms), off the 
east coast of the Andaman chain and in the Gulf of Martaban 
(20 to 41 fathoms), and systematically along the east coast of 
the Indian peninsula between lats. 17° 50' and 19° 50' N. 
in depths ranging from 7 to 102 fathoms. 

In the class of Fishes numerous forms previously unnoticed 
in the Indian fauna and also forms apparently hitherto 
undescribed were taken ; and the present paper is devoted to 
those among the latter which were collected inside the 50- 
fathom line. Of these there are thirteen species to notice, 

Ann. & Mag. N. Hist. Ser. 6. Vol. vi. 31 

426 Mr. A. Alcock on undescrihed Shore-Finhf'S 

namely, one from Ceylon, two from the Andaman side, and 
eleven (including one common to two conventional localities) 
from the east coast of India. 

A short sketch of some of the more obvious physical and 
faunistic features of the ' Investigator's ' trawling-stations may 
first be given. 

i. The South-east Coast of Ceylon is rocky and reefy, and 
on the occasions in this and previous years on which the 
* Investigator ' has used the trawl here the bottom has been 
found to consist of coarse sand and broken shells and a shingle 
of irregular fragments of coral, with worn and eroded surfaces 
more or less incrusted with Foraminifera, Sponges, Hydrozoa, 
Bryozoa, &c. These in their turn shelter, among other things, 
crowds of small Crustaceans — Leucosiiie crabs being predo- 
minant — which, in their colour, in their form and sculpture, 
and in their curious cataleptiforni attitudes, furnish mo?t 
wonderful examples of ]n-otective resemblance to their animate 
and inanimate surroundings. The ground-fishes taken here 
too [Rhomhoidichthys polylepis^ Rh. angustifrons, Rh. azureus, 
Samaris crtstatus)^ in the complicated and undescribable 
mottling and variegation of their upper surfaces, show most 
remarkable harmonies with their environment. 

ii. The Andaman Chain. — Oft' the rocks and reefs we again 
meet with a clean bottom of incrusted rock and coral shingle, 
with a profusion of Hydrozoa, Polyzoa, Comatulids, &c., 
harbouring small Crustaceans. But the ground is too rough 
for the use of the trawl ; and the tangles, which alone are 
available, have not brought up many fishes. 

iii. The OuJf of Martahan. — Here the bottom is formed of 
the copious silt of the Irrawadi, Sittang, and iSalween liivers, 
and the marine fauna has the well-known facies of all Indian 

iv. 2 he Ganjam Coast. — The 120 miles of this part of the 
east coast of the peninsula, along which the systematic trawling 
of the 'Investigator' was carried on during the season, are 
characterized by low-lying sand-dunes, broken by the nume- 
rous creeks and swamps into which the small river-channels 
from the Eastern Gh^ts open. The sea is shallow (the 100- 
fathom line being from 18 to 23 miles distant from shore), and 
the bottom consists of mud or of fine sand, though occasionally 
a rocky patch with a profuse Coilenterate fauna is met with. 
Setting aside the last, where the details of the fauna strongly 
recall those of the south-east coast of Ceylon, one is able to 
distinguish three well-marked bathymetric ranges of life 
along this coast. 

a. Within the limits of the first, which extends from the 

fi'om the Bay of Bengal. 427 

surf-line to about 14 fiUlioms, almost every successful haul of 
the trawl will contain sjicciinens of nil of the following, 
several of them in great numbers: — 

]'ereti/Ium ; sea-anemones with sandy tests or commensal 
with hermit-crabs or Z)or/)>/ic ; Astropecten ; Xerocila, Squilla, 
Pentvus, Pu<jurus, Dorippe, PJuli/ra, Ipliis^ Calappa, Matuta^ 
Egerioj Dodea, 2^eptunus, (jom'onoi/ia] Murex, Sepia] various 
well-known Indian shore-fishes ; Ilydrophis^ Enhijdrina. 

These are the characteristic forms of this zone. 

Within these limits have been found an undescribed 
Trichonotid and three undescribed Pleuronectids, two of 
which are examples of a new generic type. 

h. From 20 to 40 fathoms the hauls are usually small and 
the collections quite characteristic. Within these limits, 
with the exception of the common spiny Murex and a few 
Pleuronectida? [Psettodes erumei^ Paeiulorhomhus javanicusy 
CynogJossus oligolejjis, and Synaptura quagga), none of the 
first-mentioned forms have been taken. In almost every 
haul specimens of the following will occur: — simple Turbinolid 
Corals ; Stellaster, Clypeaster j Crangon, TlienuSy small 
Leucosines ; Uranoscopus cognatus, Platyceplialus asper or 
P. spinosus, Brachypleura xanthosticta, Arnoglossus macro- 
lop/ius, Lfpops Guentherij and sometimes Champsodon vorax 
and Lophius indicus. 

Up to date the great majority of fishes taken in this zone 
liave been found to be new to the Indian record or new to 
science ; and it seems very probable that the same will prove 
true for the other groups. Unfortunately no continuous 
readings of the bottom-temperature were taken; but occa- 
sional experiments showed tliat u)) to 14 fathoms there was 
no difference between the temperatures at the surface and at 
the bottom, while at 23 fathoms the tenij^erature at the bottom 
was lower than that at the surface by 3° Fahr. 

c. From 70 to 100 fathoms the hauls again become large 
and varied, but the forms begin to show a pronounced 
bathybial facies, and nothing is seen of the forms which 
characterize the two shallower zones. So far, although the 
hauls of fishes have been big and varied, the only known 
Indian shore-fish encountered has been JIalieuta'a stellata. 
A successful trawling in this zone is most interesting ; and 
from a rich harvest of marine animals — many of whicli are 
either moribund or quite dead on reaching the surface — we 
shall be able every time to pick out the following character- 
istic species : — a peculiar Penffiid *, the Oxyrhynch crab 

* Characterized by Prof. J. Wood-3Iasoii as a most remarkable form 
closely allied to Sole?iocera. 


428 Air. A. Alcock on undescrihed Share-Fishes 

Encejjhaloides *, a large Oxystoine crab near Philyra ; a deli- 
cate mussel, tlie carnivorous Gastropod Mollusk Rostellaria ; 
and the fishes Parascomhrops pellucidus and Scianectes. In 
the class of fishes, indeed, almost everything appears to be 
new, and everything is interesting. Here have been found a 
species of CentroiJristis and a species of Prionotus^ both being 
types not hitherto regarded as Indian. The occurrence of 
Trifjla hemisticta must also be noticed. 

It is uiifoitunatc that for this zone too we have no con- 
tinuous temperature readings ; but, so far as occasional 
experiments go, the temperature at the bottom appears to be 
from 15° to 1(3° Fahr. lower than the temperature at the 

The new fishes from this zone have been described in 
previous papers. 

§2. Descriptions of New Species. 

Family Scorpaenidae. 

MiNOUS, C. & V. 

Minous coccineus, sp. n. 

D. 10/iV. A. 12. 

Head broad, its length about 3f in the total. Body com- 
pressed, its height just over j of the same. The bones of the 
head strong, massive, rugose, " carious " in appearance ; 
praiorbital with two strong spines, of which the posterior is 
recurved and much the longer; the infraorbital ring forms a 
broad, massive, salient buttress, ridged and furrowed, but not 
spiny ; preoperculum with a strong sharp spine at its angle 
and two smaller coarse ones below; interoperculura serru- 
lated ; operculum small, with two diverging weak stays ; a 
deep crescentic ''carious" excavation across the occiput; 
occipital and temporal s])ines strong, coarsely serrated. 

k^nout truncated ; its breadth is greater than its length, 
which is less than that of the eye ; lower jaw the more 
prominent, each limb with two or three barbels. Eyes deep- 
set, their major diameter one third of the head-length ; 
a short bioad tentacle above the pupil ; supraorbital margin 
coarsely crenulateti ; infraorbital margin thin, sharp, very 
salient, incomplete beliiiid and also in front, where there is 

* Enrephaloiili'i Anitslnnuji, W'ood-Mnson, MS. 

frovi the Bay of Beit g ah 429 

left a well-marked groove which recurves across the cheek ; 
interocular space narrowest in the niiddle, where its width is 
barely ^ the vertical diameter of the eye ; occupied by nume- 
rous longitudinal serrated crests, with deep furrows inter- 
vening. Nostrils tubular. 

]\Iouth broad ; the maxilla does not reach the vertical 
through the middle of the orbit. Villiform teeth in the jaws 
and in a narrow band on the bevelled edge of the vomer. 

Gill-openings moderately wide ; gill-membranes united to 
the isthmus ; fourth gill-cleft a suuill foramen. Integument 
thick, investing all the tins except the caudal. All the fin- 
rays simple. 

Dorsal fins separated by a deep notch ; the spinous portion 
is very irregular ; the first s[)ine is very small, the second 
and third, which are of nearly equal length — not quite half 
that o